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We recognize that even with the most expeditious process for implementation, recommendations as sweeping as ours will take a significant amount of time to implement. Therefore, the Commission had to face the issue of what should be done in the interim with plants that are currently operating and those that are going through the licensing process.

The Commission unanimously voted:

Because safety measures to afford better protection
for the affected population can be drawn from the
high standards for plant safety recommended in this
report, the NRC or its successor should, on a case-by-case
basis, before issuing a new construction permit or
operating license: (a) assess the need to introduce
new safety improvements recommended in this report,
and in NRC and industry studies; (b) review,
considering the recommendations set forth in this
report, the competency of the prospective operating
licensee to manage the plant and the adequacy of its
training program for operating personnel; and
(c) condition licensing upon review and approval of the
state and local emergency plans.


During the time that our Commission conducted its investigation, a number of other reports appeared with recommendations for improved safety in nuclear power plants. While we are generally aware of the nature of these recommendations, we have not attempted a systematic analysis of them. Insofar as other agencies may have reached similar conclusions and proposed similar remedies, several groups arriving at the same conclusion should reinforce the weight of these conclusions.

of technical firand, above all, inat changes must occu

But we have an overwhelming concern about some of the reports we have seen so far. While many of the proposed "fixes" seem totally appropriate, they do not come to grips with what we consider to be the basic problem. We have stated that fundamental changes must occur in organizations, procedures, and, above all, in the attitudes of people. No amount of technical "fixes" will cure this underlying problem. There have been many previous recommendations for greater safety for nuclear power plants, which have had limited impact. What we consider crucial is whether the proposed improvements are carried out by the same organizations (unchanged), with the same kinds of practices and the same attitudes that were prevalent prior to the accident. As long as proposed improvements are carried out in a "business as usual" atmosphere, the fundamental changes necessitated by the accident at Three Mile Island cannot be realized.

We believe that we have conscientiously carried out the mandate of the President of the United States, within our limits as human beings and within the limitations of the time allowed us. We have not found a magic formula that would guarantee that there will be no serious future nuclear accidents. Nor have we come up with a detailed blueprint for nuclear safety. And our recommendations will require great efforts by others to translate them into effective plans.

Nevertheless, we feel that our findings and recommendations are of vital importance for the future of nuclear power. We are convinced that, unless portions of the industry and its regulatory agency undergo fundamental changes, they will over time totally destroy public confidence and, hence, they will be responsible for the elimination of nuclear power as a viable source of energy.

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By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution of the United States of America, and in order to provide, in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App. 1), an independeut forum to investigate and explain the recent accident at the nuclear power facility at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania, it is bearby ordered as follows:

1-1. Establishment.

1-101. There is established the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island.

1-102. The membership of the Commission shall be composed of not more than twelve persons appointed by the President from among citizens who are not full time officers or employees in the Executive Branch. The President shall designate a Chairman from among the members of the Commission.

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1-201. The Commission shall conduct a comprehensive study and investigation of the recent accident involving the nuclear power facility on Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania. The study and investigation shall include:

(a) a technical assessment of the events and their causes;

(b) an analysis of the role of the managing utility;

(c) an assessment of the emergency preparedness and response of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other Federal, state and local authorities;


(d) an evaluation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's licensing, inspection, operation and enforcement procedures as applied to this facility;

(e) an assessment of how the public's right to information concerning the events at Three Mile Island was served and of the steps which should be taken during similar emergencies to provide the public with accurate, comprehensible and timely information; and

(f) appropriate recommendations based upon the Commission's findings.

1-202. The Commission shall prepare and transmit to the President and to the Secretaries of Energy and Health, Education and Welfare a final report of its findings and recommendations.

1-3. Administration.

1-301. The Chairman of the Commission is authorized to appoint and fix the compensation of a staff of such persons as may be necessary to discharge the Commission's responsibilities, subject to the applicable provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act and Title 5 of the United States Code.

1-302. To the extent authorized by law and requested by the Chairman of the Commission, the General Services Administration shall provide the Commission with necessary administrative services, facilities, and support on a reimbursable basis.

1-303. The Department of Energy and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare shall, to the extent permitted by law and subject to the availability of funds, provide the Commission with such facilities, support, funds and services, including staff, as may be necessary for the effective performances of the Commission's functions.

1-304. The Commission may request any Executive agency to furnish such information, advice or assistance as it deems necessary to carry out its functions. Each such agency is directed, to the extent permitted by law, to furnish such information, advice or assistance upon request by the Chairman of the Commission.

1-305. Each member of the Commission may receive compensation at the maximum rate now or hereafter prescribed by law for each day such member is engaged in the work of the Commission. Each member may also receive travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence (5 U.S.C. 5702 and 5703).

1-306. The functions of the President under the Federal Advisory Committee Act which are applicable to the Commission, except that of reporting annually to the Congress, shall be performed by the Administrator of General Services.

1-4. Final Report and Termination.

1-401. The final report required by Section 1-202 of this Order shall be transmitted not later than six months from the date of the Commission's first meeting.

1-402. The Commission shall terminate two months after the transmittal of its final report.

1s/ Jimmy Carter

April 11, 1979


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