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One quart of cream will ordinarily yield 12 ozs to 16 ozs. of buiter.
Quantity nj Food consumed Weekly by Sheep for every 100 lbs. of their L've-weight. —Oil-cake, 4J lbs.; hay, 4| lbs.; roots, 70 lbs. About owe-seventh of their own weight of the dry substance of the food.
Amount of food required to make 100 lbs. of Live weight in Sheep.—Cake or corn,
cwts.; hay-chaff, 2£ cwts.; and roots, 1^ to 1f tons.
Weekly Increase of Weight in Sheep.—Two per cent, per week upon their weight.
Rate of Increase in Weight of a Sheep proportioned to Food consumed—One lb. live-weight to 8 or 9 lbs. of the dry substance of food.
Proportion of Live and Dead Wtighls in Sheep.—Hoggets or tegs (within twelve months old), ia a lean condition, will give one-half of their Wright carcass, onehalf offal. Shorn sheep, fat for the market, will contain 56 lbs. of carcass in every 100 lbs. of unfattened live-weight; 7 to 14 lbs. of offal or loose fat per head, according to breed and size—" Long-wools" yielding the least, Downs the mostTalue of total offal, 4s. to 6s. per head, independently of the wool.
Wey/ht of Turnips consumed per Day by a Sheep.—24 lbs , according to Conwin; 38 lbs., according to Sir John Sinclair. The first gives the weight consumed by a young, the second that by an old sheep.
A b'ishel of turnips weighs from 40 to 45 lbs.
The usual allowance of sheep to eat a crop of 30 tons of turnips is, according to Mr. Stephens, " 16 young and 8 old Leicester sheep, and 20 young and 10 old black-faced sheep per acre ;" the time being 180 days, or the winter half-year. Acoording to the same authority, the weight of turnips consumed by an ox in a week will be one ton. A two-year old short-horn ox consuming in 180 days 28 tons.
Weights of the Fleece of different Breeds of Sheep of Long-wooled Breeds (1) — The ** Lincolnshire" lowland sheep, 10 lbs.; upland, 8 lbs.; "Leicester," 7 lbs.; "Cotswolds," 7 to 8 lbs ; "Romney Marsh," 8 lbs.; "black-faced Scotch," 3 lbs.; "Exmoor," 4 to 5 lbs.—the fleece of the stock lambs of this breed weighs from H to 2 lbs.; "Devonshire South Hams," 9 lbs.; "Bampton," 7 lbs.; "Herd wicks," 3 to 4 lbs.
Of Intermediate Breeds.—'1 Dorset," 6 lbs.—of lambs, 1£ to 2 lbs.; *' Cheviots," i lbs.; "Radnor and Welsh sheep," 1 to 1£ lbs.
Of Short wocled Breeds.—" Hampshire Downs," 7 lbs.; "Rylands," 4 lbs.; "Merino," 6 to 8 lbs.; "Shetland," 1$ lbs.*
Live-weights Of Various Breeds Op Sheep.
Of Long-wooled Breeds.—" Lincolnshire," yearlings, 80 to 100 lbs. ; "Leicester," at 12 to 15 months old, 80 to 100 lbs.; at 2 years old, 120 to 150 lbs. each. "Cotswolds," 12 to 15 months old, 100 lba ; at 2 years old, 120 to 150 lbs each.
Professor John Wilson in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society, Vol. zvi. p. 223.
"Romney Marsh," from 2 to 3 years old, 120 to 140 lbs.: "Exmoor," 4 or 6 years old, 60 to 70 lbs.; "Devonshire South Hams," 2 years old, 100 to 120 lbseach; " Hampton," at 2 years old, 120 to 150 lbs.; "Herdwicks," 4 or 5 years old, 40 to 50 lbs.
Initrmediate Breeds.—" Dorset," at 2 years old, 80 to 100 lbs.; "Cheviots," at 3 years old, 70 to 80 lbs ; «' Radnor and Welsh Sheep," 30 to 40 lbs.
Short wooled Breeds.—"South Downs," 12 to 15 months old, 80 lbs.; 2 years old, 100 to 120 lbs. each. "Hampshire Downs," 80 to 100 lbs., 12 to 15 months old; "Shropshire Downs," 80 to 100 lbs.; "Ryeland," 2 and 3 years old, 50 to 76 lbs.; "Merino," 2 years old, 110 to 120 lbs *
Live- Weight, proportion of to Offal, in Sheep and Cattle.—In sheep, five-fourteenths of live-weight is offil; in cattle, six-fourteenths.
* dee article by Professor John WiUon in the Royal Society's Journal, Vol. xvi.
THE SORGHO, OR CHINESE SUGAR CANE.
The sorgho appears to be a plant of a nature between the sugar cane of tha West Indies and the maize or Indian corn. It is like the former in the stem, but, eo far as we can ascertain, is nowhere like it a perennial plant. It comes to maturity in five months, whilst the cane requires from twelve to eighteen months, according to the irrigation applied to it. With regard to the tnaizthe sorgho resembles it in its growth, foliage and constitution, but is totally different in granular produce. In saccharine properties the cane and the sorgho are nearly of an equal value; fur whilst the cane yields from fourteen to eighteen per cent of saccharine, the sorgho will yield according to Leplay fifteen, and to Dupeyrat tea per cent, of crystallizable sugar, of precisely the same character as <hat of tha cane, the beet-root and the maple. As fodder, however, the sorgho possesses valuable properties, and will doubtless be extensively cultivated in the north of France. Whether for that purpose it could be grown in the United Kingdom remains to be proved; but, at any rate, it is worth trying. In tint case it ought to be sown in the latter end of June, or early in July, when there is no danger from frost. It will then be ready to cut in September, and continue until November, If the plants were raised on seed-beds, protected from the frosts at night, it would enable the grower to obtain them at least a month earlier, and they would then come in at a period when the dry weather would render them particularly useful for cattle. With respect to the mode of cultivating the sorgho, it is sometimes sown broad-cast and sometimes in drills. Another method is by throwing the land into small hillocks by first ploughing it in the Northumberland fashion, and then by cross-ploughing, to form it into squares, upon which put in about four seeds or plants (if ready), at a distance of about a foot apart. A small quantity of guano, or other artificial manure, put in near, but not with tba eeed, will materially promote its growth. A light sandy soil is the most adopted to the sorgho, but it should be well manured. The Landes. in the department of the Loire, to which the statement of M. Dupeyrat refers, are a pure-moving sand; ten pound of seed per acre is about the quantity. It should be previously steeped in water from twenty-four hours to three days; the latter in order to hasten its growth. The seeds which swim on the top should be thrown away, as only that whioh sinks to the bottom will vegetate. The quantity of produce from the sorgho is prodigeous. Dupejrat speaks of a return at Begrie, in 1857, in one cutting, of one hundred and twenty-three thousand kilos per hectolitre, or about forty tight and a half tons per acre. It grows from nine to twelve feet high, the specimen we have received being fully the latter. It throws out several stems from the root, and when intended for sugar-making the weak roots are taken off, leaving from three to five only of the stronger ODes, but when it is intended for fodder this is unnecessary. In France it is used in the making of wine ; and two ares, which are two hundred and thirty-nine square yards, yielded one hundred and ihirty-two gallons of excellent wine. In distilling the ripe plant will produce from seven hundred and forty-five to nine hundred and eighty per cent, of alcohol. This refers to the South. It is estimated that forty-four thousand kilos of green sorgho are equal to sixteen thousand kilos of hay in nutritive properties.
The cattle are remarkably fond of it, and will leave any other food whatever for it.—Abridged from Farmer's Magazint, age 160, vol. for 1859.
THK EXHAUSTION OF THE SOIL B7 THE CULTURE OF S0ROH0.
I have submitted this grain for analysis, employing African samples, for which I am indebted to M. Leplay. From my various researches the following mean figures result, relative only to the substances interesting in the present point of view. These figures have been established in one thousand of the matter analysed:
Organic matter 10,937, or azote 1,750
Ashes 37,000, of which acid phosph.. 23,896
These results do not differ very widely from those already obtained from various chemists, and principally from Professor Filhol, who only marked the figure of the albuminous matter, valued by him at 1.5, for one hundred. By their aid it is now possible to calculate exactly the absolute quantity of azote and mineral matter taken from the soil by sorgho. But what is of more importance is to compare it with what is taken from the earth by other plants. Now, among thoso grown in the South, there is only wheat and maize which may be put on a level with the sorgho, and more particularly the latter, on account of the similarity in the method of cultivation which they both require. If then we examine their chemical composition, established by M. M. Bousiugault and Payen, we find there is found in wheat;, in one thousand
Organic matter, 144,000, or azote 20,900
Ashes 24,100, of which acid phosph.. . 11,323
M. Peligot, who has particularly examined the wheat in the South, finds one hundred and sixty parts of albuminous matter in it; and, in maize, M. Pogilae has found ninety-nine only. M. Payen has given the following analysis of maize:
Organic matter 123,000, or azote 19.68C
Ashes 12,000, of which acid phosph.. 5,46e
From these figures we find that a crop of sorgho takes from the soil twentyone pirtt less of az te than wheat, and eighteen less than maize. In return, the quantity of phosphoric acid, subtracted, is nearly double that taken by wheat, and four times more than maize—admitting, however, that we have not reckoned on the chaff of the m'iize, which, as every one knows leaves, in burning on our hearths, a Urge proportion of ashes. It would follow, then, that, weight for weight, the culture of sorgho would exhaust more mineral matter and much less of azote—which, as every one knows, costs the farmer ten times more than for phosphoric acid. Thus, the kilogramme of azote is not too dear at three francs. Phosphoric acid, in the state of phosphate of lime, costs only about twenty-five cents the kilogramme.—From the "Journal de la tociete centrale d'Agriculture de Belgique," September, 1859, page 342.
VALCE or SORGHO AS A TORAGK PLA5T.
The sorgho at first was praised beyond measure; then it was declared to be poisonous, and that it diminished the quantity of milk. In short, after tepeated experiments, made by very distinguished farmers, it was considered as one of the best fodder plants we can cultivate. In his experiments, made in 1856 and 1858. M. F. Peer has obuiued the following results:—
In the month of My a field was sown, hoed and cleaned as usual. The plants, fifteen centimetres distant, soon began to spring up. At the end of July they were cut down and given as fodder to 4 cows who ate it greedily. These cows were fed on it entirely fiom the beginning of August till the beginning of October, a period of tixty days. The quantity of milk was the same during this period, The ration of each cow was about seventy-five kilos of the sulks of the herb, or thirty kilos for the four cows; and a field of twenry tix ares furnished this quantity for sixty days. M. Peer concluded from these experiments that sorgho, two metres high, can produce, without exaggeration, seventy-two thousand kilos to the hectare. He cut down the sorgho several times, but the last, in August, produced only thin stnlss for the sheep. This plant can be cut several times in the year —only when the soil is rich. In August th lower part of the stalk had becoms stringy. These were cut down and mixed with the leaves, s*. that not a blade was lost. M. Peer considers a single cutting of sorgho worth foiir of clover; that is to say a hectare of sorgho is worth more than two hectares of clover as food for cattle. As yet the sorgho has been attacked by no insect, and it is ready for the cattle at the time when the other plants are dried up by the sun. These are two great advantage. Sorgho cultivated on some lands imbibes poisonous qualities, for which it has been rejected by certain farmers. The accidents caused by sorgho mig'n hav-) been prevented at first by prudent aud judicious experiments. If it proJuces a bad < .i' et it may be mixed with other ingredients. If it is not injurious administer it confidently—and this is nine-tenths of the case.—From th* Journal (June No., 1859,) de la eociete centrale d'Agriculture de Btlyique.