The past few years have seen major developments in soldering materials and processes for electronics assembly manufacture due to the movement from tin-lead to lead-free soldering. The removal of lead from electronics solders due to environmental considerations first developed with proposed US legislation in the early 1990s. At that time, the alternatives had not been fully explored, so a ban on the use of lead in electronic solders was put on hold. However the seed was sown for development with various projects initiated during the 1990s in Europe, the Americas, and Asia. Based on government pressures, Japan OEMs began to move to lead-free solder products from 1998 and this, combined with the European Union ROHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) legislation enacted in 2006, drove the global manufacture of electronics consumer products with le- free solders. From 1998 to the present, the development of lead-free solder materials and processes has progressed to such an extent that development work moving forward will typically only concentrate on lead-free solders and components rather than tin-lead solders and components. This book aims to give the latest information on development of the lead-free soldering materials and processes and identify where more work is needed. The chapters of the book describe legislation, alloys, reflow, wave, rework, reliability, backward and forward process compatibility, PCB surface finishes and PCB laminates, and standards affecting the general lead-free soldering arena.
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23 Solder Alloy Solidification and Microstructural Development
25 Solidification Behavior
55 LeadFree PinThroughHole MiniPot Rework Soldering
LeadFree Solder Joint Reliability
62 General Trends
63 SAC Solder Joint Reliability Case Study
Backward and Forward Compatibility
72 Reliability of BGACSP Backward Compatibility
73 Estimation of Mixed Composition Liquidus Temperature
74 Chip Component and LeadFrame Component
26 Wetting and Solderability
27 PbFree Solder Mechanical Behavior and Solder Joint Reliability
LeadFree Surface Mount Assembly
33 Screen Printing Process
34 Component Placement
35 Reflow Soldering
36 Solder Joint Inspection and Acceptance Criteria
LeadFree Wave Soldering
42 LeadFree Wave Solder Alloy Alternatives
43 Wave Solder Equipment Recommendations
44 Process Recommendations
45 Solder Joint Characterization
46 Design Considerations
53 LeadFree SMT Rework of BGACSP Soldered Joints
54 LeadFree PinThroughHole PTH Hand Solder Rework
75 Forward Compatibility
76 Press Fit Connector Interconnections
82 Types of Stress in Printed Wiring Boards
83 Laminate Material Test Methods
84 Accelerated Thermal Stress Testing
85 Accelerated Thermal Stress Test Methods
86 HATS Test Method A Case Study
LeadFree Board Surface Finishes
92 Process Overview
LeadFree Soldering Standards
103 IEC Standards
104 Japan JEITA Standards
105 Other Standards
Overige edities - Alles weergeven
Ag3Sn applications assembly processing backward compatibility board surface finish CBGA chapter copper dissolution deposit Electroless electronic ENIG equipment eutectic failure Figure fillet lifting flux forward compatibility higher temperature lead-free immersion gold immersion silver immersion tin increased intermetallic iron tip temperature issues JEDEC laminate material layer lead-free alloys lead-free assembly lead-free rework lead-free SnAgCu lead-free solder lead-free solder joint lead-free wave soldering liquidus temperature manufacturing melting microstructure mini-pot NEMI nickel package PBGA peak temperature phase diagram plated through hole ppm/C preheat press-fit Printed Circuit Boards printed wiring board reflow profile reflow soldering requirements rework machine RoHS SAC alloys Sn-Ag-Cu Sn-Pb eutectic SnAgCu solder SnPb solder paste solder ball solder joint reliability solder paste soldering iron tip soldering temperatures Solectron solidification standard stress substrate surface mount test method thickness tin-lead solder tion typically wire bonding
Pagina 12 - May 1996 laying down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation.
Pagina 11 - Other bghting or equipment for the purpose of spreading or controlling light with the exception of filament bulbs 6. Electrical and electronic tools (with the exception of large-scale stationary industrial tools) Drills Saws Sewing machines Equipment for turning, milling, sanding, grinding, sawing, cutting, shearing, drilling, making holes, punching, folding, bending or similar processing of wood, metal and other materials Tools for riveting, nailing or screwing or removing rivets, nails, screws...
Pagina 9 - July 1976 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations.
Pagina 12 - Council Directive 96/59/EC of 16 September 1996 on the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCB/PCT), the Hellenic Republic has failed to fulfil its obligations under that directive; 2.
Pagina 12 - Directive 67/548/EEC Relating to the Classification. Packaging and Labelling of Dangerous Substances, OJ 1967, no.
Pagina 8 - Directive 1 . Large household appliances 2. Small household appliances 3. IT and telecommunications equipment 4. Consumer equipment 5. Lighting equipment 6. Electrical and electronic tools (with the exception of large-scale stationary industrial tools) 7. Toys, leisure and sports equipment 8. Medical devices (with the exception of all implanted and infected products) 9.