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competition with you ? - For (to say nothing of your service in war, for twenty years together, with so much valour and success) from the very pillars of Hercules, from the ocean, from the utmost bounds of the earth, through so many warlike nations of Spain and Gaul, are you not come hither victorious ? And with whom are you now to fight? With raw soldiers, an undisciplined army, beaten, vanquished, besieged by the Gauls the very last summer; an army unknown to their leader, and unacquainted with him.
Or shall I, who was born, I might almost say, but certainly brought up, in the tent of my father, that most excellent general; shall I, the conquerer of Spain and Gaul, and not only of the Alpine nations, but, which is greater still, of the Alps themselves; shall I compare myself with this half-year's captain ? a captain, before whom should one place the two armies without their ensigns, I am. persuaded he would not know to which of them he is consul. I esteem it no small advantage, Soldiers, that there is not one among you, who has not often been an eye-witness of my exploits in war; not one, of whose valour I myself have not been a spectator, so as to be able to name the times and places of his noble achievements; that with soldiers, whom I have a thousand times praised and rewarded, and whose pupil I was before I became their general, I shall march against an army of men strangers to one another.
on what side soever I turn my eyes, I behold all full of courage and strength. A veteran infantry; a most gallant cavalry: you, my Allies, most faithful and valiant; you, Carthagenians, whom not only your country's cause, but the justest anger impels to battle. The hope, the courage of assailants, is always greater than of those who act upon the defensive. With hostile banners displayed, you are come down upon Italy. you bring the war." Grief, injuries, indignities, fire your minds, and spur you forward to revenge. First, they demand me, that I, your general, should be delivered up to them; next, all of you who had fought at the siege of Saguntum : and we were to be put to death by the extremest tortures. Proud and cruel nation ! Every thing must be yours, and at your disposal ! You are to prescribe to us with whom we shall make war, with whom we shall make peace! You are to set us bounds ; to shut us up within hills and rivers; but you, you are not to observe the limits which yourselves have fixed ! “ Pass not the Iberus.” What next ? « Touch not the Saguntines ; Saguntum is
the Iberus, move not a step towards that city." Is it a small matter, then, that you have deprived us of our ancient possessions, Sicily and Sardinia ? You would have Spain too. Well ; we shall yield Spain, and then--you will pass into Africa. Will pass, did I say
very year they ordered one of their consuls into Africa, the other into Spain. No, Soldiers ; there is nothing left for us but what we can vindicate with our swords. Come on, then.
The Romans may, with more safety, be cowards : they have their own country behind them, have places of refuge to fly to, and are secure from danger in the roads thither; but for you, there is no middle fortune between death and victory.
Let this be but well fixed in your minds-and, once again, I say you are conquerors. VIII.--Speech of Adherbal to the Roman Senate, imploring
their assistance against Jugurtha. FATHERS !
IT is known to you, that king Micipsa, my father, on his death-bed, left in charge to Jugurtha, his adopted son, conjunctly with my unfortunate brother, Hiempsal, and myself, the children of his own body, the administration of the ķingdom of Numidia, directing us to consider the senate and people of Rome as proprietors of it. He charged ug to use our best endeavours to be serviceable to the Roman commonwealth, in peace and war: assuring us, that your protection would prove to us a defence against all enemies, and would be instead of armies, fortifications, and treasures,
While my brother and I were thinking of nothing but how to regulate ourselves according to the directions of our deceased father-Jugurtha the most infamous of mankind breaking through all ties of gratitude and of common humanity, and trampling on the authority of the Roman commonwealth, procured the murder of my unfortunate brother, and has driven me from my throne and native country, though he knows I inherit, from my grandfather Massipisso, and my father Micipsa, the friendship and alliance of the Romans.
For a prince to be reduced, by villany, to my distressful circumstances, is calamity enough ; but my misfortunes are heightened by the consideration that I find myself obliged to solicit your assistance, Fathers, for the services done you by my ancestors, not for any I have been able to render you in my own person. Jugurtha has put it out of my power to deserve any thing at your hands; and has forced me to be burdensome, before I could be useful to you.
And yet, if I had no plea, but my undeserved misery--a once powerful prince, the descendant of a race of illustrious monarchs, now, without any fault of my own, destitute of every sup. port, and reduced to the necessity of begging foreign assistance, against an enemy who has seized my throne and my kingdom—if my unequalled distresses were all I had to plead-it would become the greatness of the Roman commonwealth, the arbitress of the world, to protect the injured, and to check the triumph of daring wickedness over helpless innocence.--But, to provoke your vengeance to the utmost, Jugurtha has driven me from the very dominions which the senate and the people of Rome gave to my ances tors; and from which my grandfather, and my father, un der your umbrage, expelled Syphax and the Carthagenians. Thus, Fathers, your kindness to our family is defeated ; and Jugurtha, in injuring me, throws contempt on you.
O wretched prince! O cruel reverse of fortune! O father Micipsa! is this the consequence of your generosity; that he whom your goodness raised to an equality with your own children, should be the murderer of your children? Must then the royal house of Numidia always be a scene of havock and blood ? While Carthage remained, we suffered, as was to be expected, all sorts of hardships from their hostile attacks ; our enemy near; our only powerful ally, the Roman commonwealth, at a distance. While we were so circumstanced, we were always in arms and in action. When that scourge of Africa was no more, we congratulated ourselves on the prospect of established peace. But instead of peace, behold the kingdom of Numidia drenched with royal blood! and the only surviving son of its late king, flying from an adopted murderer, and seeking that safety in foreign parts, which he cannot command in his own kingdom.
Whither-Oh! whither shall I fly? If I return to the royal palace of my ancestors, my father's throne is seized by the murderer of my brother. What can I there expect, but that Jugurtha should hasten to innbrue, in my blood, those hands which are now reeking with my brother's ? If I were to dy for refuge, or assistance, to any other court, from what prince can l'hope for protection, if the Roman commonwealth give me up? From my own family or friends I have no expectations. My royal father is no more. He is beyond the reach of violence, and out of hearing of the complaints of his unhappy son. Were my brother alive, our mutual sympathy would be some alleviation. But he is hurried out of life, in his early youth, by the very hand which should have been the last to injure any of the royal family of Numidia. The bloody Jugurtha has butchered all whom he suspected to be in my interest. Some have been destroyed by the lingering torment of the cross. Others have been given a prey to wild beasts, and their anguish made the sport of men more cruel than wild beasts. If there be any yet alive, they are shut up in dungeons, there to drag out a life more intolerable than death itself.
Look down, illustrious senators of Rome! from that height of power to which you are raised, on the unexampled distresses of a prince, who is, by the cruelty of a wicked intruder, become an outcast from all mankind. Let not the crafty insinuations of him who returns murder for adoption, prejudice your judgment. Do not listen to the wreich who has butchered the son and relations of a king, who gave him power to sit on the same throne with his own sons. I have been informed, that he labours by his emissaries, to prevent your determining any thing against him in his absence; pretending that I magnify my distress, and might for him have staid in peace in my own kingdom. But if ever the time comes when the due vengeance from above shall overtake him, he will then tremble as I do. Then he, who now, hardened in wickedness, triumphs over those whom his violence has laid low, will, in his turn, feel distress, and suffer for his impious ingratitude to my father, and his blood-thirsty cruelty to my brother.
O murdered, butchered brother! O dearest to my heart now gone for ever from my sight !But why should I lament his death ? He is, indeed, deprived of the blessed light of heaven, of life, and kingdom, at once, by the very person who ought to have been the first to hazard his own life in defence of any one of Micipsa's family. But, as things are, my brother is not so much deprived of these comforts, as delivered from terror, from flight, from exile, and the endless train of miseries which render life to me a burden. He lies full low, gored with wounds, and festering in his own blood. But he lies in
He feels none of the miseries which rend my soul with agony and distraction, while I am set up a spectacle to all mankind of the uncertainty of human affairs. So far from having it in my pom er to revenge his death, I am not master of the means of
securing my own life. So far from being in a condition to defend my kingdom from the violence of the usurper, obliged to apply for foreign protection for my own person.
Fathers ! Senators of Rome! The arbiters of the world! to you I fly for refuge from the murderous fury of Jugurtha. By your affection for your children, by your love for your country, by your own virtues, by the majesty of the Roman commonwealth, by all that is sacred, and all that is dear to you--deliver a wretched prince from undeserved, unprovoked injury; and save the kingdom of Numidia, which is your own property, from being the prey of violence, usurpation, and cruelty.
IX.-Speech of Canuleius to the Consuls ; in which he demands
that the Plebeians may be admitted into the Consulship, and that the laws prohibiting Patricians and Plebeians from intermarrying, may be repealed.
WHAT an insult upon us is this ! If we are not so rich as the Patricians, are we not citizens of Rome as well as they ? inhabitants of the same country ? members of the same community? The nations bordering upon Rome, and even strangers more remote, are admitted, not only to marriage with us, but to what is of much greater importance, the freedom of the city. Are we, because we are commoners, to be worse treated than strangers ?-And, when we demand that the people may be free to bestow their offices and dignities on whom they please, do we ask any thing unreasonable or new? Do we claim more than their original inherent right ? What occasion, then, for all this uproar, as if the universe were falling to ruin? They were just going to lay violent hands upon me in the senate house.
What! must this empire, then, be unavoidably overturned; must Rome of necessity sink at once, if a Plebeian, worthy of the office, should be raised to the consulship? The Patricians, I am persuaded, if they could, would deprive you of the common light. It certainly offends them that you breathe, that you speak, that you have the shapes of
Nay, but to make a commoner a consul, would be, say they, a most enormous thing. Numa Pompilius, how. ever, without being so much as a Roman citizen, was made king of Rome. The elder Tarquin, by birth not even an Italian, was nevertheless placed upon the throne. Servius Tullius, the son of a captive woman, (nobody knows who his father was) obtained the kingdom, as the retasd of his wis