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trate the apostle's words, by inductions from the prophets, “ Him, being delivered by the deter“minate counsel and fore-knowledge of God,
ye have taken, and by wicked hands have “ crucified and slain ; whom God hath raised
up, having loosed the pains of death,” &c:' or, rather the words of our Lord himself, “ Thus it is “ written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, " and to rise from the dead the third day.” 2 In this especially the scriptures of the prophets' were fulfilled ; and in this all the grand ends of the Messiah's coming were accomplished, and could not have been effected, according to the prophets, in any other way. 4
P. 37. 1. 33. 'We also learn,' &c. The words of the apostle Paul are entirely coincident with the several prophecies of the Old Testament, which he quotes : 4 and therefore the charge brought against him falls on David and Isaiah or rather on the Holy Spirit who spake by them. Men first proudly and wickedly close their own eyes against the truth, in determined unbelief; and then God, as a punishment, shuts them up in unbelief.
P. 38. 1. 7. Had Israel,' &c. The unbelief of Israel was merely the occasion, not the cause, of the calling of the gentiles, which had been predicted from the time when the distinction between Abraham with his seed and the gentiles commenced.
'Acts ii. 23, 24.
? Luke xxiv. 46. Ps, xxii. lxix. Is. liii. Dan. ix. 24–27. Zech. xiii. n. * Ps. Ixix. 22–28. Is. vi. 9, 10. xxix. 40. Rom. xi. 74-10.
P. 38. I. 11. Israel was to be made guilty,' &c. If' to be made guilty' means ' to be brought
in guilty as a criminal by a just verdict,' God “nade Israel guilty: ' but they themselves committed, wilfully and obstinately, the crimes by which they exposed themselves to this righteous condemnation. Yet it has been shewn, that an immense number“ of the lost sheep of the house “ of Israel” were previously gathered into his fold by the good Shepherd, who “ came to seek and to " save that which was lost."
I must notice with decided disapprobation, the whole passage under consideration, as destitute of reverence towards God, and humility before him, However criminal the conduct of Israel was; however obstinate in rebellion, and most unreasonable in unbelief: still, if God “ leave them to “ their own hearts' lusts,” and they reject the Messiah, and crucify him, and are punished for it; God did them wrong,' (p. 38. 1. 14,) 'im'posed on his creatures,' (1. 15,) destroyed them * without cause.' (1. 22.) Yet the Jews themselves have never been able to assign any other adequate cause of the unexampled miseries and degradation of their nation, for above one thousand seven hundred years. By the common voice of the rulers and people, when demanding the crucifixion of Jesus, they imprecated this vengeance on themselves ; “ His blood be upon us, " and on our children." I And so long as they proceed to “ crucify him afresh, and put him to
open shame,” by saying,' he received due pun
ishment, for by the law he was guilty,' (p.38.1. 29,) their dispersions and oppressions will continue. But, when “ the Spirit of God shall be poured out
upon them,” and they shall look with penitent sorrow, and humble faith, to “him whom they “ have pierced;”] they shall be gathered, restored, and honoured, even far more than in times of old. The day when this shall take place, I firmly believe to be near at hand; and I earnestly long and pray for it, as the very crisis of the world, so to speak. In the full persuasion that such will be the event ere long, I have engaged in this argument, and desire to conduct it in a manner as conciliatory as regard to truth and holiness will permit; in hopes of being an instrument, in some small degree of effecting the happy revolution.
If it was the purpose of God that Israel as a nation should welcome the promised Messiah ; and if it was previously revealed that they would; then, Israel, as a nation, will receive him (1. 25.) when he comes; and he has not yet come.
The text from Isaiah 2 (1. 31, &c.) certainly proves that the word of God shall accomplish his purpose, whatever that may be: but this does not inform us what that purpose is, at least in regard to Israel as a nation. Concerning the secret purposes of God we know nothing. He predicted that Israel as a nation would reject the Messiah, and be themselves for a long time excluded on that account. 3
' Ezek. xx. 37, 38, 43, 44. Zech. xii. 9-14. * Is. ly. 10, 11. * Is. xlix, 7. 1. 1, 2. Hos. iii. 4, 5.
P. 39 1. 14.. . When he is sent he will be the leader.' The Messiah, as leader of the company is not mentioned. In a preceding part of the chapter indeed he is, but not exactly so as to suit Mr. C.'s argument. Behold, I have given him “ for a witness to the people, a leader and com“ mander to the people. Behold thou shalt call " a nation that thou knowest not, and nations that “ knew not thee, shall run unto thee, because of “the Lord thy God, and for the Holy One of “ Israel, for he hath glorified thee.”] The nations here spoken of must be the gentiles; and this is the only place in which Israel is mentioned throughout the chapter.
P. 39. 1. 18. Who being,' &c. Here Mr. C. charges Jesus with wishing to set up for himself, and to be “ equal with God :” (l. 21 :) but in another passage he says, Jesus himself never thought of such a thing; therefore he called himself the Son of man: but had he thought ' that he was God, he would have called himself. 'the Son of a woman.' (p. 17. 1. 8.)—That Jesus did prosper and accomplish astonishing things has already been shewn. Mr. C. might have rendered his statement, in the next words, (p. 39. 1. 24,) more convincing, if he could have quoted the words, which he puts into the mouth of the Messiah, from “ the scriptures of the prophets,” instead of “speaking them out of his own heart,” and according to what he supposes will be the case.
P. 39. 1. 29. “Was the Messiah of the gentiles a prophet, or not?'—The questions concerning
i Is. lv. 4,5.
our Lord's predictions will come before us, more regularly in another place. (p. 89, 90.) Indeed, after Mr. C. had decided that Jesus was justly put to death, the question itself seems to come too late. The clause however from the seventy-fourth Psalm requires a brief notice. (p. 39. 1. 32.) It is plain, from the whole of this Psalm, that it was written at a time, or at least that it referred to a time, when the sanctuary lay in ruins. Either this was during the Babylonish captivity, or after the destruction of the temple by the Romans. If it related to the Babylonish captivity, it can be nothing to the purpose; for several prophets arose subsequent to that event. If it refer to the times following the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans; it does most affectingly describe the state of the Jews during above seventeen centuries: but, as Jesus lived, and died, and arose again, many years before the destruction of the second temple, it can prove nothing against his character as a Prophet; for it relates exclusively to subsequent times.
P. 40. 1. 12. The prophecy of Daniel has been considered; but “the sealing up of the vision “ and prophecy,” or “ Prophet,” relates to times three or four hundred years subsequent to Malachi ; namely to the end of the seventy weeks, which Christians calculate to have been about the time of the crucifixion of Jesus. Mr. C. computes them to end, either with the death of king Agrippa and his son Monves, or at the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. There was no prophet
Ps. lxxiv, 3--9.