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admire the openness and frank manner in which Mr. Moor writes, but think that argument would do more justice to his cause than low scurrility, and weak attempts at satire.
Mr. M. is more entitled to my thanks for telling :ne what he is not, than for relating what he is. Merely to assert that he is a man (which I never doubted) conveys no proof whether he is a wise man or a foolish man, a good man or a bad man; that he is a man, who thinks for himself, I from the first conjec. tured, and am happy to see it confirined in his own words.
I conclude by most respectfully reminding Mr. Moor that there are thousands who can put in quite as strong a claim as himself to being her, but there are hardly so many that can roundly assert they are virtuous men! O.xford, Sept. 1812,
JAMES GRifree. WINNIN Nordpornerne
ADVICE TO A YOUNG MAN ON ENTERING INTO BUSINESS,
To the Editor of the Freethinking Christians' Magazine. SHOULD the following extract of a letter, which has come
into my hands, being Advice to a Young Man on entering into Business, be adjudged worthy your publication, it may afford some 'salutary hints to your young friends, and will oblige
A CONSTANT READER. “ I congratulate you on entering into business, and wish you all possible success; yet I cannot forbear offering a few remarks, by way of admonition, under the persuasion that it will be most cordially received by one, whose advice, when in simia lar circumstances, I should Leartily welcome.
6 You are now beginning the world as a Tradesman; there appears to me something unpleasant to an independent mind, in the very idea of trade, and particularly in its present overgrown state. Trade has now assumed a factitious shape, and calls for factitious means to support it. To an ingenuous spirit, then, it will be considered, at best, as a necessary evil; but it is not to my present purpose to treat on the principles of trade, but rather to trace its effects on the human character.
« Trade must he considered as the mean to raise the party engaged in it above dependence, and to insure the comforts and pleasures of life: when it is entered into with this view, and carried on by fair and honourable means, it is laudable; when that end is gained, it becomes superfluous, and should cease when the cause for its existence has ceased. But how opposite to these remarks is the conduct of men in trade! Look
at your tradesman! He is just beginnings business, without
friends, and almost without capital, the small sum he has, is, perhaps, the niggardly savings of many a hard day's work, and many an empty belly-notice his fear, his anxiety, when he embarks his little all. How reasonable are his wishes, how limited his desires !-He only wants sufficient to secure hima from want. This first desire is accomplished; his trade is in a prosperous state; he now aims to become respectable. Success crowds in upon him on every side; he is respectable, but he wishes to be wealthy ; be applies with double alacrity; every thing is made subservient to his great end. His religivn, his morality, his politics, are secondary to his favourite purpose. Mark his politeness to his customers! How he flatters the rich, and cringes to the opulent! But he is now 'wealthy; though malice does say, that he has been mean, hard, nay, unjust in his dealings—but he is still wealthy, and, you would supposé, contented-Oh, not so, indeed! quite as far from it as when his first humble wish was realized. Well, he goes on extending his trade-trade is with him the axis round which the whole circle of society revolves. Thousands may groan under a galling and oppressive government; he is deaf to the cries of the wretched, and complaints of the poor, whileftrade flourishes-armies may rot in pestilential countries, kingdonis be humbled by an all-conquering foe, or nations remain lost in superstition, and inflated with ignorance, since trade still goes on well. The whole Indies may feel the iron rod of European oppression; the slave may clank bis chains to the passing wind, and mutter his sorrows to the burning sun-he can justify the whole with, “Ah! well, it makes good for trade!" "But, behold! old age creeping fast upon himhe has grown purblind in casting and balancing accounts. I have just heard, that whilst hobbling to his desk on crutches he stumbled, broke a blood vessel, and gave up life and business together:– he is to be followed to the grave by his clerks and assistants--his remains are to be interred in his large iron chest, instead of a tombstone-his ledger is to be placed at his head, which it is expected will outlive his memory,
6 Various are the views and intentions of men in trade, and as far as trade is prosecuted with an eye to any solid pleasure or permanent good it is to be approved; but, how often is it made the source of riches and power? How often does it beget covetousness, and create an avaricious appetite, which is ever craving and never satisfied ? When this is the case, the very end of trade is defeated- instead of being the cause of happiness, it is the cause of misery-instead of bringing con. tent it brings dissatisfaction-instead of lifting the trader
above want, it gives existence to endless wants, before unknown to him.
You are, I trust; equally aware of the chances and misfortunes of trade, of the difficulties you have to encounter, the perplexing circumstances in which you may be involved, and the frequent opportunities that must occur for the exercise of patience, fortitude, and all the Christian's virtues. Armed as you are with the strong principles of reason and religion, you will be better able to contend with difficulties than many; yet I know and would warn you of it, that unless your actions spring from the most exalted motives, there are situations that may warp the most inflexible principles, and stagger the most stedfast virtue:
In fact, as a tradesman, you have to war against two powerful enemies--success and misfortune, both equally dangerous to your peace; consider them as opposed to you on either side, calling for all your skill in combat. Recollect, that while you are engaged with one the other is gaining upon you; while you are crushing the foe on your left he on your right may cleave you to the earth. Do not then oppose yourself too long or too eagerly against either singly; but rather aim, by dexterity and perseverance, to parry off the weapons of both; and if, as I hope, you should beat down misfortune with the sword of self-love-never fail to hold the shield of justice, to catch the deadly strokes of success.
You will also be careful how you form acquaintances or friendships with men in trade- do not miogle in their company any further than necessity requires; as stepping-stones, they may be useful to carry you through the mud; but if you take those things in the hand, which should be kept under the feet, be assured your fingers will not be perfectly clean.
Above all, do not sacrifice the whole of your time to busia pess--ever remember that trade is but a mean to an end-it is intended to promote happiness; and pure happiness is of the intellectual kind. If then your time is entirely engrossed by trade, you lose every opportunity of .cultivating the mental pleasures. I know how many of our tradesmen deceive thenr selves in this respect they think; that by pursuing' trade with closeness and avidity, they shall secure more quickly an independence, and afterwards enjoy in retirement settled happiness; but they have gained a fortune and lost the power of enjoying it-by an unremitting application to business they have blunted the fine feelings of the mind, choaked up the springs of intellectual bliss, and turned the streams of mental happiness through the thick wilderness of the world, where they were soon lost amid 'its endless mazes. With such men we have often found that leisure becomes irksome, and they fly to business again as the only pastime they are capable of.
“But you, J—s, will not be thus deceived; trust not to futurity, or you trust to uncertainty-improve the present hour; suffer not a day to-pass without devoting a small portion to your own improvement; ever keep your mind in moral exercise; or, like iron, however highly polished, if laid by too long, it will rust. Remember that you have a greater, a higher character to sustain than that of a tradesman !
" I have dwelt longer on this subject because it deserves it. I have been serious, because I think when a young man commences business he enters into a new and important era-I have used freedom, because I know it will be welcome, and trust that no worldly success will make it otherwise, but that you will be uncorrupted by trade, nor suffer your disposition to be soured by care or over anxiety about the things of this world. Once more, J
let me remind you-you are embarked on a dangerous sea-hold fast the helm of wisdom--and after a prosperous voyage, may you come safe into port to enjoy the fruits of your enterprise! Adieu. Sandling, II ythe, Dec. 1810.
W.C." wasserweronuncian ON THE PRAYER BOOK AND HOMILY SOCIETY.
To the Editor of the Freethinking Christians' Magazine.
INHEIR circular letters inform us, “ that the Homilies
abound in the genuine idioms and radices of the English tongue, and have contributed their aid to the English Bible and the Liturgy, in resisting injurious refinements, and in seçuring so much original nerve and purity to the English style. The " style” of the Homilies inay be “ original ;" but when I read in the very first of them, such expressions as I cannot avoid laughing at, it is difficult to say as much of its purity;" and, suppose an old edition of the Bible had made its appearance, with the eighth commandment thus" thou shalt steal ;” what would the “ Homily Society” think of me, had [I dared to introduce the “ injurious refinement,
efinement,” of the adverb, 66 not?”
“ The thirty-fifth article of our church (say they), affirms, that the Homilies contain a godly and wholesome doctrine, and necessary for these times." I either cannot believe this, Sir, or they contain so much “ original parity of style,” that I cannot understand its meaning: The first Homily, speaking of the Bible, says, “ These books, therefore, ought to be much in our hands, in our eyes, in our ears, in our mouths.” I rejoice, Sir, at every opportunity of having the Bible in my hand; and only lament my want of time for a more strict examination of its contents; but, as this book is intended to exs
pand my faculties, I don't want to be blinded by it! I have also an objection to having my ears stopped ; and, as paper does not constitute the general ordinary of human beings, ! should not like to have it stuck in my mouth; because I don't think it would be possible to eat it ! · Again, “the wholesome doctrine which they inculcate is the substance of scriptural truth," &c. The first Homily says, « In these books we shall find the Father from whom, the Son by whom, and the Holy Ghost in whom, all things have their being, and keeping ; and these three persons to be but one God and one substance.” This, Mr. Editor, is the first riddle; and I dare say, when the Homilies are completed, they will form a pretty collection ! But that this quotation is “scriptural truth" I have the hardihood to deny-in the face of the Prayer Book and Homily Society-in the face of the world! But farther, “ It was mentioned by one clergyman at the meeting, that he had often read them to attentive congregations; and, by another, that he was in the habit of reading them on saints' days, with such acceptance from his parishioners, that they frequently consulted 'their Almanacks for the return of a red-letter day, when they might again enjoy the gratification of hearing a Homily." These clergymen were too ignorant, or too idle, to compose their own sermons, or they would not have been content with reading the Homilies. The necessity for people to look for a red letter-day will soon be removed, as the Homilies are publishing in rapid succession, and then, they can read for themselves. When this time arrives, the clergymen in question will be of no use; and as they seem very stupid men, it will be from the "sweat of their brow," and not from the strength of their intellect, that they must in future eat and drink. I propose a plan-leť them be bound out as parish apprentices (they have been kept all along by the parish) and learn some good substantial trade, such as will afford them sufficient employment to earn the bread they eat. I am told this would be hard ! not at all; if all men had bread who are willing to earn it, few indeed would starve !
“On the first publication of the Homilies (say they) a voJume was deposited in every parish church, and was publicly offered to the general perusal of the people: most of the copies, thus placed in churches, have long since fallen into decay. Wonderful discovery ! Perhaps in 1712 not a vestige of these Homilies was to be seen in one church out of ten; and in 1812 the Prayer Book and Homily Society have discovered that most of them have long since gone to pot! The man who first found out this should be called “ Oculist to the Prayer Book and Homily Society."
I remember seeing (some twelve years ago) in the parish