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LECTURE XVII.

ESSAY. FIRST BOOK, INNATE IDEAS. SECOND BOOK, OF SPACE.

First Book of the Essay on the Human Understanding. Of innate ideas.--

Second Book. Experience, the source of all ideas. Sensation and reflec-

tion.–Of the operations of the mind. According to Locke, they are exer-

cised only upon sensible data. Basis of sensualism.-Examination of the

doctrine of Locke concerning the idea of space. That the idea of space, in

the system of Locke, should be reduced and is reduced to that of body.---

This confusion is contradicted by facts and by Locke himself. Distinction

of the actual characters of the ideas of body and of space.-Examination of

the question of the origin of the idea of space. Distinction between the

logical order and the chronological order of our ideas.—The idea of space

is the logical condition of the idea of body; the idea of body is the chrono-

logical condition of the idea of space.-Of reason and experience, con-

sidered in turn as the reciprocal condition of their mutual development.-

Merit of Locke's system.-Its vices: 1st, it confounds the measure of

space with space; 2d, the condition of the idea of space with this idea

itself ....

199

1*

LECTURE XIX.

ESSAY, SECOND BOOK, OF THE IDEA OF CAUSE.

Continuation of the examination of the Second Book of the Essay on the

Human Understanding. Of the idea of cause.—Refutation of the theory

which puts the origin of the idea of cause in the sensation.—Origin of the

idea of cause in reflection, in the sentiment of the will.-Distinction between

the idea of cause and the principle of causality. That the principle of

causality is inexplicable by the sentiment of the will alone.—Of the true

formation of the principle of causality....

245

LECTURE XX.

ESSAY, SECOND BOOK. OF GOOD AND EVIL. THIRD BOOK, OF

WORDS.

Continuation of the examination of the Second Book of the Essay on the Hu-

man Understanding. Of the idea of good and evil. Refutation.—Of the

formation and mechanism of ideas in the understanding. Of simple and

complex idens.—Of the activity and passivity of the mind in the acquisition

of ideas.-Of the most general characters of ideas.Of the association of

ideas.--Examination of the Third Book of the Essay on the Human Under-

standing, in regard to words.-Praise due to the author.-Examination of

the following propositions : 1st, Do words take their first origin from other

words which signify sensible ideas ?–2d, Is the signification of words

purely arbitrary ?-3d, Are general ideas merely words? Of nominalism

and realism. 4th, Are words the sole cause of error, and is all science

only a well-constructed language? Conclusion of the examination of the

Third Book......

273

LECTURE IX.

SCHOLASTIC PHILOSOPHY.*

Scholastic Philosophy.-Its character and its origin.—Division of Scholas

ticism into three epochs.—First epoch.-Second epoch.—Third epoch. Birth of philosophical independence; quarrel of nominalism and realism, which represent idealism and sensualism in Scholasticism.---John Occam. His partisans and his adversaries.-Decrial of the two systems and of Scholasticism.-Mysticism.-Chancellor Gerson. His Mystic Theology. Extracts from this work. Conclusion.

HITHERTO, both in India and in Greece, we have constantly seen philosophy spring from religion; and at the same time we have seen that it springs not from it at once, that a single day is not enough for it to raise itself from the humble submission by which it begins, to the absolute independence in which it terminates. Hitherto we have seen it passing through an epoch, somewhat preparatory, therein trying its forces in the service of a foreign principle, reduced to the modest employment of governing and regulating creeds which it did not establish, in expectation of the moment when it shall be able to search out truth itself at its own risk and peril. Modern philosophy presents the same phenomenon. It is also preceded by an epoch which serves it as an introduction, and, thus to speak, as a vestibule: This epoch is scholasticism. As the middle age is the cradle of modern society, so scholasticism is that of modern philosophy. What the middle age is to the new society, scholasticism is to

* These outlines of the entire system of Scholastic philosophy need to be strengthened and in some points rectified by study more limited but more solid than may be found in the Introduction of a work entitled: Euvres in édites d'Abélard, Paris 1836, in-4. This Introduction, with some additions, forms the 8d volume of the Fragments philosophiques.

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