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were designated “the sons of God," in contradistinction from “the children of men." Thus commenced the assembly of which we are about to speak.
Amongst the renowned personages of the patriarchal church, were the following prophets and preachers of righteous.jess: Abel, Seth, Enos, Cainan, Mehalaleel, Jared, Enoch, Methuselah, Lamach, Noah. Adam appears to have been the first who died a natural death, and next to his departure followed Enoch, translated without tasting death, The three first members of the invisible church, sometimes called "the church triumphant," entered it each in a different way-- Abel by the hand of violence, Adam by natural death in sequence of his fall, and Enoch by translation. The church for six thousand years has rejoiced that the first fruit of death was a martyr for righteousness' sake. What lessons these to the world to the church! What a meeting in the great unseen! Adam follows his son, and before them next stands Enoch, proof of the resurrection of the dead! Slanghtered Abel, death worn Adam, and translated Enoch, it appears from all the records before us, became the three first citizens of the ch'irch triumphant in the future world. Thus commenced the church on earth and the church in heaven,
Limited as were the revelations bestowed on the patriarchal churches, Enoch, as quoted by Jude, being witness, their light and knowledge greatly transcended what some of us may conjecture. The principles of the divine government in detail and the final consummation were laid open by Enoch before his translation to the blest a odes.
After the food in the new world, Noah, Shem, Arphaxad, Cainan, Salah, Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, and Terah, complete the line to Abraham, to whom new and comprehensive revelations are vouchsafd. The world is now 2000 years old.
These venerable and renowned fathers of mankind, with all their faults and imperfections, were the oracles of God to the human race. No written record, they were the great repositories of revelations, promises, commands, and institutions. From them to their contemporaries and descendants, and, indeed, to all mankind, flowed all the knowledge of the unseen and eternal world,
The affairs of the church are the most conspicuous incidents in the slender records of the first 2000 years. Including the covenant of circumcision" made with Abraham after the promise concerning the Messiah, there are three institutions subsequent to the fall in the period at which we have glanced, connected with the history of redemption. Three covenants, as we are wont to call them, made with man, each signified by an appropriate symbol, deserve attention, The symbols are Sacrifice, the Rainbow, and Circumcision. Three promises are the bases of these institutions. The promise of victory over the serpent, having sacrifice appended; the promise of day and night, of the seasons, of seed time and harvest, securing to Noah ai his descendants deliverance from another deluge, to which too heuvens bear witness by, a radiant how; the promise to Abranem VOL. III.
concerning his natural seed, superadded to the intimations of Messian, having circumcision for its sign, in the prominent developements of God's purposes presented to the faith of men concerning nature and religion. The first two alike interested all the human race; the last the seed of Abraham alone directly and immediately, vet ultimately blessing all nations when the fulness of time came. The first anticipated four thousand years—the last but half that period; while the second extends to the universal conflagration. I he second being given to Noah as the father of the human race, concerning the political and temporal concerns of men, and their preserv. ation under the providence of God, effected no change in the worship of the patriarchal church. Hence after the deluge, as before, the same institutions continued with the whole human race until the calling of Abraham--from which period we shall continue our preliminary remarks in our next essay.
THE CHRISTIAN PREACHER—No. II. THE christian preacher must be a philanthropist. But not such a philanthropist as those who are enrolled on the long list of national benefactors. Nor must he be a philanthropist from such considerations as have obtained for the soldier, the statesman, and the patriot this designation. Their philanthropy is of a different genus. Disguise it as their admirers may, it is but an enlarged and somewhat refined selfishness.
The patriot, whose pretensions are more plausible than those of the others, is unworthy of this honor in its christian sense. He is rather a lover of the soil, of the mountains and plains, hills and valleys of his native spot, than a lover of men. 'Tis true he associates with the scenery of his country its inhabitants; but vet the foundation of his affection for these, on examination will be found to terminate upon, and to be terminated by, the soil of the province, country, or island which gave him birth. His amor patriæ, (his love of country,) so extolled by the ancients and the moderns, is well depicted and justly celebrated in the following strains of the Swiss Shepherd;
O when shall I visit the land of my birth,
Our forests, our fountains,
Our hamlets, our mountains,
My father, my mother,
My sister, my brother,
To the native of Switzerland this is the sublime of patriotism. And what nation breathes a purer air, or is more renowned for a purer or more ardent patriotism? Such feelings, however, form no element in the definition or composition of christian philanthropy.
The statesman need not boast. The fragrant spices of Arabia the Happy, will sooner grow on the hills of Nova Zembla, than philanthropy be found in affinity with politics. The very soul of politics is cold calculating selfishness. The policy of every measure which the statesman hails with any sort of enthusiasm, is the protective system. It is not the first time that it has been remarked that men can do in confederation, what they would blush to do in the detail. An individual who would apply to his domestic interests in reference to his neighbors, the same arguments which call for loud huzzas in the senate chamber, to the eloquence of a Burke, a Pitt, a Canning, or a Clay, would damn himself at home in the estimation of his neighbors. There is not a drop of generosity in the wine which a statesman drinks. It is ourselves, our country, perdition whim it may. The products of our soil, our industry, our genius must be protected, impoverish whom it may. The unsocial maxim of the English statesman, which has been well studied in this country, is, “Wring from the hand that guides a foreign loom the last farthing, provided only it enhance the value of a domestic shuttle." This is the rightful logic and splendid eloquence which gain unwithering honors to the statesman's tongue. If the native benevolence of his soul should prompt a different policy-if the love of his species should make a single struggle, or if conscience should remind him of “the golden rule,” he silences every appeal by the arguments of retaliatory policy or self-defensive measures. 'Tis thus that nations become great, and it is thus that the individuals which compose nations “worry and deyour each other." The Berlin and Milan decrees justify the British orders in council. Retaliatory measures, letters of marque and reprisal, hostages, and every protective system are of the same kidney. 'Tis said, “We cannot live in Rome and strive against the Pope.”. Therefore it is all fair play, free trade, sailors' rights, sound policy, good logic. This we do not doubt, Call it all these; but call it not philanthropy! . If the patriot and the statesman fail in making their pretensions to philanthropy, where shall the soldier, crimsoned with the blood of his fellow-man, appear? We select not the hireling legions of an aspiring tyrant, who hire themselves out for a miserable pittance to buicher their own flesh and blood according to the law of nations. We take the volunteer who in some time of peril stands forth, sword in hand, ready to avenge an insult or an injury offered to his country; whose motto is
"In times of peace and war pursue thy country's good;
"For her bare thy bold breast and shed thy generous blood." We take the wtriot soldier, who, in defensive war, is willing to lead, or to be le!, through all dangers, toils, and deaths, in defending the rights of his fellow-citizens and posterity, to life, liberty, and inde
pendence. Even he most admired by those who share the honors and the immunities which he obtains or defends, knows not the name, feels not the impulse of that philanthropy which is essential to him who successfully pleads the cause of the Prince of Peace, and combats for an eternal crown.
This philanthropy is the love of man, irrespective of country, friends, interests, partialities, sects, divisions, casts. Its meets and boun laries are not leagues and commercial treaties, political alliances, the artificial ties of affinity, nor the stronger natural cords of consangrinity. It regards man as the workmanship of God, once erect in his image, yet capable of immortality, and of again reflecting the moral glories of his Maker, of blessing and being blessed in the fruition of a divine nature. It loves man purely for man's sake It is a transcript of that benevolence expressed in these enrapturing words,
God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believes in him might not perish, but have eternal life.”
This philanthropy, like the refiner's fire, takes a way the dross of selfishness, and endows its subject with the lustre of elevated and disinterested enterprize. It awakens all the sympathies of our nature in argument, remonstrance, and exhortation. It meets indifference, ingratitude, and even opposition, with the expostulations of commiseration, and sheds the chrystal tear of sorrow over those whose blindness and obduracy shut it from their hearts. It is patient and persevering in all its efforts; and when it abandons all hope of conferring its blessings ''pon the objects of its solicitude, in turning away it casts ba longing, lingering look behind.” Even when it threatens the vengeance of Heaven against the disdainful contemners of the warning voice, and with an unfaultering tongue pronounces the recorded judgments of God against them who refuse to obey the gospel, it mingles with these awful arguments the undisguised condolence of heartfelt interest, and would fain avert the threatened doom. It dwells not exultingly upon the errors and vices of mankind while it portrays, with the graphic pencil of Apostles and Prophets, the end of this sad delinquency, and the terrors which await the impenitent and irreclaimable.
Not so the zea! which emanates from the selfishness of a sectarian spirit. The native pride and selfishness of the human heart find ample play in the efforts of a proselyting demagogue. He fights not under the banner of the cross, but under the banners of some favorite dogma. In sustaining his darling shibboleth, he is carried into the confines of every opposing system, and feeds with a voracious appetite upon the faults and errors of others. He is all exaggeration. The excellencies of his own opinions, and the blemishes and frailties of those opposed to them, are all exhibited in hyperbole. Not content with the actual amount of obliquity ånd dereliction of sound principle in the system he iinpigns, he seeks to give greater amplitude to its errors; and the chief regret which he exhibits is the want of grounds of inpeachment, or of ability to present in stronger colors the deforinities which he would wish it to impress upon the imagination of
others. The spirit of such a preacher is proud, proscriptive and denouncing. To the discerning he is more alive to the maintenance of his opinions than to the salvation of sinners.
Therefore, the philanthropy which we claim for the christian preacher stands distinguished from any thing under this name ascribed to the patriot, the statesman, the soldier, and even the preach. er of any sectarian peculiarities. But what shall we say of the philanthropy claimed by he moral and literary benefactors of men, the founders of the eleemosynary institutions, the abolitionists, and all that class whose objects are to improve the literary, moral, and temporal condition of men? What shall we say of the philanthropy of a Clarkson, a Lancaster, a Wilberforce, an Owen? It is a philanthropy so far as the animal nature and political condi. tion of mankind is regarded. But it rises not to that which we claim for the christian preacher. This is heaven-born and heaven-descended, and contemplates man in all his relations to matter and mind, to time and eternity.
God, the universal father, is the supreme philanthropist. His Son, the well beloved, brought it down to the senses of mankind, and gave it a living form, a habitation and a name amongst men. The heaven. ly circles of intelligences, who are all of one mind, derive their views and feelings from the sempiternal fountain of love; and as regards this our race they are all philanthropr. So that man illumined by the day spring from on high, finds himself the focus, the centre of celestial philanthropies. These rays concentrating on his heart, dilate it by the ardor of their intensity with that wide wish and allcomprehending benevolence which regards every human being as a broiher, as a fellow-sufferer in one common ruin, and as embraced in the undefined benevolence of all the hosts of supernal light and love. Thus finding himself caught in the arms of divine philanthropy, and saved from going down to the pit, to which he was fast precipitating himself in his wanderings from God, the christian preacher is impelled onwards as a co-worker with God, an adjutant of all the heavenly hosts, in awaking the attention of all his fellows to the voice of God, to the sungs of angels, and the rejoicings of all the hierarchies of heaven. "Glory to God in the highest, peace on earth, and good will among men!"
This is the rationale, and it is the proof, and the only proof we wish to urge in support of this paper, which is, that the christian preacher must be a philanthropist, and that, too, in Heaven's own definition of the word. Paul himself, that great philanthropist, was stimulated in all his efforts by his views of this divine philanthropy. “After that the philanthropy of God our Saviour shone forth," says he, “he saved us according to his mercy.” ..
There is no defining nor circumscribing the achievements of a christian preacher, taught, impelled, and animated by this divine and celestial principle. When he rises in the radiance of this heavenly light, in the strength of Judah's Lion, as the sun goes forth from the chambers of the East, he advances, borne on the wings of the angels