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usages and institutions in Judea, and every describe as for the most part a work of the other country where they had to take a cen- imagination, designed to exhibit an ideal sus; the rather because in this way they conception of the education of an oriental could employ a machinery which would be prince. less revolting to the natives, and more effec- No ancient hero has been more fortunate tual for their own purposes. The temper in his biographers than Cyrus. If Achilles of the Jews, as appears in the beginning of was happy in having Homer for the herald this article, was such as to require the Ro. of his prowess, Cyrus enjoys a singular disman commissioners to avoid all unnecessary tinction in furnishing to three of the chief vexation; and doubtless they were desirous Greek historians a subject not unworthy of to gain the co-operation of the Jewish au. their pens. And these three biographers thorities, as well as the facilities afforded by lived at no great distance from the events long-established laws and customs.
which they undertook to record; for Cyrus A still more extraordinary allegation is, died 529–30, A.C. Herodotus came in the that Augustus had not the power to order a age immediately succeeding that of Cyrus; census in Judea. Yet the relations in which Ctesias was his junior, only by a few years; the emperor stood to Herod the Great, to and Xenophon was but little younger than Archelaus, and to the Jewish nation gene. Ctesias. The events also with which they rally, were, beyond a doubt, of such a kind occupied themselves were acted on the great that he could command and effect whatever theatre of the world. Cyrus fought for and he pleased and judged expedient. And Jo gained the empire of the East, which, till sephus, as we have already seen, expressly after the Greeks had vanquished their Per. states, that Cyrenius was sent by Augustus sian invaders, brought with it the empire of for the purpose, among other things, of en the West. If, moreover, the disposition and rolling and taxing the Jewish nation. This training of Herodotus inclined him to take was only the last link of the chain which, his materials with too ready a credence for a long series of years, the Romans had Ctesias assumed the character of a critical been forging for that unhappy people. historian ; while Xenophon, coming after the
The view we have given removes another two others, and living at a time when writobjection:- No census is recorded by the ing had become an art, and the East lay history of the times. Granted that the cen- open to the diligent investigation of Greek sus imagined to have taken place at the birth scholarsbip, possessed the means of giving of Jesus is not recorded. But the reader a correct as well as full account of the life has already seen, that Josephus declares of his famous hero. These are circumCyrenius did, in agreement with Luke's stances which rarely concur in the biograwords, bold a census of the Jewish people phy of ancient or even modern princes, and not long after he undertook the government seem to afford & guarantee of our finding of Syria.
accordant materials for a complete history CYRUS (the Greek form of the Hebrew of Cyrus. Yet the materials which are thus Koresh, which is an imitation of the Persian actually furnished are discordant and incomKhorschid, denoting the sun), is the ordi. patible; and that to such an extent, that nary appellation of the celebrated founder Winer gives a preference to the narratives of the Medo-Persian empire.
of Xenophon, because he agrees with the There are three original sources whence statements and implications of the Bible. a knowledge of the life of Cyrus may be Our purpose in these remarks is to afford drawn : - I. Herodotus, the oldest of them the unlearned reader some means of judging (cir. 450, A.C.) has, in his sketch of univer- for himself of the comparative value of the sal history, given details respecting the Biblical history. For instance, various dileading events; and, as the father of profane versities and alleged discrepancies have been history, must be allowed to be a respectable pointed out as existing in the narratives, authority. Indeed, the general credibility given by the four evangelists, of the life of of his narratives has in late years gained our Lord. These diversities and alleged much ground. II. Ctesias, a Greek physi. discrepancies have been made the most of, cian at the court of Persia (cir. 400, A.C.), in order to divest the evangelical history wrote, from Persian sources, with the special of all claim to credibility. To a great extent, purpose of communicating to the Greeks the objection owes its force to a dexterous, correct notions of the East, and especially if not unscrupulous logic. But let the variaof Persian affairs, & detailed history; our tions be as marked, as numerous, as irreconknowledge of which, however, is confined to cileable, as the hardiest assailant may please the use made of it by Photius, Diodorus to represent, — we ask if they approach to Siculus, and others. III. Xenophon, the the broad contradictions found in tke statecelebrated pupil and biographer of Socrates, ments given by Herodotus, Ctesias, and a contemporary of Ctesias, has given us an Xenopbon, respecting Cyrus. We challenge entire piece, in which he professes to de- comparison. The result cannot fail to be scribe the life of Cyrus from his boyish highly favourable to the evangelical narradays, which it has been too customary to tives. We speak advisedly, and after some inquiry, when we affirm that there is no ascribes to the king's perusal of the prople. ancient history comparable for truth with cies of Isaiah. The passage is too curious that of the Bible, - to say nothing of its to be passed over:— God stirred up the inspiration; and that Matthew, Mark, Luke, mind of Cyrus, and made him write this and John, humble in the world's opinion as (the decree) throughout all Asia: “ Thus they comparatively were, have left us a more saith Cyrus the king, - Since God Almighty consistent history of Jesus Christ - a bis. hath appointed me to be king of the habita. tory combining more of the attributes of ble earth, I believe he is that God whom the truth - than the three historians afore- nation of the Israelites worship; for indeed mentioned have given us of Cyrus; than he foretold my name by the prophets, and Plato and Xenophon have left of their great that I should build him a house at Jerusamaster Socrates; or than his numerous his lem, in the country of Judea." This was torians wrote of Alexander the Great.
known to Cyrus, by his reading the bous In order that the reader may be in some which Isaiah left behind him of bis prophe. measure able to judge for himself, we shall cies; for this prophet said, that God had set down a few facts; and first we shall sup- spoken thus to him in secret vision : " My ply a general outline of the life of Cyrus, as will is, that Cyrus, whom I have appointed furnished in the Cyropædia of Xenophon. to be king over many and great nations,
Cyrus was the son of Cambyses, king of send back my people to their own land, and Persia, and of Mandane, a daughter of the build my temple." This was foretold by Median king Astyages. At twelve years of Isaiah a hundred and forty years before the age, he repaired to the court of his maternal temple was demolished. Accordingly, when grandfuther; and, when only sixteen, led an Cyrus read this, and admired the divine army against the Assyrians or Babylonians, power, he was seized with an earnest desire and then returned to Persia. Hence he was
xi. l. sent to assist his uncle, Cyaxeres II. against I and 2). Any general influence from simithe Babylonians; received from him the su- larity of religion as between Cyrus and the preme command over all the Median forces; Jews, we have no grounds for supposing. defeated Cræsus, king of Lydia; and soon The aversion of the Persians to the worship
overcoming Nabonned (Belshazzar), of images found a corresponding feeling in king of Babylon, by the conquest of his the Jews, and may have had some weight capital, put an end to the Chaldæan domi. with the king (Ezra i. 2, 3). But, if there nion (538 or 539, A.C.). Cyaxeres gave him is any reason to suspect Josephus of being his daughter in marriage, and with her the riage, and with her the
by his patriotism led to throw some warmth succession to his throne. On the death of of colouring over his picture of Cyrus's Cambyse3, Cyrus assumed the Persian scep. motives, there were political considerations tre, and, on the retirement of Cyaxeres, that which would weigh with so prudent a no. also of the Medo-Babylonian empire (536 narch, who, on his proud and lofty seat, or 535, A.C.). He reigned in possession of contemplated nothing less than a universal this vast power till 529–30, A.C. when he empire. For Egypt could not fail to disturb died of the decay incident to old age, after decay incident to old age, after
his pleasing dreams, and he would easily having, in anticipation of his death, of whi
of his death, of which see how important it was to have a strong he had received a divine premonition, offered friendly power in Palestine, by whose menns customary sacrifices, and delivered a long the land of the Nile might quietly be kept adinonitory address to his sons.
in check.. The force of this consideration As the Scriptural narrative falls in best will be estimated, when the reader knows, with the account of Xenophon, we shall sup. that only eleven years elapsed before the ply from it what information is necessary, Persians achieved the conquest of Egypt, before we proceed to exhibit the discrepan and the neighbouring countries (525, A.C.). cies to which we have referred.
It is by no means unreasonable to suppose, With the statement made above, that Cy- that distinguished Jews may have had some rus overthrew the empire of Babylon, the influence on the mind of Cyrus even indiScriptnre accounts are in full accordance; rectly, especially when we call to mind thie and that important event they not only men part which Daniel had taken, if not in pretion, but predict. Our space compels us to paring the way for, certainly in foretelling, be content with giving references (Isa. xli. the overthrow of the Chaldæan dynasty 2, 3, 25, 26 ; xliv. 28, where Cyrus is named; (Dan. iv. v. vi. vii.). Not impossibly, Cyrus xlv. I, where Cyrus is termed the Messiah of was somewhat afraid of having in his emJehovah; xlvi. 11; xlvii. 1, seq.; xlviii. 14, seg.: pire so large a body of (comparatively) eu. see BELSHAZZAR and BABYLON). Scarcely tivated men, of distinguished ability and had the conqueror ascended the throne, when great force of character, detained there as he issued a decree, giving the captive Jews captives, and longing for the hills of Judes, permission to return to their loved native and the solemnities of the temple. He may land, and to rebuild their venerated temple bave seen, what their whole history shows, (530, A.C. Ezra i. l; v. 13; vi. 3. Dan. that the Jews were very inpatient both of 1. 21). This royal indulgence Josephus boudage and of exile, and little disposed to
eave untried an opportunity of reguiving came to a decisive engagement, in which, their liberty, should one be presented by having reigued twenty-nine years, Cyrus fell the absence of the monarch on any enter with the greater part of his troops. His prise of ambition. Whatever the motives vanquisher put his head into a basin filled by which Cyrus was actuated, a monarch with blood, in order that it might quench its such as he was obviously the person likely thirst. to take the decided step of sending back the The divergence between this account and captive Israelites.
that of Xenophon is very apparent. Indeed, Not without due reflection did Ilerodotus there is only such a degree of resemblance
elf to his narrative respecting between the two, as to let the reader see that Cyrus. Of four ways of relating his history, it is the same person of whom the two bis. which prevailed in the time of the historian, torians speak. he chose that one which rested on Persian T he diversity is not diminished, if we bring authority, and seemed to him least charged Ctesias forward. Agreeing with Herodotus, with impressions derived from the magnify- that Cyrus dethroned Astyages, he declares iug power of veneration. The history thus that Cyrus had been previously connected carefully chosen is briefly as follows:- The with Astyages in such a manner, that he bad, Median king Astyages, under the effect of a as a conqueror, married Amytis his danghdream which made him fear that a grandson ter, on which Astyages gained dominion over would rob him of his throne, was induced to the Barcoi, and lived on good terms with hig marry his daughter Mandane to Cambyses, son-in-law; but at a later period, being be* Persian of the lower ranks. When Man- trayed by a eunuch, who, at the command of dane had borne a son, Astyages commanded Cyrus, accompanied Astyages, the latter, when his trusty servant Harpagos to put the child on a journey to visit the former, was allowed to death. An accident rescued the boy from to perish in the desert, of hunger and thirst. this peril. He was, under the name of Agra. Nor does Ctesias agree with Herodotus or datos, brought up by a shepherd, but in his Xenophon as to the death of Cyrus. Ctesias tenth year recognised as a grandson of the makes Cyrus lead an army against Amoræos, king. Astyages, moved by the magi, sent king of the Derbikoi, a Scythian tribe. Inthe boy back to his parents, and punished dians, who were the auxiliaries of the DerbiHarpagos for not having executed his fell koi, employing their elephants, put the design. Harpagos, meditating revenge, allied Persian cavalry to flight; in which route himself with the chief of the Medes, who Cyrus stumbled, and received from an Indian were discontented with the government of soldier a fatal wound. While yet living, he Astyages, and induced Cyrus, then grown to was brought into the camp, where he acknowmau's estate, to avail himself of the prevalent ledged as his successor his eldest son Camdisaffection, and to enter Media, in order to byses, and assigned to his youngest son, take possession of the entire kingdom. Tanyoxartes, á province free of tribute. He Cyrus brought the Persians into the plan. died on the third day after he had been The consequence was, that Astyages lost the wounded, in the thirteenth year of his reign. throne (559, A.C.), after he had reigned To refuse credence to the entire history of thirty-five years. The monarch was kept in Cyrus,- to deny his conquest of Babylon,- to a sort of honourable bondage till he died. throw doubts on his existence,- to account for Cyrus changed but little in the constitution the divergent narratives by alleging fraud or of the Medes, and his Persians soon adopted fiction, - would be accounted harsh, unjustithe customs of their captives. He extended fiable, if not unjust; betraying a sweeping the limits of his empire, especially by the spirit of condemnation, which, in the end, conquest of Cresus. Since he could not would leave ancient history a blank. But hold possession of Asia Minor so long as the what shall be said of the same process when Babylonian power lasted, and as its monarch applied to the gospel ? - especially since Nabonnedus was an ally of Cræsus, he led in this case the variations are inconsiderable, an army against Babylon. He conquered and have no other appearance than such as the Babylonians in the open field, but had must always arise when well-ivformed aud great difficulty in overcoming the city, of credible historians write independently of which he made himself master only by turn- each other. ing the course of the Euphrates, and entering Cyrus has been recognised in the ram that with his troops by means of the emptied 'stood before the river, which had two horns, channel of the river. Recognising the exist. and the two horns were high; but one was ence of a variety of narratives respecting the higher than the other, and the higher came end of Cyrus, Herodotus gives that which he up last,' — seen by Daniel, -pushing westbelieved most entitled to credit, -- namely, ward, and northward, and southward, so that that the monarch lost his life in battle with no beasts might stand before him, neither the Massagetai, a warlike nation of Scythia. conld deliver out of his hand; but he did After Cyrus had obtained a victory by craft, according to his will, and became great' the queen Tomyris, collecting all her force, (Dan. viii. 3, 4).
DABAREH (H.), a Levitical city at the he preached the gospel to the Dalmatins foot of Tabor, on whose ruins now stands with acceptance and success. the village Dabury (Josh. xxi. 28). At this DAMARIS, a woman of Athens, who was place, the events recorded in Matt. xvii. converted by the preaching of Paul (Acts 14-21, are believed to have taken place. xvii. 31). Some have conjectured, that DaThe Christians built here a commemora- maris should be written Damalis, which is a tive church on the site of the house into common female name among the Greeks. which Jesus was held to have retired after As no descriptive epithets are employed to the performance of the miracle. Of this distinguish her, she may have been a person church there are still some remains. They of note. However, she owes her chief disalso show, in the vicinity of Tabor, and tinction to her being mentioned by the aposof the village of Dabury, a fountain, named tle. Thus even a slight connection with
the well of the nine apostles ;' who are said truly great men confers earthly immortality, to have there awaited the descent of their but eternal life can be gained only by intiMaster from the Mount of Transfiguration. mate alliance with Christ. At an early period there was, on the same DAMASCUS lies in a plain in the northspot, a chapel, which was dedicated to the east of Syria, being froin six to eight days' nine apostles,
journey from Jerusalem, and is one of the DAGON (H. from dag, a fish), - the na oldest cities in the world; in whose territory, tional divinity of the Philistines of Ashdod if we may believe tradition, dwelt Adam, after and Gaza (Judg. xvi. 23. 1 Sam. v. 1, seq.), he had been banished from Paradise. About which appears to have had the head and half a day's journey from Damascus, near hands of a man (1 Sam. v. 4), but from the Abila, is a lofty hill with a flat top, covered navel downwards the parts of a fish; though with beautiful trees, and having a cavern. authorities here somewhat differ, and Philo Here Cain and Abel are said to have offered makes Dagon to be exclusively a male of the their sacrifices. Damascus called in Hehuman form. Dagon, as the male, was con brew Dammesek, in Arabic Dimaschk, in nected with Derceto or Atergatis, the female Syriac Darmsuk, and by the modern Arabs fish-god of the Philistines; and, hereby, with Es Scham — is, as the last name indicates, Astarte, whose worship was practised by the the capital of Syria. According to JoPhilistines (1 Sam. xxxi. 10). The position sephus, the place was founded by Uz, & of the Philistines on the coast, and the food grandson of Shem. The city certainly which they drew from the sea, were the existed in the days of Abraham ; for it is causes which led them, in common with mentioned as the native place of Eliezer, other maritime peoples, to pay religious the patriarch's steward ; and, from the style honours to the fish. In Judg. xvi. 25, seg. of the narrative, the writer evidently held it mention is made of a temple of Dagon which to be an ancient place (Gen. xiv. xv.2). Til Samson destroyed. The building appears the time of David, Damascus appears to have to have resembled a modern Turkish kiosk, been an independent state. In the reign of which consists of capacious halls, the roof that monarch, the Syrians of Damascus har. of which is in the fore part supported by ing sent succour to Hadadezer, king of Zo pillars. On the roof of such buildings intem- bah, against whom David was making war, perate pleasures were customarily enjoyed. suffered a severe defeat, and became subject The temple of Dagon in Ashdod was burnt to Israel (2 Sam. viii. 3—8). The subjection. by Jonathan (1 Macc. x. 84. Joseph. 'Antiq. however, did not long endure; for, near the vii. 4. 5).
end of Solomon's reign, Rezon, a subject of DALMANUTHA (C. bad abode), a town Hadadezer, avenged his sovereign against or village beyond Jordan, in the eastern part the Hebrews, by making himself master of the of the tribe Manasseh, and on the south- city (1 Kings xi. 23-25); when Damascus east of the Sea of Galilee. The place was became the seat of a new and energetic utterly destroyed by the Romans (Mark government, which occasioned trouble and viii. 10).
danger to the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. DALMATIA - into which Titus (2 Tim. Jeroboam II. of Israel overcame Damascus iv. 10) is reported to have gone shortly be (2 Kings xiv. 28), which was accounted & fore Paul's demise — was a province of the Hebrew tributary; but, after his death, the Roman Illyricum, lying on the Adriatic Sea, city recovered its independence, and Rezin between the rivers Titius and Drinus, south became its sovereign. He united with Pekah, of Liburnia, having the cities Salona, Epi- king of Israel, against Judah, whose ruler daurus, Lissns, and others. The incident Ahaz sought aid of Tiglath-Pileser, king of recorded of Titus gives reason to think, that Assyria, who subdued and sacked Damascu
(Isa. viii.). From this time, Damascus, un- however, are again found lords of Damas able to support itself, shared the fate of the cns; and, under their emperor Diocletian, it kingdoms on whom. it was successively de- rose to eminence and splendour, which it has pendent. After the fall of the Assyrian em- never wholly lost; for that monarch saw in pire, it fell into the hands of the Babylonians. Damascus a city by which effectual opposi. Thence it passed to make a part of the Per- tion could be given to the growing power of sian empire, under whose sway it had a the Saracens, and therefore not only careperiod of great prosperity. After the death fully fortified it, but placed there abundant of Alexander the Great, who subdued the magazines, and set up within its walls & Persian monarchy, Damascus formed a part manufactory of arms; so tbat, from so early of the Syrian empire, under the Seleucidæ. a period as this, may probably be traced the Under these kings, Damascus lost a portion still surviving fame of the Damascus blades. of its greatness, by being neglected of its The emperor Julian gave this city a prefermasters, who founded new cities in the nor- ence over all others, in consequence of its thern part of their kingdom, since the Egyp- magnitude and beauty, as well as the splentians were taking pains to bring Syria under dour of its temples, and other public buildtheir power. In the contest of the Macca- ings. On the same account, the caliphs in bees against the Syrian monarchs, Damascus the seventh century made it for some time the was probably conquered by Jonathan (1 Macc. metropolis of their power. In the year 1517, xii. 32). About the year 64, A.C. the Ro- it was conquered by the sultan Selim ; since inans brought Damascus under their power. which, it has remained under the dominion At a later time, king Aretas, of Arabia, ap- of the l'urks, who have a pacha in the place. pears to have been master of Damascus; for It is at the present day in great prosperity, he had there a representative, who, in order owing mainly to the fact, that the chief route to gratify the Jews, endeavoured to seize the runs through it, pursued by caravans on apostle Paul (2 Cor. xi. 32). The Romans, their way to Mecca.
DAM A8C U . The city has a delightful position; for it abundance of water renders the soil very spreads itself out over a broad and beautiful productive, luxuriant, and beautiful; so that, plain, which, opening towards the south and among other laudatory terms, the Moslems the east, is, on the north and west, enclosed call Damascus one of the four eastern paraand sheltered by hills, that slope down to dises. Its chief distinction, however, con. wards it from the lofty Lebanon. The plain sists in being accounted by them a holy is plenteously watered by the Barada, of old city, since in it Mohammed was to make his the Chrysorrhoas (the Abana of 2 Kings y, descent from the ninth heaven, into which 12), which, dividing and subdividing into he was raised from Jerusalem, in order to numerous streams, is carried beyond its receive the Koran. Damascus, too, they natural flow, by artificial canals. This believe to be the place where the general