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to the custom of Orientals to burn on their Kupros, the land of the cypress, which the right hand memorials of various sorts with Romans modernised into Cyprus. The henna, which gives an unfading colour; Phænicians were the earliest inhabitants of and this they do to the present day. They the island, which, from its woods of the cyare further accustomed to write on pieces of press, they termed the Cypress-island, - & cloth, which they wear as ornaments on name which was preserved in the usages of their forehead, all kinds of proverbs, and Western nations, after it had passed out of not seldom magical words, which were held existence in the East. to be preservatives against evil.' Among The command to Noah entirely corre. other authorities, we cite the words of sponds with what was in a very early period Maundrell: -- The pilgrims had their arms customary among Phænician navigators, marked with the usual ensigns of Jerusalem. who built vessels of gopher-wood, which The artists who undertake the operation do grew abundantly just above their coasts, in it in this manner:- They have stamps in the rich forests of Lebanon. A thousand wood of any figure that you desire, which years later, Alexander had his ships built of they first priut off upon your arm with pow. the cypress, and caused at least the more der of charcoal; then, taking two very fine important parts to be brought to Thapsacus, needles tied close together, and dipping after having been made in Cyprus and Phe them often like a pen in certain ink, com- nicia. Before Alexander, the Phænicians pounded, as I was informed, of gunpowder were the shipbuilders for the Persians, under and ox-gall, they make with them small Xerxes, in his expedition against Greece; punctures all along the lines of the figure and under Cambyses, in bis invasion of which they have printed ; and then, washing Egypt; as well as of Pharaoh Necho, in his the part in wine, conclude the work. These circumnavigation of Africa; and, still ear. punctures they make with great quickness lier, of Solomon, for his voyage to Ophir. and dexterity, and with scarce any smart, The qualities of the cypress caused it to seldom piercing so deep as to draw blood' be employed in shipbuilding. It was ac("Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem,' 100). counted very durable, and proof against the

Bruce mentions a ceremony, called “in- rot in water, and other causes of decay. cision,' observed by the Abyssinian Jewish Hence Thucydides states, that the bodies of women :-'As soon as a near relation dies, persons who had fallen in defence of their a brother or parent, cousin or lover, every country were borne to their long home in woman in that relation, with the uails of coffins of cypress (ii. 34). Hence, too, it her little fingers, which she leaves long on was, as we learn from various authorities, purpose, cuts the skin of both her temples, that the folding-doors of ancient temples, about the size of a sixpence; and therefore for instance, that of Diana at Ephesus, - and you see either a wound or a scar in every other sacred objects, were made of cypressfair face in Abyssinia.

wood, particularly as it resisted the attack CYMBALS. — See Music.

of worms. To Jupiter also was given a CYPRESS stands for three Hebrew words, cypress sceptre, in order to indicate that his Gopher (see CAMPHIRE), Beroth (Cant. i. dominion was indestructible. The poet 17), Tirzah (Isa. xliv. 14). Out of the first Martial describes the cypress as deathless was the ark constructed by the direction of (Epig. 73) in these words:the Divine Being. The command - Make

Perpetua, nunquam moritura cupresso.' thee an ark of gopher-wood' (Gen. vi. 14)

- gives a peculiar interest to the question, Indeed, from its qualities the cypress acwhat that wood was; and, since the subject quired throughout the East a sacred characbas been treated by the justly celebrated ter. We need refer only to the opinion Karl Ritter ('Erdkunde,' xi. Theile, p. 567, respecting it held in Persia. In the Zendseq.), it may be considered as finally decided Avesta it is accounted divine, - sacred to in favour of the cypress. The word, indeed, the pure light of Ormuzd, whose word was occurs but once in the Bible, in the pas- first carved on this noble tree. The writings sage to which we have just referred; but, as of the Parsi tell of a cypress-tree, planted in the learned Bochart has observed, gopher Kischmer by Zerduscht (Zoroaster) bimself, and cypress (in the original Greek, ku par) which grew to wondrous dimensions. In are clearly the same. The original Shemitic girth it was so large, that a hunter's line name of the tree, Gopher, passed with such could not enclose it. Its top was adorned slight variations as diversity of nation, lo. by branches so wide, that Zerduscht built cality, and culture, occasioned, through the beneath its compass a summer-house, forty Phænicians to the Western world; - for yards high and forty yards broad. When the ships of those traders were for the most this edifice was finished, the great teacher part built of gopher-wood; and the island caused proclamation to be made, -'Where, at a later period, called by the Hebrews and in the whole world, is there a cypress like Phænicians Kiltim, became known to the that of Kischmer? God sent it out of PaGreeks through the cypress-trees which radise, and said, “Bend thy top towards formed its wealth, and hence was named Paradise, and, listening all to my counsel, make a pilgrimage to the foot of the cypress often rises to large dimensions and singular of Kischmer, following the guidance of Zer beauty, the reverence with which it was reduscht, and turn your backs on the idols garded rests originally on the very ancient of Tschin."! The same tree is celebrated in superstition of the people, which — assigning the songs of Firdusi, as having had its origin to all natural objects, air and water, plants in Paradise. Sacred trees, sprung from Para- and trees, personal attributes, either mascudise, which call to mind the tree of life, and line or feminine, accordingly as their natu the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, ral character was of a fierce or a mild nature in the Garden of Eden (Gen. ii. 9), were ad- - regarded trees of unusual qualities as the dressed in prayer by the ancient Parsi, though abodes of holy and pious and even celestial they eschewed the worship of idols, and spirits. Virgil has preserved a relic of this honoured the sun and moon only as sym. ancient respect for the cypress: —And near bols. Ormuzd himself is set forth giving (was) an ancient cypress, preserved during this command: -'Go, O Zoroaster! to the many years by the religious feelings of the living trees, and let thy mouth speak before ancients' ('Æn.' ii. 714). Numerous are them these words: -“I pray to the pure the testimonies, both from ancient and motrees, the creatures of Ormuzd.”

dern writers, which speak of the distinguished beauty of the Persian cypress. Della Valla describes, with great minuteness, cypress trees of size so large, that five men could not encompass the trunk of one of them. Nearly two hundred years, from his time to that of Sir W. Ouseley, bad caused no great change in these trees, which the natives asserted to be a thousand years old.

In Palestine, the name gopher, which had been spread over the world, became obsolete, being found only in the passage regarding the construction of the ark. Another name came into use, that is Beroth, which also was rendered 'cypress' by the Greek and Syrian translators, though in the English version it is represented by the word 'fir' (Cant. i. 17):— The beams of our house are cedar; our walls,

cypress.' In Ecclesiasticus (xxiv. 17), Wisdom sayg of itself:

I bave grown up as a cedar on Lebanon,

And as a cypress on Mount Hermon.' In the description of the high priest Simon, son of Onias, that distinguished man is compared to a cypress-tree, rising to a great height, around whom his ministering breth

ren are grouped as cedars on Lebanon (Eccle. CYPRESS.

'siasticus 1. 11, seq.; comp. Ezek. xxxi. 8). There is, therefore, no reason to be surprised whence we may learn the lofty splendour to that the cypress, a tree of Paradise, rising in which the cypress attained in Palestine, where a pyramidal form like flame, should be planted it grew wild in ancient times (Ps. civ. 17. at the gates of the most sacred fire-temples, Isa. xiv. 8). As in other temples, so in Soloapd, bearing the law inscribed by Zoroaster, mon's, doors and other parts were made of should be the companion of every sanctuary cypress (1 Kings vi, 15, 34). Ezekiel shows and of every royal abode of the servants of that the Tyrians employed this wood in Ormuzd. This is the reason why sculptured building shops and houses (Xxvii. 5). Tbe images of the cypress are so much found on hewing down of the finest cypress-trees and the temples and palaces of Persepolis; for the cedars on Lebanon is made use of by Isaiah, Persian kings were servants of Ormuzd. as a figure to denote the extirpation of idolaSacred cypresses, like the oak of the Druids trous worship (Isa. xxxvii. 24). The Beroth and of Dodona, were found also on the very (or Berosh) appears to have comprised tbree ancient temple of Armavir, the old abode of kinds of cypress, — Cupressus sempervirens, the Arsacidæ, in Atropatene (Aderbidjan), the Thuja, and the Juniperus Sabina. Bethe home of Zoroaster and his light-worship. roth was also the name of the Phænician The cypress, indeed, diffused abroad over Venus, the goddess of Lebanon; the cypress, Persia, was transmitted as a sacred tree down or Cyprian divinity. It also gave its name from the ancient magi to the Mussulmans of to the city Beiroot, celebrated for cypress modern days. In Persia, where the tree groves, as lying at the side of Lebanon.

[graphic]

Isaiah cypress.

The third word Tirzeh (Isa. xliv. 11), Amathus, Arsinoe. It is mentioned in from a root signifying hard, properly denotes profane literature as early as Homer. It the ilex (Quercus ilex), though rendered in was sacred to the licentious worship of

Venus. It seems to have received its popuOn ascending Mount Sinai, Olin, while lation from the neighbouring shores of in the midst of bare, rugged, and sublime Syria, being colonised by the Phænicians, scenery, came to an unexpected scene of who are said to have introduced here their loveliness. There is a deep valley, bounded national gods, the two Cabiri, Tholad and on the right and left by tall, bare cliffs. A Tholatha, the male and female impersonamagnificent and graceful cypress, which rises tions of the principle of generation. The near its centre, invites the weary pilgrim to island fell successively under the power of repose in its shade, and a well of excellent the Egyptians, Persians, and Greeks. Under water offers him its welcome refreshment' Augustus, it was a Roman province, having (i. 387).

been made a part of the empire by the elder In order to prevent any false impression, Cato. we remark, that in the article CAMPHIRE, In the times of the Roman republic, Cythe kopher shrub is spoken of under the prus was a prætorian, not consular province; name cypress, merely out of deference to being as such governed, not by proconsuls, ancient usage. As there stated, the kopher but proprætors. Augustus, however, when is benna, or the Lawsonia inermis.

he had obtained supreme power, divided the CYPRUS (H. Gopher), a large island, pro- provinces into imperial, over which propræbably so called from abounding in cypress- tors were placed, and senatorial, that is, under trees, in the Mediterranean Sea, lying some the control of the senate, whose rulers bore the miles from the land, off the coast of Syria, name of anthupatoi, or vice-consuls. Now opposite the mouth of the Orontes. It was Cyprus was made by Augustus a senatorial exceedingly fruitful, abounding in corn, oil, province, as we learn from Dio Cassius. and wine; figs, honey, &c. It gave name to Hence, under the early emperors, the proper copper, hence called as Cyprium, Cyprian designation of its governor was proconsul, brass. Also many kinds of precious stones or anthu patos. By this very name is its were found in the island. Abounding in governor, Sergius Paulus, described in Acts trees and harbours, it was famous for ship. xiii. 7; and coins of the time to which the building, and naval pursuits. Its position event there spoken of refers, bear the same was very favourable for commerce. Its appellation. We subjoin a cut of such a chief towns were Salamis, Paphos, Citium, coin from Morell.

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The coin presents the head of Claudius character of their religious observances, Cæsar; and on the obverse it has the words, caused the prevalence of self-indulgence, "Under CominiUS — PROCONSUL OF Cyprus.

luxury, and licentiousness, so that the Cy

prians were proverbially given to vice. A This is a very striking confirmation. Had large portion of its inhabitants were, in the the events spoken of by Luke taken place a times of the New Testament, Jews, who had few years previously, in the earlier part of the either come hither under those general inreign of Augustus, the right term, according fluences which caused the dispersion of their to well-known Roman usage, would have countrymen, or fled from the tyranny of the been Proprætor, and not Proconsul. The Syrian kings in the Maccabæan wars, when exact agreement with fact shows, that in the the island belonged to the Ptolemies. Book of Acts we have to do with realities. In consequence of the richness of its soil, It would be a curious speculation to inquire the beauty of its climate, and its advantageous what chance Luke had of being right, had be position, Cyprus was spoken of in terins of been personally unacquainted with the events high praise. By Horace it is, for instance, he narrates, and compiled or invented them termed Beatum Cuprum. Blest Cyprus.' at some later period.

But far rather would it have deserved the The fruitfulness of the island, and the appellation, had its inhabitants received wealth of its inhabitants, nor less the oose the gospel into glad hearts, and brongbt

forth corresponding fruits. How much under Cyrene,' – that is, which, lying near, wretcheduess, brought on them by bad pas- own Cyrene as their mistress. Any way the sions and wicked rulers in aftertimes, would correspondence is well worthy of notice; and they have been spared, and how much bap. as the writer was not aware of its existence, piness, no less perpetual than pure and till he had his materials for this article before lofty, would they have secured! Comp. Luke him, he may add, that one does not fall on viii. 21.

minute and latent, yet marked and important CYRENE, a great and important city in coincidences of this kind in fabricated writLybia, west of Egypt, between Marmorica ings. Luke's exact agreement with fact and and the Syrtes, which lay along the coast of history bere may, with other instances of a the Mediterranean. It was the capital or similar kind, give us an assurance that he is chief state in a confederacy of five cities, right in others in which his accuracy has hence called Pentapolis Cyrenaica. The been doubted or denied. country was distinguished for extraordinary We have seen, that the Jews constituted a fertility; the harvest lasted eight months; large part of the population of Cyrenaica; since first the fruits of the plains on the and, in Acts vi. 9, we find them so numecoast, then those of the hill country, and rous in Jerusalem, that they had there a last those of still higher places, were gathered synagogue of their own, rendered necessary in succession. In 631, A.C. Battos led hither probably by such a diversity in tongue as a Grecian colony. In the fifth century, A.C. would arise in the case of Jews, whose home Cyrene received a republican constitution, was on the borders of the Lybian desert. which issued in despotism and anarchy, The existence of so many Jews in these rethough, meanwhile, it gave occasion to great mote parts, and their connection with their commercial prosperity. With Alexander the mother country, show how widely dissemi. Great, the Cyrenians formed an alliance. nated had been the seeds of a purer religion Cyrene then fell into the hands of the Ptole at the coming of Christ, and how effectually mies, from whom it passed to the Romans; Judaism worked in maintaining a spiritual who, declaring the Pentapolis free, contented unity which prepared the way for the more themselves with a sort of nominal sove. extended and liberal unity of the Christian reignty, till internal strifes induced them to church. make Cyrenaica into a Roman province, which Simon, whom the Roman officers comwas united with Crete, under the government pelled to bear the Saviour's cross, was a man of a proprætor, and at a later period a pro- of Cyrene (Matt. xxvii. 32). consul. Under Ptolemy Lagi, many Jews While the Cyrenian Jews in Jerusalem settled in the country, who became, in con- were actively at work to counteract the gossequence of favourable treatment, so nume- pel (Acts vi. 9), Christianity was making rous, that they are said to have formed a rapid progress in Cyrene itself, which has fourth part of the population. Under the the honour of giving to the world some of the emperor Trajan, the Cyrenian Jews formed first preachers of the gospel (Acts xi. 20; a conspiracy, in which they are recorded to xiii. 1). have slain two hundred and twenty thousand CYRENIUS (L.), whose name in full of the native and Roman population, and runs Publius Sulpicius Quirinus, was a Rowere subdued only after a firm resistance. man senator, who, having reached the high The inroads thus made on the population diguity of consul, came not before A.U.758, laid the country open to the destructive in. A.D. 5, into Syria as its president, and, after cursions of nomad and barbarous hordes the banishment (A.D. 6) of Archelaus (see from the interior of Africa; and the Saracens the article), carried into effect a census of the completed the devastation in the seventh Jewish people. The words of Josephus century. At present many superb ruins would seem to imply, that he was sent exmark the spot where Cyrene stood.

pressly with a view to take the census; for, The notices and allusions in the New within a few words, he twice mentions that Testament harmonise with the substance he was sent to take an account (valuation) of these statements. As, at the feast of of their substance' (Joseph. 'Antiq. xviii. Pentecost, there were present Jews ont of 1.1). From the same authority, we learn that every nation under heaven, so also from the though the Jews had with indignation redistant Cyrene. The terms employed are ceived the news of the intended taxing, yet strikingly appropriate, showing in the writer in general they submitted without open rea very accurate knowledge of geography, — sistance, and gave an account of their • in the parts of Lybia about Cyrene' (Acts estates ;' but Judas the Gaulonite raised an ii. 10). The reader is aware, that Cyrene insurrection, by asserting that subjection to was the chief of five confederated states. In the census, and the payment of the taxes deed, these words may be considered a peri. which would ensue, was a forfeiture of the phrase for the classical term Cyrenaica. national freedom ("Antiq.' xx. 5. 2. Jew. Perhaps the words admit of a rendering which War,' ii. 8. 1). would make the description still more re. This census, or "taxing,' thus held by markable, — The parts of Lybia which are Cyrenius, is mentioned by Luke (Acts v. 37)

in these words: -Rose up Judas of Gali- good rendering of the noun rendered (2.) lee (or the Gaulonite) in the days of the "taxing ;' but sometimes (Acts v. 37) the taxing, and drew away much people after same noun (apogruphé) may comprise the him.' We here find the two historians in whole proceeding of the census; though complete agreement. This census Luke men- for a census comprising the levying of 8 tas, tions as the taxing. He also dates by it, another word, apotimesis, is the appropriate _' in the days of the taxing. The event term. Luke, then, declares that, Augustus was then well knowu by himself and others, having ordered an enrolment, Joseph and when the historian wrote. It must also have Mary went to be enrolled; but the enrolbeen the only census that had taken place ment actually took place in the days of Cyfor at least many years; otherwise there renius, president of Syria. would have been no propriety in the words The second verse (Luke ii.) would convey -- in the days of the taxing. Yet has it to the English reader the meaning we have been supposed, that this same writer, Luke, given, if his mind had been left unpreoccamakes mention of another taxing; and that, pied:— The enrolment was first made too, as having taken place under Cyrenius, when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.' Nor, at the time of the birth of Jesus Christ (Luke if enrolment' is substituted for taxing, ii. I, seq.). Surely the comparison of the do we think the translation can be much two passages is sufficient to confute a sup- improved. In the original, however, 'first position of the kind, which sets the sacred is not an adverb, but an adjective. Hence penman in direct opposition to himself. If critics have taken it to qualify 'taxing,' and we may take Luke for the expositor of his render the words thus, this first taxing,' own language, there was but one census, so implying that there was a second census.

the taxing,' which took place, as appears But the Greek does not convey this meaning. from Josephus, after the banishment of In order to convey it, a different arrangement Arcbelaas. The passage in the Acts ex- of the words of the original is indispensable. plains that in the Gospel, and shows that "First,' in the Greek, stauds before the verb the only taxing mentioned took place some was made;' and the verb it was intended to years after the birth of our Lord.

qualify, not the noun. If this were the place Is this view, however, compatible with the for a critical disquisition, we could show by words employed in the Gospel? We believe many instances, that in Greek an adjective, it is. We understand the Gospel to state, and especially the adjective first, frequently, that, a decree having been issued by Augus- but in well-defined cases, performs a part tus, emperor of Rome, commanding a gene for which, in ordinary English usage, an adral census, this census was actually ordered verb is employed. In truth, adjectives and in Juden, so that Joseph and Mary proceeded adverbs are so nearly related to each other, to Bethlehem in obedience to the decree, frequently both in form and signification, which, however, was not carried into effect that languages abound in instances in which till the days of Cyrenius. Thus the issuing exactly the same word is now an adverb, and of the decree, and the holding of the census, now an adjective: - thus, he ran well," I were two distinct acts, which took place years am well;' strike high,' 'a high stroke;' apart. The requirement of the census oc- 'when he went to London, he first came here,' casioned the visit of Joseph and Mary to the first visit.' Bethlehem; and for this reason is it men. Other allegations adverse to the credibility tioned, not as affording any fixed date. In of the narrative in Luke emanate from asorder to prevent the idea that the census was sumption or insufficient knowledge. Thus then held, Luke throws in a remark by the it has been said, that, as the Roman census way, to the effect, that it first took place when did not require persons to go to their native Cyrenius was governor of Syria. Luke has, city to be enrolled, and as Joseph and Mary indeed, been supposed to assert, that the went to theirs, the writer is convicted of an census was made wben Joseph and Mary inaccuracy. But in the text nothing is said repaired to Jerusalem. He makes no state of 'native city.' It was to the city of David' ment of the kind, confining himself to the Joseph and Jesus went, because he was of assertion, that they went to be taxed. Nay, the house and lineage of David;' the reguwe understand him to declare the reverse; lation obviously being one of tribe, not posfor he says that the taxing was carried into session or property. It could, therefore, eflect by Cyrenius, when he was president of take place only in a country where there Syria. The taxing, or census, consisted of at prevailed the division into (twelve) tribes. least two distinct acts:-1. The enrolment: Consequently, the census, though Roman in the names, residence, and amount of pro- its origin, was Jewish in its form and manperty were entered in a register, which was ner. And what else could it be? In Italy done sometimes with, sometimes without, & the Roman method would prevail, for the reference to -II. the imposition of a species very reason that it would not be observed in of property tax. The term apographesthai, Judea, — namely, that the social frame-work employed (1.) by Luke, properly siguifies was there Roman. The emperor's officers to be enrolled ; aud enrolment would be a would of course make use of already existing

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