breaking the legs; and it is probable that an established fact, that they may occur in the thrusting of the spear into the side of a perfectly healthy structure, about the time Christ was done with something of the same of death, or subsequently, and so have bec object, or, at any rate, to make sure that there named cadaveric or pseudo-morbid : at the was no life in him. There is nothing in the same time, they never thus occur, except mere breaking of the legs that would cause in connection with death, so that their existdeath in a healthy subject; but, in one al- ence unequivocally proves that this has ready near the point of death from cruci- taken place. The fluid thus poured out fixion, this act would doubtless soon exhaust necessarily gravitates to the lower part of the ebbing life of the victim, by the excru- the cavity containing it; and whether we ciating pain which it would create ; for the consider the water' named by the evangelegs in such cases could not be broken, with list to have flowed from the pericardium or out the infliction of great violence.

pleuritic sac, the thrust of the spear must The piercing of the side of Jesus is a very have been below the fifth or sixth rib, - a important part in the history of the cruci- situation very generally assigned to it in fixion, inasmuch as the circumstances attend the various ancient and modern paintings ing it preclude the possibility of his having of the crucifixion. been removed from the cross before death, To the medical reader, the mention of the and, therefore, of his having been resusci- blood and water' by the evangelist is most tated, - & natural mode of explaining the satisfactory evidence of the truth of the his. resurrection, which has been broached. It tory; for a fact is thus recorded, which, is somewhat curious that modern patholo. though perfectly natural when viewed by the gists should have observed facts which go light of modern science, is not only not to prove, that the flowing out of blood and necessary to the coherence and consistency water from the side was a natural occurrence of the account, but, till latterly, would have under the circumstances, and that it could a decided tendency to cast suspicion upon have taken place only in the case of a sub it, owing to its being inexplicable by, nay, ject already some time dead.

rather inconsistent with, former medical exWith regard to the blood, it was in all pro perience. By this we mean, that, as serous bability poured out by the veins of the skin, effusion into the chest was looked upon by or by the vein running along the under edge the older physicians as unequivocally indiof one of the ribs, called by anatomists the cative of a serious malady existing there intercostal vein, which would be very likely before death, the account of the blood and to be wounded in a thrust made obliquely water by John, if true, would involve the upwards and inwards towards the centre existence of such an amount of disease durof the body, in which direction the spear ing the last days of our Saviour's life, as must pass, if aimed at the side from below. would have utterly incapacitated him for It is no objection to John's account of the taking the part in the events that occurred, occurrence, that the blood, being coagulated which he is represented to have done. in the dead body, would not be capable of In conclusion, we may be allowed to reflowing from an injured vessel, since it is mark upon another circumstance which well known to pathologists, that the blood affords important internal evidence of the is by no means unfrequently in a fluid state truth of the Scripture narrative. John is in the veins after death. The water named the only evangelist who mentions the blood in the history came either from the bag and water flowing from the side of Jesus; which contains the heart, called by anato- and it is to be remembered, that of the evan. mists the pericardium, or from that cavity gelists he only was present at the crucifixion. in the chest formed by the reflection of the Now the fact of the blood and water is just covering of the lung, and lying between such a circumstance as, from not being the lung and the inside of the ribs, called necessary to the general truth of the story

ory, the cavity of the pleura. Modern patholo. might easily be omitted from Gospels progists have shown, and we ourselves have ceeding from persons who did not behold frequently had the opportunity of verifying the crucifixion ; while it is just the kind of the statement, that it often happens during event that an eye-witness like John, who the agon f death.

this event has seems to have hung about the cross of his ocenrred, that the thinner parts of the blood Master with touching fidelity, would note at. exude through the sides of the small blood- the time, and commit to writing afterwards, vessels ramifying on the membranes consti. This difference between the synoptical and tuting shut sacs, as the lining membrane of John's Gospels is so accordant with our the pericardiuin or pleuritic cavity. These general experience of the manner in which

dations, commonly called . serous efful historical narratives of the same event come sions,' have very much the appearance of to differ, as to afford the most satisfactory water, being in most cases pale and perfectly kind of testimony to those who understand transparent. They were formerly sapposed the general nature of historical evidence. never to ocenr, except as the product of CRUSE, connected with cruet, from the disease existing during life; but it is now German Krug, French cruche, cerotes a pit

gher or jug. It is an old word, and some xiv. 12). Instead of cuckoo, sea-gull has times spelt cruise or crewse. Cowper has been given by many authorities. There are these lines, in wbich cruise is equivalent to other conjectures which are not worth eng. bottle:

merating. The simple truth is, that nothing *His hours of study closed at last,

is known on the subject. And finished his concise repast;

CUCUMBERS, - a well-known plant, Stoppled his cruise, replaced his book

anciently produced on a large scale in Egypt, Within its customary nook.'

the soil and climate of which, wherever Cruse is the rendering of three Hebrew water was at hand, were peculiarly favourable words of dissimilar import: -I. Bakbooh, to their growth. The Hebrew word comes which appears to have been a bottle of from a root, Kisha (the Arabic Githa), which earthenware' (1 Kings xiv. 3. Jer. xix. 1, 10). means to be hard, hence hard of digestion, II. Tzlohgheeth, which may signify a dish,' according to Fuerst, who, in justification, rather than a 'cruse' or bottle' (2 Kings quotes Pliny's description of cucumbers, ii. 20). III. Tzaphgath, which denotes a which may be worth the attention of those 'bottle' or 'jug' (1 Sam. xxvi. 11, 12, 16. who are given to indulge their appetites with 1 Kings xvii. 12, 14, 16; xix. 6). — See this gourd :—When swallowed, they live in BOTTLE and PITCHER.

the stomach to the next day, and cannot be CRYSTAL (G.) is generally understood reduced into food. Cucumbers were among to mean, now as of old, a transparent variety the Egyptian attractions, the loss of which the of quartz, having the appearance of glass, carnal Israelites regretted in the wilderness and termed by mineralogists rock-crystal. (Numb. xi. 5). Cucumbers are reckoned Pliny makes crystal to be produced by the a great delicacy in the East. Hence they congelation of water, and hence to be found were carefully cultivated in gardens in the only in cold climates. The name (in Greek, neighbourhood of water. And, in order to ice), as well as the notion just mentioned, preserve the enclosure from devastation, it originated in the ice-like appearance of crys was (and still is) customary to set a person tal. This affords one among many proofs to to watch on a small covered platform. This show how superficial were the notions of the custom throws light on the meaning of the ancients on scientific subjeets. False no- language in Isaiah (i. 8), who compares the tions tend to falsify facts and history. So daughter of Zion' to a lodge in a garden in this case. Crystal is not specially the of cucumbers.' product of cold, still less of frozen regions. CUMBRANCE, now written encumbrance, The best crystal comes from India. In which, probably from the Latin cumulus, a Cyprus it is ploughed up. It is found in load or burden, signifies that wbich is burthe Alps, and on the Arabian side of the densome (Deut. i. 12).) The Hebrew ori. Red Sea.

ginal, Tohzagh, is translated also by trouble' Crystal was highly valued of old. Pliny (Isa. i. 14). speaks of a Roman lady wbo gave above CUMMIN is a word which is immediately twelve thousand pounds for a single crystal derived from the Hebrew, existing also in basin.

the Arabic, Syriac, and Greek. This feet The Hebrews also used the same word shows that the plant which it represents was (Keragh) to signify ice' (Job vi. 16; widely cultivated in ancient times, as at the xxxvii. 10: comp. xxxviii. 29. Jer. xxxvi. 30); present day it is grown from the south of and "crystal' (Ezek. i. 22). Another word England, to the distant shores of India. of similar meaning (Gebeesh, rendered in our Cummin is an umbelliferous annual plant, version "pearls') is employed to denote which grows wild in Egypt, and produces

crystal' in Job xxviii. 18. In Ethiopic, seeds, or rather fruit, containing an oil of an crystal is termed hail-stone. The passages aromatic flavour, and stimulating and ear. referred to will show how high was the price minative properties (Isa. xxviii. 25, 27). In at which crystal was valued, being compared Matt. xxiii. 23, it is placed by our Lord with the most precious stones. Barnes, in among the things for which the Pbarisess his notes on the book of Job (xxviii. 17), were ready to pay tithe, while they "omiled well remarks, - It cannot be supposed that the weightier duties of the law, - judgment, the relative value of gems was then under- mercy, and faith.' The great Teacher here, stood as it is now.'

with a characteristic propriety, spoke of what CUBIT. See WEIGHTS and MEASURES. was customary; for we know from the Red

CUCKOO is the English rendering of a bins, that cummin, as well as other vegeHebrew word (Shahghaph), the root-meaning tables of small value, were subject to tithe. of which seems to indicate consumption' or Cummin seeds are now used in Egypt as wasting' (Lev. xxvi. 16. Deut. xxviii. 22); a seasoning in bread. but what such an idea can have to do with CUPBEARER is the translation, in I the cuckoo we know not, nor how the cuckoo Kings x. 5. Neh. i. 11, of a word, Shakth could appropriately be classed with the owl, which, in its origin, signifies to drink, a the night-hawk, and the vulture, in the cata. give to drink (Gen. xxiv. 43, 46); bence, gory of unclean birds (Lev. xi. 13. Deut. to water cattle (Gen. xxix. 3, 10); And so, es

a noun, denotes the office of one who pre- correct popular delusions, so far at least sides over the royal beverage; and hence a as to declare that the curse causeless shall .butler' (Gen. xl. 1), or cupbearer.

not come' (Prov. xxvi. 2). CURSE is the opposite of blessing (see CUSH, the eldest son of Ham, and father the article); for as the latter stands in wish- of seven Hamitic tribes. The word is also ing well to another, so the former consists used as descriptive of a race of men, having in uttering against him wishes of ill. Meto- Cush as their progenitor. In what locality nymically, 'curse' means ill itself, either as that race was fixed, has been & subject of the consequence of a wish, or in a general much variety of opinion. The difficulty acceptation. In the Old Scriptures, where appears to have arisen from considering it * curse' and 'cursing' appear so often, they necessary to admit only one spot as the relate to merely temporal ill, of which death residence of the Cushites. Hence Scripture is the extreme (Gen. ii. 17; iii. 14--19. has been strained in order that the several Deut. xxviii.); while after death there is no passages might wear a certain uniformity, difference between the good and bad (Job for which there is no good independent evi. iii. 17. Isa. xiv. 9). In the New Testament, dence. By referring to the article Division

curse,' and words of similar import, are and to the map, the reader will learn the found, which, in the spirit of its religion, general view which we entertain on the sub. comprise more or less the future state of ject. That view supposes, that Cush had being; but, according to the same spirit, must three chief settlements : - I. Persia; JI. be taken in a qualified sense ; for Jesus en- Arabia; III. Africa. Cush, like other Hajoined on his disciples to bless and curse mites, took the outer parts, to the right and not (Matt. v. 44. Luke vi. 28): he came to to the left (of a person looking to the south) relieve man from cursing, the curse of the of the dominions of Shem (the country from law' (Gal. iii. 10, 13), and all the conse- the Caucasus to the Indian Ocean), and so quences of evil, as well as to reveal the went into Persia on the eastern side, into Creator of the world, and the Governor and Africa on the west, and thence passed over Judge of mankind, as their Father. These the Arabian Gulf into Ethiopia. This view are general principles, which lie at the very brings the Scriptural accounts into accordcentre of the Christian system, and must be ance, without force or difficulty. allowed to give a hue and an interpretation The direct evidence which shows that to words and phrases, which, being bor- Cush took possession of Persia is found rowed from temporary and merely rudimen- chiefly in the name Susa (Susiana), which tal religion, can but relatively and imperfectly Görres considers the same as Cush. From express the great truths of the gospel. The this spot the Cushites intruded into the appropriate and most valued ideas and feel. province of Shem; and, when under Nimings of the Christian are those which are rod, & son of Cush, they had expelled As. indicated by the words, 'faith, hope, cha shur, founded Babel, as well as Erech, rity;' and the beatitudes pronounced by the Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar great Prince of peace all bear in favour of (Gen. x. 7). Here Raamah, another son of love, gentleness, good-will, forbearance, and Cush, as well as Raamah's sons, Sheba and forgiveness (Matt. v. Rom. xii. 14. 1 Cor. Dedau, appear to have borne sway. The iv. 12). So that there can be no question, other sons of Cush — namely, Seba, Havithat it is a paramount duty with the Chris. lah, Sabtah, and Sabtechah - passed into tian to abstain from cursing altogether, and the south of Arabia, and thence crossed over in consequence, to abstain from employing into Africa, where, settling along the coast any language having such a character; as, of the Arabian Gulf (perhaps also on the for instance, the terms in which the psalm. opposite coast of Arabia), they formed a ist sometimes speaks of his enemies (Ps. great division of the black population of xxviii. 4; Xxxv. 4, seg.), conveying ideas and Africa. wishes that must be considered as disowned There is evidence to show, that Cushites and abolished by the truth as it is in Jesus' settled in Arabia. We must premise, that (Eph. iv. 21. Numb. xxiii. 8).

the original word Cush is rendered in the A curse, even when uttered by an avowed English version · Ethiopia' or 'Ethiopians,' enemy, was among the ancient Hebrews in passages where ` Arabia' and 'Arabians' held to be of efficacy in producing the wished. would have been correct. Thus, in the book for mischief (Gen. xxvii. 12, 13. 1 Kings of Numbers (xii. 1), we read that Miriam ji. 8); - & notion which seems to have had and Aaron spake against Moses because of its origin in a conviction of the intrinsic the Ethiopian (H. Cushite) whom he had power of evil to bring about its appropriate married. But, from Exodus (ii. 15—21), effects. Probably the state of high excite- we learn that the wife of Moses was a Miment in which a person was when denoun- dianitish woman, or a descendant of Abracing a curse, had a sort of fascination, which, ham by Keturah; and it is equally certain, unbracing the powers of the party cursed, that Median or Madian was a city and coun. conduced to its own fulfilment. In process try in the north-west of Arabia, on the shore of time, however, higher wisdom came to of the Red Sea.

Dr. Wells (approved by Forster) adduces xxxvii. 9; xviii. 1). In this period, Winer other proofs with more or less effect; for places the conquest of Thebes (Nah. iii. 8). instance, from the march of Tirhakah, king Then a large portion of the Egyptian warof Cush, against Sennacherib, king of As- rior-caste migrated into Ethiopia, and erected syria, then engaged in the siege of Libnah, a state of their own, which was afterwards a city of Palestine (2 Kings xix. 9); and the dominant one. These statements are to from the expedition of Zerah the Cushite, be understood of the cultivated part of Ethio. against Asa, king of Judah; both which pia. Many other tribes of the widely expassages, he thinks, show Arabia, not Ethio- tended country remained at large, wandering, pia, to be designed by the name Cush; warlike, owning no government, and consince the kings and armies of the African nected with their neighbours only by occaEthiopia could reach Judea, only after a sional commercial transactions. When Egypt long, hazardous, and probably hostile march had fallen into the hands of Cambyses, that through the interposing kingdom of Egypt; conqueror made his way into Ethiopia amid - an expedition feasible to great conquerors the greatest privations and difficulties, which only: whereas the kings and warlike tribes Darwin has described: of Arabia lay immediately on its borders, Slow as they pass'd, the indignant temples frown'd, or possessed ready access to Palestine. - Low curses muttering from the vaulted ground; Forster (* Geog, of Arabia,' i. 10) endea. Long aisles of cypress wared their deepen'd glooms,

And quivering spectres grinn'd amid the tombs; vours, but without success, to carry this

Prophetic whispers breathed from Sphinx's tongue, argument still further, referring to 2 Chron. And Memnon's lyr xiv. 14, 15. Winer, a far more trustworthy

Burst from each pyramid expiring groans,

And darker shadows stretch'd their lengthen'd authority, says that Cush denotes the south

cones; west of Arabia, but refers only to Gen. x. 7. Dar after day their deathful route ther steer.Niebuhr, however, found in Yemen Beni Lust in the van, and rapine in the rear.' Cushi, descendants of Cush. Ackermann The Persian dominion was not of long (Bibel-Atlas,' 8) - referring to Hab. ii. 7 duration. The Ptolemies, down to Ptolemy and Herod. vii. 00 – is of opiuion that the Euergetes, appear to have gained no political Cushites passed from Arabia into Africa, influence in Ethiopia; but that monarch and settled in Ethiopia or the Modern made himself master of Upper Ethiopia, Abyssinia. What Ritter has shown is wor about 223, A.C. Near the time of our Lord, thy of notice; namely, that, on both sides we find the Ethiopians under their own of the Arabian Gulf, there are many nanes monarchs; and an independent Ethiopian of tribes in which is found the syllable sab, queen is mentioned in Acts viii. 27. which enters into the names of four sons of These African Cushites were black (Jer. Cush (Gen. x. 7).

xiii. 23), of large stature, long-lived, aud The more usual meaning assigned to great prowess. Individuals of the nation Cush, however, is Ethiopia, or the country were found in foreign oriental courts, as of Africa above Syene (Ezek. xxix. 10), eunuchs (Jer. xxxvii. 7). including the islands belonging thereto, in CUTHA, a district of Asia, out of which the Arabian Gulf (Job xxviii. 19), and, be. Shalmaneser transported persons, in order sides Ethiopia proper, also the modern Nu to colonise the kingdom of Israel, which he bia and Cordofan (Zeph. ii. 12. Amos ix. 7: had destroyed (2 Kings xvii. 21-30). By see Rosenmüller). During the period of the the intermixture of these foreigners with the later Jewish kings, the Cushites appear in native population arose at a later period connection with the Egyptians and Lybians the Samaritans, who are in the Talmud (Nah, iii. 9. Ps. lxviii. 31. Isa. xi. 11; xx. denominated Cuthaites. Josephus says, 4; xliii. 3 ; xlv. 14. Ezek. xxix. 10; xxx. 4, that those who in Hebrew (Chaldee) Rrë seg. ; xxxviii. 5. 2 Chron. xii. 3). This called Cuthaites are in Greek called Samaalliance depended on the political relations ritans (" Antiq.' ix. 14. 3). Josephius fixes which subsisted between Egypt and Ethio. Cutha in Persia, where, he says, 'is a river pia. Winer finds one cause of it in Ethiopia of the same name.' The Cuthaites have having (as he holds been the source of the been conjecturally identified with the Cos. population and culture of Egypt. The two saei, whom Arrian and Diodorus Siculus peoples were certainly similar in customs place in Susiana. The appellation Cathaites and manners. Ethiopia, or a part of it, wasor Cutheans became a term of reproacb. also politically dependent on Egypt; and Josephus asserts, that they were in number under Shishak (2 Chron. xii. 2), a contem- five tribes; that they brought their own gods porary of Jeroboam, and probably the Se

bly the Se into Samaria; that they wer

into Samaria: that they were punished of socclis of the twenty-second dynasty, Egypt the Almighty by a plague for their idolatry. (Upper Egypt) was subject to Egyptian and, finding no cure for their miseries, sent. princes; and from forty to forty-four years, under the advice of the oracle, to the king till the time of Psammeticus, an Ethiopic of Assyria, requesting him to let them have dynasty of three kings — namely, Sabaco, some of the priests of the Israelites, whom Sevechus (So), and Tarakos (Tirhaka) — he had taken captive; that the request was ruled in Upper Egypt (2 Kings xix. 9. Isa. complied with, and suitable worship estiu

u8 pra pently from 19us pe

blished when the plague ceased; and that, ever have found encouragement in the
when they saw the Jews in prosperity, they Christian church.
claimed kindred with them, as if descended But the practice we speak of had not only
from a common ancestor, Joseph; but, when a general, but a specific reference. The
they saw the Jews in adversity, they dis- cuttings were ' for the dead;' and, as such,
owned them, asserting their own origin to they were marks of grief. Here they assume
be foreign.

a less offensive character, forming a part of CUTTINGS IN THE FLESH were ex. that circle of usages which originated in the pressly forbidden by the Mosaic law, among desire, on the part of survivors, not only to other practices, such as using enchantment, give utterance to their regrets, but to manimaking the forehead bald, printing marks fest their regards to the departed. When on the person, which appear to have been suffering deeply under a bereavement, we in use among idolaters, as signs of contri. are not only physically unfit for pleasure, tion and grief, and tokens of devotement to but feel all grateful emotions to be a kind their imaginary deities (Lev. xix. 26–28; of injury done to the memory of the dead. xxi. 5. Deut. xiv. 1). In confirmation of It seems to us wrong to be even capable of this view, we find the sole Godhead of Jeho- any enjoyment, after the loss we have undervah emphatically declared in connection gone; and so long as the image of our with the prohibitions. We also find it pro- deceased child or partner remains prominent claimed, that Israel is a holy people to Je- before our minds' eye, and the memory of hovah (Lev. xxi. 6); and this proclamation him is fresh and vivid, we think it right to may serve to show what is meant by Israel indulge grief; we feel justified, if not rebeing God's chosen and peculiar people. quired, to welcome privations; and so are The Hebrews were taken from the midst of easily led to find merit in self-inflicted sufan idolatrous world, to be educated in the ferings. Such feelings, natural as they may grand doctrine of the Divine Unity. As be, are not Christian; and, if justifiable at thus chosen for God's own gracious pur all, would go far to authorise the entire poses, they were redeemed from all idola system of self-mortification which Moses trous service, consequently bound to abstain has so properly condemned, and which can from idolatrous practices, and to keep their prevail only in religions which stand far homage exclusively for Him to whom they below the gospel. These cuttings, however, emphatically belonged.

thus originated and sanctioned. passed into These cuttings of the flesh were literal a general observance. The practice is so incisions made on the person, as an indica spoken of by Jeremiah (xvi. 6; xli.5), whose tion of grief, and a means of conciliating the language may warrant the conclusion, that favour of idol divinities. They thus forma the prohibition of Moses had not found unipart of that system of self-mortification versal observance among his professed adbewhich is found in all ages, in all quarters rents. The custom still exists in countries of the world, as a part — often a very pro bordering on Palestine. Schubert thus speaks minent part — of systems of low and un of it as exhibited in caravans setting off worthy ideas of God. Thus the votaries of from Cairo to Mecca: -' Then came the Baal, the impious rival of Jehovah in Syria, herd of fanatical and wrapt dervishes, riding - when, in conflict with Ehjah, they could on wretched camels, and proceeding with not make their deaf, sleeping, or absent god wild contortions of their limbs. Some had hear their prayer, -'cut themselves, after pieces of iron and knives struck through their manner, with knives and lancets, till their arms and cheeks: others were encirthe blood gushed out upon them' (1 Kings cled by serpents' (ii. 214). xvii. 28). The general idea which lies at Intimately connected with these lacerathe bottom of these practices of self-morti- tions stands tatooing (Lev. xix. 28), — Nor fication is, that the gods are unfavourably print any marks upon you,' – which also is disposed to man, consequently jealous of a religious custom, designed to signify that his happiness, and therefore alien from him the person belonged to the master or idol. unless when enduring voluntary pain. This god, whose name or insignia he thus bore. most false and injurious idea is found in the This has been a very general observance. classic nations, as well as among barbarous It exists, indeed, wherever false religious and semi-barbarous peoples. But in true views prevail. Most extensively practised religion it can have no place; for here the among the South Sea islanders, it is nearly fundamental conception is, that God is universal with the Bedouins. In Catholic love' (1 John iv. 8); and creation, with countries, images of the Virgin are tatooed providence and grace, only an expression of on the limbs; pilgrims to the Holy Land his goodness. Hence Moses forbade these have commemorated their zeal by imprint. cuttings in the flesh. And much to be ing some suitable token on their persons; regretted is it, that any views or practices and few English sailors are wholly free from borrowed from a sphere of thought so dis- similar specimens of picture-writing. Mitant from the great ideas of his religion, chaelis, accordingly, says of the passage and that of the Lord Jesus Christ, should under consideration :- 'The reference in

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