senate entreating him to resume it. The title Augustus was conferred on him by the senate as an honourable designation, and has special allusion to the sacred character of the emperor in his capacity of the national chief priest. Liberality towards the army, moderation towards the senate, skill and mildness in the management of the people, patronage of the arts, and respectable powers of mind, secured Augustus in possession of the government for a period of forty-four years, and enabled him to found the greatest military dominion that was ever known. He died in tbe seventy-sixth year of his age, 767 after the foundation of Rome, and (according to the vulgar era) fourteen years after the birth of Christ, at Nola, in Campania.

Herod, who had taken sides with Antony, was, of course, implicated in the defeat which the latter underwent at Actium: he was, however, received by Augustus into favour, who gave him the title of King of the Jews,' and enlarged his dominions. He also raised Herod's brother to the dignity of tetrarch. As an expression of his gratitude, Herod built, in honour of Augustus, a marble tem.

ple not far from the fountains of the Jordan, and showed, throughout his life, the greatest deference to the imperial will. After Herod's death, Augustus divided his dominions, agreeably to the testament of the deceased monarchi, among his sons, but saw himself compelled to banish one of them, namely. Archelaus, when he attached that prince's territory of Judea and Samaria to the prevince of Syria. The liberal acts of Augusts towards Herod and the Jews arose from no feeling of respect for that people, but from considerations of policy, and a certain kind of favourable regard towards Herod personally.

AVOUCH (L. to claim), an old form of our usual word avow, to own, or take to one'sself, in which sense the term is used in Deut. xxvi. 17, 18, “Thou hast avouched the Lord this day to be thy God;' and the Lord hath avouched thee this day to be his peculiar people. The Hebrew word is the same as that which is rendered 'say.' — Shakespere thus uses the word :

If the duke avouch the justice of your dealing.'



BAA BAAL (H. Lord) was the most popular, venly bodies there appear, and the dimim. if not the supreme, male-divinity of the Ca- tive proportions into which man is thereby naanitish nations, as well as of the Cartha reduced. Baal was the protecting divinity ginians and the Babylonians. The name of the Tyrians, who denominated him Mel. Baal, intended to denote the lord or master carth, city-king. Images of Baal are found of the world, was applied to the sun as the on coins, on which he is commonly seen great celestial influence; ana, considered beardless, his head encircled with a chaplet as the male deity, Baal represented the of ivy, clad with a lion's hide, and bearing fructifying power of nature, in contradistinc- a club; or he grasps a serpent, whence it tion from the passive and bearing power may be that the Greeks termed him Herwhich was recognised in the moon under cules. Of the two cuts here given, the the appellation of Astarte. The service of smaller deserves special notice. It is taken Baal was therefore a corrupted form of from a coin found in the Tyrian island nature-worship, or the worship of natural Cosyra. Its style shows its antiquity, while objects, to which the East so readily, so the influence of Grecian art is visible in the widely, and so thoroughly yielded, in con- impression from the larger coin. sequence of the splendour in which the hea

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The Phænicians extended the worship of peor,

- a divinity which was honoured by the Baal co-extensively with their colonisation, sacrifice to him of the chastity of young and erected in many places large and splen- maidens (Numb. xxv. 1–5; xxxi. 16. Josh. did temples in his honour.

xxii. 17). Besides Baal-peor of the Moabites, By those among the Israelites who were other modifications of this idolatry are found, given to idolatry, offerings were made to as Baal-berith, covenant Baal, as the Greeks Baal on the roofs of houses (Jer. xxxii. 29), had a Zeus, who presided over oaths, and and on high places (Jer. xix. 5), probably the Romans a Deus, who punished infractions because his worship was illegal so as to of fidelity : the Shechemites worshipped render privacy desirable. But the powerful Baal-berith in a temple set apart for his eould disregard the law: accordingly, Ahab, honour (Judg. viii. 33; ix. 4, 46). From king of Israel, influenced by his Sidonian Jer. xii. 10, it appears that it was usual to wife, openly served Baal, and, having built swear by Baal, whence may have arisen the in his honour a temple in Samaria, raised epithet of berith, equivalent to covenantin it an altar, and made a grove; doing preserving. Another form was that of Bual• more to provoke the Lord God of Israel to zebub (2 Kings i. 2, 3, 16), a Philistine god anger than all the kings of Israel that were at Ekron, of whom Ahaziah sent to inquire before him’ (1 Kings xvi. 31, seq.). The whetber he should recover from his illness. ten tribes, after their separation, were more The name signifies fly-god. The insect inclined to idolatry (1 Kings xii. 28) than world affords in Palestine, as in all countries, Judah; but the latter also gave public homage several species, which are exceedingly an. to the idol, for Manasseh ‘reared up altars for noying and injurious to mqı; whence Baal Baal, and made a grove, and worshipped all received an addition to his pame, to denote the host of heaven, and served them; and his protecting power against gnats, locusts, he made his son pass through the fire, and &c. Pausanias relates that the Greeks at obserred times (practised astrology; comp. Elis offered annual sacrifices to Zeus, the Lev. xix. 26), and useil enchantments, and fly-repeller. dealt with familiar spirits and wizards : he As it was customary with the Hebrews to wrought much wickedness in the sight of form names in part out of some elements of the Lord, to provoke him to anger' (2 Kings the name for God, - thus, Isaiah, Elijah, xxi. 3, 6). This idolatry was found in the Elishah ; and with the Greeks in the same times of the Judges (ii. 11, 13), where we find way, —- thus, Theophilus, Timothy; and as groves connected with the worship of Baal this custom still prevails among the Ger(Judg. iit. 7; vi. 25). His priests were mans, — thus, Gottlieb, Gottfried (in English very numerous : in the days of Elijah they Godfrey, hence Jeffery), so the worshippers amounted to four hundred and fifty (1 Kings of Baal made that word to enter into comxviii. 22). Indeed, they appear to have bination with others to form proper names: consisted of a graduated hierarchy, desig- accordingly, we have Ethbaal, a king of the nated, in 2 Kings x. 19, 'prophets, servants, Sidonians (1 Kings xvi. 31); Baalath, a and priests.' We have already seen that citv in Dan (Josh. xix. 44); and Hannibal children were offered in sacrifice to Banl: and Hasdrubal. the testimony of Jeremiah (xix. 5) puts this BAAL-GAD (H. Lord of good fortune). otherwise almost incredible atrocity beyond There are several places in Scripture which a doubt: — They have built also the high bear a name compounded with the word places of Baal to burn their sons with fire Barl, of comparatively little importance; but for burnt-offerings unto Baal.' Incense was the city which was probably known by the burnt to him (Jer. vii. 9). In order to pro name that stands at the head of this article, cure his favour on special occasions, the was too distinguished to be passed in silence. priests danced madly round the altar; and, if Its more frequent appellation is Baalbec, the desired sign was withheld, they cried city of the sun; in Greek, Heliopolis, which cloud, and cut themselves till the blood lay in Cæle-Syria, on the north-eastern boungashed out. The whole chapter whence we dary of Palestine, at the foot of Mount derive these facts (1 Kings xviij.) is very Hermon, and formed the northern linnit of impressive, and deserves attentive pernsal. the conquests of Joshua (Josh. xi. 17). It Strange that the Hebrews shonld have been stands in the northern extremity of the so suttishly corrupt, as to have preferred lovely plain of Bekan. In the second book of Baal and his prophets to Jehovah and Eli Chronicles (viii. 6), Solomon is said to have jah, and thus liave rendered the trial there built among other cities, Baalath, in Lebanon. warrated necessary. Yet eren Solomon, in The similarity of the name suggests that his old age, burnt incense and offered sacri this is the same with Baalbec, especially as fices to Phænician idols, seduced by his Baalath is mentioned by Josephus as one of foreign wives (1 Kings xi. 3, 8). Idolatry the places of pleasure erected by that mowas not only disloyalty to God. it was also parch in Syria, on account of the temperate connected with vicious, degrading, and vo nature of the climate, the delicacy of the luptuous practices. Priapism is met with in fruits, and the excellence of the air and one form of Baal-worship, namely, Baal. water. A more appropriate spot coulil 100

well be selected than this warm and rich vale in excellence of head or heart. In the ruins sheltered by mountains. Judging by the are found chambers, which seem to have grandeur of the ruins, the place must have been designed for some mysterious, perhaps been very large and very beautiful. Splendid some guilty purpose, and call to mind the relics of the famous temple of Baal still re- voluptuous sensualities that were connected main to make the surrounding scenery with the worship of Baal. Among the nu. monrnful in the thought of the transient merous remains of art, we select for engray. nature of human greatness, when not placed ing -


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BABEL (H. confusion), a name which Shinar or Babylon, the descendants of Noah carries the mind back into the deep shadows built a tower, whose summit they intended of primitive antiquity, when the earth was should rise so high as to be lost from view hardly yet dry from the waters of the deluge; in the clouds. The Bible informs us, that and it is a fact which adds no small confir- instead of stone, which is not found there in mation to the Biblical narratives regarding situ, they made use of burnt brick, cemented the infancy of the world, that the accounts together by bitumen, of which the country supplied by these narratives are not only yields large supplies; and Herodotus, in probable in their general substance, but ac- speaking of the edifices of Babylon, states cord with such fragments of information as that the same materials were employed. may be gathered, whetier from ruined cities. The reasons may have been various which or the more destroyed pages of history. induced the builders to undertake such a "Those,' says Eupolemus, in a passage prework. Sacred and profane history unite in served by Eusebius, 'who escaped from the de- assigning pride as chief among these reasons. luge, constructed the city of Babylon, and that A less improper reason is intimated in the tower, celebrated by all historians, which Bible (Gen. xi. 4), in a natural desire ou the was overturned by the power of the Divinity.' part of these early dwellers on earth to pos. The student of Scripture needs not to be in- sess a building so large and high, as might formed, that these words correspond in sense be a mark and rallying-point in the vast with the account that is preserved in the plains where they lived, in order to prevent cook of Genesis (xi.) In the rich plains of their being scattered abroad; for otherwise the ties of kindrel would be rudely sundered, that the latter may have been & sumptuous individuals would be involved in peril, and re-construction of the earlier and more simtheir numbers be prematurely thinned, at a ple edifice, the tower of Babel, we shall give time when population was weak and insuf- a separate description of the temple of Belus ficient. The idea of preventing this dispersion in the ensuing article. The Birs Nimrod is by building a lofty tower, is applicable, in all that is left of an ancient palace, in which the most remarkable manner, to the wide and the Babylonian monarchs were accustomed level plains of Babylonia, where scarcely one to reside. These relics present at the preobject exists different from another, to guide sent day a monument, of an irregular oblong the traveller in his journeying; and which, in form, 2082 feet in circumference, unequal in those early days, as at present, were a sea in height, being on the west from fifty to sixty of land, the compass being then unknown. feet, and as much as two hundred on the eastern

It was not, however, a part of God's plan side. This immense terrace is surmounted by that society should yet be aggregated toge- remnants of a wall built of burnt brick, thirtra ther in large masses, still less fix itself five feet high, and divided into three stages. and spread out its branches on one sole spot Its construction and its materials indicate inof earth. The world had to be peopled; terior apartments. Entire pieces of wall and aud, therefore, these first congregations of heaps of brick, broken from the tower, lie inen must go forth to the east, to the west, seattered over the ground. Travellers have to the north, and to the south, in order that remarked, with lively astonishment and deep the earth might be occupied and tilled. Nor emotion, traces, on masses of brick, of vitrican there be a doubt that such a dispersion faction, as if made by the violent action of was fitted to make the most for man, of the fire or lightning, - evidences of some terrible vet virgin soil, and the golden opportunities overthrow, and, to the believer in the Bible, which offered themselves untouched on indelible tokens of the divine rispleasure. every side. As yet, however, there was but An examination of these remains gives the one language, - a fact which agrees not only idea that the tower was of a pyramidal form, with history, but also with the tendency of the which ran upwards to a great height, and so most recent and best ascertained results of by its form indicates that it was intended philological scholarship. But so long as for the idolatrous worship of the god of fire, men were united by langunge, the aggrega- (pyramid comes from a Greek word meaning tire would be stronger than the dispersive fire), and strongly suggests that its destrucpower. Nothing so unites men as identity tion, on the part of the Almighty, was a of speech: nothing so separates them as its declaration of his displeasure against idoladiversity. Divine Providence, therefore, try, and a terrible lesson in favour of his own brought into operation causes, which occa- pure and ennobling worship. Thus early sioned such a difference in tongues, that after the delnge did men begin to corrupt these primitive men could no longer under themselves with idol vanities, and thus early stand, and, in consequence, could no longer did the Creator strive with them in behalf of communicate with each other. And as it is religious truth and duty. easy to see how diverse external influences BABYLON is a Greek form of Babel, and would, in a few generations, give rise to such denotes the famous city known by the name, different dialectical varieties as would be which stood on the banks of the Euphrates, sufficient to produce the alleged effect in the sometimes, in consequence of its greatness, then uncultivated state of the human mind, denominated a sea (Jer. li. 36, 42). The so these varieties, when they had once come Bible, with a tradition preserved by Euseinto existence, would go on constantly in- bius, relates (Gen. xi.) that the foundations creasing; and as they increased, so would of the place may be traced back to a period they tend to scatter men abroad, dividing a anterior to the dispersion of the human race, race into tribes, and tribes into clans, and after the flood. Those foundations were clans into households; and by a reverse laid by Nimrod, who is described as "the operation, under the aid of the prolific powers mighty hunter before the Lord' (Gen. x. 9), of nature, augmenting households into clans, whose fame in pursuing the hunter's mode and clans into tribes, and tribes into races, of life, which, in the natural order of things, and races into nations, - nations distantly precedes the agricultural, as that prepares seated on the face of the earth, and soon the way for cities, had, in very early times, marked by many signs to the superficial ob. passed into a proverb; and who, laving server of essential and original individuality. probably obtained all the renown which

On the right bank of the river Euphrates his original semi-barbarous pursuits could stand the ruins of an edifice, bearing the bring, determined, in his ambition, to gather naine of Birs Nimmd, which the best anti men into masses, in order to exercise the quarian authority identifies with the tower of power, which is said to be sweeter than any Babel. Opinions, however, are divided as other, namely, that of governing one's fellowto the question, whether this Birs Nimrod is creatures on a large scale. The spot for the the same as the temple of Belus described by city was well chosen. It lay near the regions Herodotus; and though we incline to think where the human race had received its second birth. Two poble rivers offered facilities of such, that it had in the midst of it, not only intercourse, and the only supply which a fine large parks and gardens, but also arable land rich soil needed, in order to pour forth the of such extent as to furnish supplies of food utmost vegetable afluence. The sky was in case of a siege. Such was the magnitude serene and cloudless, the air pure, the posi. of the city, that hours elapsed before its caption of the city lay mid-way between the ture by Cyrus was known to its inhabitants enst and the west, and so united both. Here who dwelt at the extremity opposite to that might the dreams of the wildest ambition where the conqueror entered. hope to be fulfilled. Even Alexander con The myriads of human beings who were templated making Babylon the centre of his gathered together within the walls of this universal monarchy. And the duration of immense place were supplied with the necesthe city, through so many vicissitudes, saries, and no few of the luxuries, of life. and so long a period of time, is of itself party by vessels and rafts that navigated the sufficient proof that Nimrod made a wise Euphrates, but still more by the canals. choice for his great and yet untried experi. which were led from the river like a net-work ment, and serves to justify the Biblical all over the soft and yielding soil, carrying, narratives, in placing the commencement of by a wide-spread system of irrigation, fertiliiv our present civilisation in the land of Shinar, far and wide, and bringing back the rich proand on the banks of the noble and well- ducts of eastern climes to the great living situated streams, the Euphrates and the Ti. centre gris. In all probability, the peculiar facilities In order to aid the scriptural student in afforded by the spot had already attracted to forming a conception of · Babylon the Great' it the earliest fathers of our race, who thcs (Rev. xvii. 5), we shall say a few words of offered to Nimrod a temptation for his ambi- its hanging gardens, and of the temple of tion, and a prepared sphere for his enterprise. Belus, which some make the same as the He seized the opportunity, and became the tower of Babel and the Birs Nimrod. founder of a city and a kingdom, whose fame There were in Babylon two splendid pawill never pass away.

laces, one on the right, one on the left bank We are not, however, to imagine that Nim- of the river. From the latter, which was rod left the city in that grandeur of which surrounded by a triple enclosure of walls, we find it possessed in the pages of the standing far apart from each other, and sculphistorian. For the attainment of this, many tured with various kinds of animals, amoug ages and many minds would be requisite. which there was seen a leopard, against Nor was the progress of the city towards the which Semiramis was hurling a lance, while splendour of its later history, unbroken or her husband pierced a lion, there sprang the unchecked. The times in these early days celebrated hanging gardens, the wonder of were too full of violence and trouble, to allow the world, whose formation is ascribed by in any human work a continuous and steady Berosus to the gallantry of Nebuchadnezzar, development. Darkness, storm, and even who had them constructed in order to graruin, came : now a restorative, now an em- tify his spouse Amytis ; for she missed and bellishing hand was needed; and as the course regretted in the unwooded, flat, and less fertile of events was imperfecuy known even by pro- Babylonia, the noble mountains, the stately fessed historians in ancient times, so was it trees, the productive and lovely vales, to easy for an honest and well informed chro- which she had been used in her native Media. nicler to set down as a new creation, that The splendid monarch, in consequence, which was in reality only a renovation or an caused a quadrangle, whose sides measured improvement. Accordingly, the zeal which 1000 feet, to be enclosed, in which amphi. Ninus, Semiramis, Nebuchadnezzar, and theatrical terraces were thrown up, bearing Netocris employed, one after the other, in on the surface a rich artificial soil, to such enlarging and embellishing this city, has a height that in some parts the gardens caused them each to be sometimes set forth reached to the top of the city walls. These as its founders.

terraces were connected with each other by Babylon was divided into two nearly equal flights of steps, on which pumps were placed parts by the Euphrates, on whose banks it in order to distribute the waters of the lay; a fact which will enable the reader to Euphrates over the verdant and flowery plots understand how easy it was for Cyrus, when in whose deep beds large and lofty trees he had drained off the waters into a reservoir held firm root, and which presented to an excavated for the purpose, to enter the be- ere that looked on the gardens from a disleaguered city of a sudden, in the dead of tance the appearance of mountains covered the night, down the empty bed of the stream. with forests. Of this vast mass of galleries, of the height, the breadth, and the strength terraces, gardens, flowers, shrubs, and trees, of its walls, and of other points of detail there now remains scarcely a distinct trace, connected with the city and its palaces, we amid ruins that, in their confused and giganhave not room to speak. It must suffice to tic masses, indicate the greatness and splensay, that they were all of the grandest dimen- dour of the constructions whence they were sions. The area covered by the city was derived. The place, however, wbere these

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