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What a contrast is now exhibited between ihe two rival nations of France and England, and how many Englishmen blush to look upon it ! [Familiar Letters, page 210.

How different are the spectacles that are now exhibited in France and in England ! Here bigotry has been fostered, and has acquired new strength ; there it is almost extinct.

[Preface to the Appeal-page xxiv, note x.


1. THE KING, Only in Part exculpated from the Guilt of them. OF the two parties in whose names the outrages at Bitmingham were committed, the Church and the King ; the latter has IN A GREAT MEASURE exculpated himself by his proclamation to apprehend and punish the rioters,

[An Appeal to the Public on the Riots in

Birmingham--page 76, paragraph 2, line 1-published in 1792.


Considering the part that many of the lower clergy have acted in this business, the eyes of the country are now upon the Bishops ; and their silence will be construed into approbation.

[Ibid. page 75, line 9.


There are several places in Germany, in which the Catholics and Protestants constantly make use of the same places of public worship. Such an offer on the part of the Clergy and the Bishop of the diocese, would have then done them the greatest credit, and have contributed very much towards exculpating them from having any share in the outrage. But this natural and easy method, which would have cost them nothing, not having been done, they remain without that exculpation.

[Ibid. page 73.




Here, instead of answering our books, the members of the Church of England at Birmingham have burnt them, together with our houses, and places of public worship.

[Ibid. page 80.


FRIENDS OF THE KING. Having always been an avowed advocate of public liberty, and religion, which led me to write in defence of your late glorious revolution, the GREAT BODY OF THE CLERGY in this country, and many of those who call themselves the FRIENDS OF THE King, have long been my enemies ; and in accomplishing my ruin, have not spared the instruments of that science, my application to which gave some degree of weight to my labours in another field.

(Appendix to the Appeal- page 156.

Letter to Condorcet, par. 2, 1. 7. The violences were committed by the lower order of the people; but if the friends of the Church, and of the King, in the higher ranks, had been in earnest to suppress the riots, it might, no doubt, have been effected before any mischief had been done, Appeal--page 71, line 1.

There was, therefore, at least a criminal remissness in the friends of the Church, and of the King. But the clearest facts show that there was more than remissness on the part of many persons of better condition, and nothing that they ever did, showed a real disapprobation of the conduct of the mob, previous to the demolition of my house--but only a wish that they should proceed no further, than that.

[Ibid. page 71, line 19.


BIRMINGHAM, Making every allowance for the perpetrators and alettors of these horrid scenes at the moment, there has been time

for for reflection, and compunction since; and the eyes of the nation, and of all Europe, are open to see what part both the town, and neighbourhood, and, above all, the Government of the country, will take in the case. On the part of the town and neighbourhood, nothing favourable to justice has appeared as yet.

[Ibid. page 71, paragraph 2, line 1, to page 72, line 7. The whole town, and neighbourhood therefore must fall under the suspicion of screening the criminals, and therefore of partaking the guilt.

[Ibid. page 72, 73.

7. PROVIDENCE. Though I had read, and reflected much on the feelings of Christians in a state of persecution, and never doubted, but that in ordinary cases their joys far exceeded their sorrows, I could not know that they did so to the degree in which I can truly, and I hope without much ranity (for in this I mean nothing but the instruction, and encouragement of my readers) say, that I have lately found it. It is only in trying situations that the full force of religious principle is felt, and that its real energy can show itself. And firinly believing, from the doctrine of philosophical necessity, that the hand of God is in all events, and that in all cases men are only his instruments-that under his sure guidance all evil will terminate in good-and that nothing so effectually promotes any good cause as the persecution of its advocates, all that I have suffered, and all that I can suffer, has, in many seasons of the calmest reflection, appeared as nothing, and less than nothing.

I consider this persecution, (for so I shall call it, though my enemies will of course consider it as the punishment of my evil deeds, and much less than I deserve) let it be carried to what extent it will, as a certain prognostic of the prevalence of every great truth for which I have contended; and this prospect, together with the idea of my being an instrument in the hand of PROVIDENCE of promoting the G G4

spread spread of important truth by suffering, as well as by acting, has given me at times such exalted feelings of devotion (mixed, as sentiments of devotion ever will be, with the purest good-will towards all men, my bitterest enemies not excepted) as I had but an imperfect idea of before.

[Ibid. page 111, paragraph 2, line 1. So fully am I persuaded that more good than evil will result from what has happened to me, that were it in my power I would not be restored to my former situation. Had the late events not happened, I should of course have wished, and prayed for continuing as I was; for no man, I believe, ever thought himself more happily situated than I did--but Providence haring now DECLARED ITSELF, I acquiesce, and even REJOICE in the DECISION.

[Ibid. page 113, paragraph 2, line 1,






COMMON SENSE RESOLVES, 1. THAT Subjects have no common rights, because all men are not fit for all things: 1. In their natural capacity. The fool has no right to sit at the council-board ; nor the coward to be the leader of an army. 2. In their moral capa city. The thief has no right to be a steward for the public : the idle man has no right to the wages of the industrious. 3. Least of all in their religious capacity. The Jew has no right to be a Bishop: the Turk has no right to be a Schoolmaster for the teaching of Christian Children. Men have been guilty of more cruelty and injustice and robbery on motives of false religion, than on any others whatsoever. Heathens against ChristiansPapists against Protes


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