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magnanimity, and national spirit, and the causes of this revolution to operate, made suitable attainments in what are and to produce their effects. the ordinary objects of pursuit- As it is impossible to give, in mere wealth and dominion. In the second description, a satisfactory account of a period they continued for some time to subject which is in its nature progresprofit by the attaininents which were five and fluctuating, or to explain pomade in the former, and while they litical establishments without some rewalked in the tract of the common- ference to the occasions from whence wealth, or practised the arts and retain. they arose, I have, upon these accounts, ed the lessons which former ages had endeavoured to give, even to the first taught, stiil kept their possessions. But part of my labours, the form of narraafter the springs of political life, which tion; and, together with the progress were wound up in the republic, had of political institutions in the state, refome time ceased to act; when the state marked its territorial acquisitions and was become the concern of a single per. conquests, in the order in which they fon, and the veftige of former move- were made. In proportion as the prinments were effaced, the national cha- cipal object of the history presents itracter declined, and the power of a self, I Mall wish, as far as my talents great empire became unable to preserve and the materials before me allow, to what a small republic had acquired, fill up the narration, and give to every The example, whether to be thunned scene of the transaction its complete or imitated, is certainly instructive in detail. When this is done, and the either period; but most so in the tran- catastrophe is passed, I shall wish again fition, that was made from one to the to contract my narration; and as I open other; and in the forfeiture of those with a summary account of what prepublic advantages, of which the Roman ceded my period, close with a fimilar people, in some part of their course, view of its sequel.” availed themselves with so much dif- Although in the prosecution of this tinction, and which in the sequel, they plan, the author runs rapidly over the abused with so much disorder at home, early part of the Roman history, yet and oppreftion of their subjects abroad. we think he has combined with his

“ With this object before me, I masterly delineation of the growth of hasten to enter on the scenes in which the Roman constitution all those events it begins to appear; and shall not dweil which are necessary to be known of a upon the history of the first ages of period, which is so fabulous and obRome; nor stop to collect particulars scure, that every attempt to elucidate relating to the origin and progress of the it must terminate in the same uncercommonwealth, longer than is neceffa- tainty with which it began. The dery to aid the reader in recollecting the tail of the transactions of this period in circumstances which formed the con- the Roman annals, is indeed minute juncture in which this interesting change and circumstantial, but is, on that acbegan to take place.

count, as the author justly observes, • For this purpose, indeed, a gene- the more to be suspected of fiction. ral description of the state and its ter- We shall now present our Teaders ritory, such as they were in the begin with some extracts from this history, ning of this transaction, might have in order to justify the character we have been fufficient; but as it is difficult to given of it. — The following is the fix the precise point at which causes account our author gives of the Roman begin to operate, or at which effects manners, in the fixth century of their are complete, I have indulgeď myself ftate: in looking back to the origin of this “ While Evmenes was coming in famous republic, whether real or fabu- person to pay his court to the senate, Ious, and thall leave the reader to de- . they resolved to forbid the concourse termine, at what time he will suppose of kings to Reme. Their meaning, the period of authentic history to be- though expressed in general terms, was gin, or at what time he will suppose evidently levelled at this prince; and

they

they ordered, that when he should ar: accepted of a defiance to fight in fingle rive at Brundufium, their resolution combat, in presence of the armies to Hhould be intimated to him, to prevent which they belonged. Marcus Servi his nearer approach.

lius, a person of confular rank, in or“ They in reality, from this time der to enhance the authority with which forward, though in the style of allies, he spoke when he pleaded for the critreated the Grecian republics as fubjects. umph of Paulus Emilius, informed the

“ Such was the rank which the Ro- people that he himfelf, full three and mans affumed among nations; while twenty times, had fought fingly with their fatefinen still retained much of fo many champions of the enemy, and their primeral rusticity, and did not that in each of these encounters he had conader the distinctions of fortune and hain and ftripped his antagonit. A equipage as the appurtenances of power combat of the fame kind was afterwards or of high command. Cato, though fought by the younger Scipio, when a citizen of the higheft rank, and vested serving in Spain. fucceffively with the dignities of conful “ The fumptuary laws of this age ad of censor, used to partake in the were suited to the idea of citizens who labout of his own Naves, and to feed were determined to contribute their utwith them from the same dish at their most to the grandeur of the fate; bue meals *. When he commanded the ar- to forego the means of luxury or permies of the republic, the daily allow- fonal distinction. Roman ladies were ance of his household was no more than restrained, except in religious procefshree medimoni, or about as many fions, from the use of carriages any bufhels of wheat for his family, and where within the city, or at the di half a medimnus, or half a bushel of stance of less than a mile from its walls; baricy for liis horses. In furveying his and yet the space over which they were province he usually travelled on foot, to preserve their communications exattended by a fingle Nave, who carried tended to a circuit of fourteen miles, his baggaget.

and began to be so much crowded with “ Thefe particulars are mentioned buildings or cottages, that, even before perhaps as peculiar to Cato; but such the reduction of Macedonia, it was be

fingularities in the manners of a person come necessary to retirain private perplaced fo high among the people carry fons from encroaching on the streets, fome general intimation of the fashion squares, and other spaces reserved for of the times.

public conveniency. In a place of this “ A spirit of equality yet reigned magnitude, and to stocked with inhaamong the members of the common- bitants, the female sex was also forbid wealth, which rejected the distinctions the use of variegated or party-coloured of fortune, and checked the admiration clothes, or of more than half an ounce of private wealth. In all military do of gold in the ornament of their per nations the Centurion had no more sons. This law being repealed, conthan double the allowance of a private trary to the sentiments of Cato, this soldier, and no military rank was in- citizen, when he came, in the capacity delible. The conful and commander of censor, to take account of the equiin chief of one year served not only in pages, clothes, and jeweis of the wothe ranks, but even as a tribune or in men, taxed each of them tenfold for ferior officer in the next; and the fame whatever was found in her wardrobe person who had displayed the genius exceeding the value of one thousand and ability of the general, till valued five hundred denarii, or about fifty himself on the courage and address of a pounds sterling I. legionary foldier.

“ The attention of the legislature " No one was raised above the glory was carried into the detail of entertainto be reaped from the exertion of mere ments or fealls. in one act the num. perfonal courage and bodily ftrength. ber of the guests, and in a subsequent Iersons of the higheft condition sent or one the expence of their meals, were

limited, * Plutarch. in Vit. Catonis, p. 330. + Ilid. p. 335 & 338. Liv. lib, xxxiv. 6. 1 6.

limited. By the Lex Tribonia, enact- “ The manners of the people of ed about twenty years after the reduc- Italy were at times fubject to atrange tion of Macedonia, a citizen was al- disorders, or the magistrate gave crelowed, on certain high festivals, to ex- dit to wild and improbable reports. pend three hundred afles, or about twen- The story of the Bacchanals, dared in ty shillings sterling; on other festivals the year of Rome 566, or about twenof less note, one hundred asses, or about ty years before the conquest of Macefix fhillings and eight-pence; but du- donia, may be considered as an initance ring the remainder of the year, no more of one or the other||

. A society, anthan ten afles, or about eight-pence; der the name of Bacchanals, had beer and was not allowed to serve up more instituted, on the suggestion of a Greek than one fowl, and this with a proviso pretender to divination. The desire that it should not be crammed or fatted*. of being admitted into this fociety pre

“ Superftition made a principal ar- vailed throughout Italy, and the fect ticle in the character of the people. It became extremely numerous.

As they fubjected them continually to be occu- commonly met in the' night, they were pied or alarmed with prodigies and said at certain hours to extinguin their omninous appearances, of which they en- lights, and to indulge themselves in deavoured to avert the effects by rites every practice of horror, rape, incest, and expiations, as strange and irrations and murder; crimes under which no al as the presages on which they had sect or fraternity could pofibly fabuit, groended their fears. Great part of but which, in being imputed to numtheir time was accordingly taken up bers in this credulous age, gave occawith proceffions and public shews, and fion to a severe inquisition, and proved much of their substance, even to the fatal to many persons at Rome, and whole annual produce of their herdst, throughout Italy. was occasionally expended in facrifices, The extreme superstition, howor in the performance of public vors. ever, of those times, in some of its The first ofácers of state, in their func- effects, vied with genuine religion; tions of the priesthood, performed the and, by the regard it intpired, more part of the cook and the butcher; and, especially for the obligation of oaths, while the senate was deliberating on becaine a principle of public order and questions of great moment, examined of public duty, and in many instances the entrails of a victim, in order to faperseded the ule of penal or compulkaow what the gods had determined. fory laws. • You muft defitt (faid the ConsulCor- is When the citizen swore that he gelius, entering the fenate with a coun- would obey the call of the magistrate tenance pale and marked with astonish- to enlift in the legions; when the folment) I myself have visited the boil. dier swore that he would not desert his a, and the head of the liver is con- colours, disobey his commander, or fly famed..'

from his enemy; when a citizen, at "According to the opinions enter the call of the cenfor, reported on oath tained in those times, forcery was a the amount of his effects; the state, in principal expedient employed by those all those instances, with perfect confiwho had secret designs on the lite of dence, relied on the good faith of her their neighbour. It was supposed to subjects, and was not deceived. make a part in the statutory crime of " In the period to which these obpoisoning; and the fame imagination servations refer, that is, in the sixth which admitted the charge of sorcery century of the Roman ftate, the first as credible, was, in particular instances, dawning of literature began to appear. when any person was accused, easily It has been mentioned that a custom convinced of his guilt; insomuch, that prevailed among the primitive Romans, some thousands were at times convicted

as among other rude nations, at their together of this imaginary crime g. feasts to ling or rehearse heroic ballads,

'which Plin. lib. 1. c. 59. † The Ver Sacrum was a general sacrifice of all the young of their herds for a whole year. I Liv. lib. xli. c. ij. Liv. lib. xxxix. C. 41. 1 Ibid. c. 8. S lequen.

which recorded their own deeds or those “ Hannibal, after endeavouring in of their ancestors * This practice had vain to bring the Roman dictator to a been some time discontinued, and the battle, perceived his design to protract compositions themselves were loft. They the war; and, considering inačtion as were succeeded by pretended monu- the principal evil he himself had to fear, ments of history equally fallacious, the frequently exposed his detachments, orations, which, having been pronoun- and even his whole army, in dangerous ced at funerals, were, like titles of ho- situations. The advantages he gave by nour, preserved in the archives of every these acts of temerity were sometimes noble house, but which were rather effectually seized by) is wary antagonist, calculated to tiatter the vanity of fami- but more frequently recovered by his own lies, than to record the trutht. singular conduct and unfailing resources.

" The Romans owed the earliest * In this temporary ftagnation of compilations of their history to Greeks; Hannibal's fortune, and in the frequent and in their own first attempts to relate opportunities which the Ronans had, their story employed the language of though in trißing encounters, to meathat peoplet. Neries and Ennius, sure their own strength with that of the who we ie the first that wrote in the enemy, their contidence began to reLatin tongue, composed their relations vive. The public resumed the tranin verse. Livius Andronicus, and af- quility of its councils, and looked terwards Plautus and Terence, tran- round with deliberation to collect its fated the Greek fable, and exhibited in force. The people and the army rethe streets of Rome, not the Roman but covered from their late consternation, Grecian manners. The two last are and took advantage of the breathingfaid to have been persons of mean con- time they had gained, to censure the dition; the one to have sublisted by very conduct to which they owed the turning a baker's mill, the other to

returns of their confidence and the rehave been a captive and a Nave. Both newal of their hopes. They forgot of them had probably poflefled the their former defeats, and began to imaGreek tongue as a vulgar dialect, which gine that the enemy kept his footing was yet spoken in many parts of Italy, in Italy, by the permission, by the timiand from this circumstance became ac- dity, or by the excessive caution of quainted with the elegant compofitions their leader. of Philemon and Menanderý. Their “A slight advantage over Hannibal, coinedies were acted in the streets, who had too much exposed his foraging without any feats or benches for the parties, gained hy the general of the reception of an audience.

But a na- horse in the absence of the Dictator, tion fo little tłudious of ordinary con- confirmed the army and the people in veniencies, and contented to borrow this opinion, and greatly funk the retheir literary models from neighboạrs, putation of Fabius. As he could not to whom, being mere imitators, they be superseded before the usual term of continued for ages inferior, were, how- his othice was expired, the senate and ever, in their political and military people, though precluded by law from character, fuperior to all other nations proceeding to an actual deposition, whatever; and, at this date, had ex- came to a resolution equally violent and tended a dominion, which originally unprecedented, and which they hoped consiited of a poor village on the Tiber, might induce him to resign his power. to more empire and territory than is They raised the general of the horse to now enjoyed by any kingdoin or itate an equal command with the Dictator, of Europe."

and left them to adjust their pretensions 'The fullowing is the account which between them. Such affronts, under he gives of the battle of Cannæ, and the notions of honour which in modern of the circumstances which preceded times are annexed to the military chan and followed that memorable cient: racter, would have made it impossible

for * Cic. de Claris Oratoribus, c. 19. + Thid. p. 394. Dion. Hal. lib. i. p. 5: The people o Cuma, about this time, applica lur leave to have decir pubiic act:, for the time, expreiled in Latin.

for the Dictator to remain in his fta- senate, as well as in that of the peotion. But in a commonwealth, where, ple. * to put any personal confideration in “ In the autumri, before the nomicompetition with the public would nation of these officers to command the have appeared absurd, seeming injuries Roman army, Hannibal had surprised done by the State to the honour of a the fortress of Canna on the Aufidus, citizen only furnished him with a more a place to which the Roman citizens of fplendid occasion to display his virtue. chat quarter had retired with their ef**The Roman Dictator continued to serve. fects, and at which they had collected - under this diminution of his rank and considerable magazines and stores. This,

command, and overlooked with magna- among other circumstances, determined nimity the insults with which the the senate to hazard a battle, and to • people had requited the service he was furnish the new consuls with instrucrendering to his country,

tions to this effect. “Minutius being now associated with “ These officers, it appears, having the Dictator, in order to be free from opened the campaign on the banks of the reftraints of a joint command, and the Aufidus, advanced by mutual confrom the wary counsels of his colleague, sent within fix miles of the Carthagidefired, as the propereft way of adjuft- nian camp, which covered the village ing their pretensions, to divide the of Cannæ. Here they differed in their army between them. In this new fi- opinions, and, by a Atrange defect in tuation he foon after, by his rashness, the Roman policy, which, in times of exposed himself and his division to be less virtue, must have been altogether entirely cut off by the enemy. But be- ruinous, and even in these times was ing rescued by Fabius, he too gave ill fitted to produce a consistent and proofs of a magnanimous fpirit, con- well-supported series of operations, had felfed the favour he had received, and no rule by which to decide their precommitting himself, with the whole cedency, and were obliged to take the army, to the conduct of his colleague, command each a day in his turn. - he left this cautious officer, during the “ Varro, contrary to the opinion of remaining period of their joint com his colleague, proposed to give battle mand, to pursue the plan he had form- on the plain, and with this intention, ed for the war.

as often as the command devolved up“ At this time, however, the peo- on him, ftill advanced on the enemy. sple, and even the senate, were not In order that he might occupy the paswilling to wait for the effect of such sage and both sides of the Aufidus, he seemingly languid and dilatory mea- encamped in two separate divisions on fures as Fabius was inclined to pursue. its opposite banks, having his larger They resolved to augment the army in divifion on the right of the river, opItaly to eight legions, which, with an posed to Hannibal's camp. Still taking equal number of the allies, amounted the opportunity of his turn to comto eighty thousand foot and seven thou- mand the army, he passed with a larger fand two hundred horse; and they in- division to a plain, supposed to be on tended, in the approaching election of the left of the Autidus, and there, -confuls, to choose men, not only of though the field was too narrow to reTeputed ability, but of decisive and re- ceive the legions in their usual form, folute counsels. As such they elected he pressed them together, and gave the c. Terentius Varro, supposed to be of enemy, if he chołe it, an opportunity a bold and dauntless spirit; and, in or- to engage. To accommodate his ora der to temper his ardour, joined with der to the extent of his ground, he him in the command L. Emilius Pau. contracted the head, and the intervals las, an officer of approved experience, of his manipules or columns, making who had formerly obtained a triumph their depth greatly to exceed the front for his victories in Illyricum, and who which they turned to the enemy. was high in the confidence of the “ He placed his cavalry on the flanks, Lond. Mag. July 1783.

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the # Plutarch. in vit. Fab. Max.

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