be con

has characterised your former exertions, enhancing the national expence: as a there is no doubt, but that, under the minister in such circumstances must emprovidence of heaven, you will secure ploy more of the public treasure in to yourselves and your pofterity a por- gaining a majority than before. In tion of natural felicity-of domestic Lord North's opinion, such measure peace-of external honour, far tran- would have nothing in it formidable to Icending what have hitherto been ex- an administration determined to govern hibited or enjoyed in any age or clime. by court influence. On the decilion of The matter before you may

the great debate on this question, he sidered with respect to the point of ex- was heard to declare, that the friends pediency, and the point of right. of the proposed reform would have been

With respect to the latter, my opi- worsted, had the hundred knights been nion is decided. By the conftitution, present; the majority that day far exa certain portion of the legislative ceeding that number. power is reserved to the Commons, Secondly, The proposed addition who, from the circumstance of their would render the House of Commons numbers, are obliged to exercise their too numerous. In Ireland such an enimportant function by delegation. crease of the county members as would

This power of delegation appears to be necessary to form an effectual balance me to be as extensive as the obligation to the borough interest would be greater of bearing arms for the common de- in proportion than in England. fence; and I have long considered every Thirdly, The seats for counties reitriétion of the right of fuffrage as would be disposed of absolutely at the an infringement of the law of nature, pleasure of a few great landholders; as well as subversive of the constitution while the great body of freeholders of my country:

would enjoy less of the elective power I am of opinion also, that political than they do at present. truth and political expediency are terms Laitly, The expences of contested fynonimous; and, therefore, am dif- elections, especially in the larger counposed to think that the only advice I ties, would be most enormously encould with propriety offer to a body of creased. men who have conducted themselves It has also been suggested, that it with so much magnanimity, public might be expedient to disfranchise fome spirit, and moderation, is GO ON of the boroughs in those counties where you have begun; investigate the rights they are most numerous, especially such of freemen-alert them-establish them whose conftitution is most exceptionin their full extent. I cannot believe able, and to make compensation at the that the accomplishment of any mea public expence. fure, founded in political truth, can be Nothing can be urged against this impossible to such exalted virtue.

measure, in my idea; lo far as it goes, However, as many expedients have it is both equitable and expedient. been suggested, upon the idea, that on The transferring the right of elections account of prejudices, what is strictly to townships or districts, which form right cannot be put in practice, it may the greater number of inhabitants, and not be improper to enquire how far other circumstances, appear more likely these expedients are likely to answer to preserve their independence, and the intended purpose.

would be an improvement upon this It has been conceived, that the addi- idea. tion of a certain number in county The generous principles you have members would assist in balancing the adopted respecting Roman Catholics corrupt representation in the boroughs; have been attended with effects very a ineasure, in my idea, as inexpedient different from what were expected by as it is partial and unjust.

perfons of less enlarged sentiments. First, Because if it fail in effectually There are few, perhaps, who would not overbalancing the powers of corrup- be alarmed at the idea of conceding to tion, it encreases the grievance, by them the power of clecting representa

tives 'The


tives of their own perfuafion. Very ratory of the principles upon which z many, perhaps, would think it impru- true and proper representation ought to dent to allow them the exercise of the be constructed, let a committee froid right of suffrage, were even their yourselves be appointed to draw the choice restricted to the choice of Pro- outline of a plan which you all judge testants. Local difficulties must be best to be effectual, the most extenfive and known to persons of the spot. I can liberal the times will bear, and propose only reason from general principles. If it to the House of Commons; at the men are allowed to hold property, to same time specifying a certain period possess rights, to bear arms, I cannot in which you conceive the wisdom of see any substantial reason why they that House may finally complete the should not also be allowed a share in plan you shall offer to their contiderathe appointment of those who make tion. Let your meeting be adjourned the laws. By such generous confidence, to a reasonable time beyond the period I should conceive these prejudices in which the plan may be conceived to would be softened, and their attach- be offered for affent to the other branchment encreased to the public, of which es of the legislature. The intervening they then would become a component conduct of parliament will suggeit the part. At any rate, so far as it re- proper measures to be adopted at such gards Protestants, the right of suffrage adjourned meeting. may safely be extended far beyond its Petition implies a power in the present limits.

House of Cominons to refuse your Sellional parliaments (i. e. parlia- fuit. It transfers the authority from ments of a single seffion) are the only the fenders to the fent. It supposes in parliaments that can be deemed con- the majority of the House a dignity stitutional; the nearer you approach and independence which the very nato right and ancient usage, the nearer ture of the petition proves they do not will be your approach to the point of possess. It calls upon them to reform true political expedience.

themselves, which a corrupt body of With respect to the mode of effect- men never did, nor can do. ing the retorm in question, I own I Thus, with an undisguifed heart, I feel strong objections to the idea of ap- have unfolded my idea upon this implying to the House of Commons by portant subject. May confittency, pubpetition.

lic fpirit, and magnanimity, with truc If the present mode of delegation widom, continue to preside in your answers not the purpose of its institu- assemblies! Though abfent in perfuit

, tion, it is the proper once or the per- yet " in spirit," and most fervent fons interested lice. the constitutional withes for your fuccels, “ I shall be body) to form a plan for amendinent. prefent with you."

Permit me, without imputation of I remain, with great respect for the presumption, to hint my idea without Committee and yourself, referve.

Your obedient fervant, After paling refolutions exprefive of

JOHN JEDB. the righi of the people w review the Parliamen-firett, London, whole fyten of delegation, and decla- 13th As. 1793.


clined to think the most powerful to his greatest displeasure, finds be the aggrefror of the weakett, and himself of late unexpectedly engaged to be actuated by extenfive and occult in a contcit with the city of Danzig, derigns, iş apt to conceive miitaken which has attracted the attention of idcas of an aitair of this nature, if it is Europe. The public, generally in- not fulicicntij acquainted cherewith.


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The following account of the origin, territory situated on the other fide; but progress, and actual state of this conteft

, infifted upon it, that the cargoes bought its circumstances, and the reasons al- in that territory should be sold at the lediged on either side, will fuffice to market of Danzig, at the price fixed by cunvince every impartial individual, the inhabitants of that city; and that that no such designs have any influence the Pruffians who inhabit the beforein the present cale; that the city of mentioned towns, should buy of them Danzig has not the leaft fhadow of such articles as they might have occareason on her fide, but that, guided fion for, at a price equally arbitrary. by a mistaken policy, the has drawn In consequence hereof, the vessels of his his Majesty into a quarrel which he Majesty's subjects coming from the could not have expected from a inuch Pruslian territories were topped by the more powerful state, and that his Ma- militia pofted in the blockhouse, and, jefty has acted, on this occasion, with by a violent and insulting manner of that moderation and attachment to proceeding, were forced to unload at justice, of which he has at all times Danzig. given the moit convincing proofs:- This violent and unwarrantable in

When, by the treaty conclude] at novation deprived the Prußian subjects Warsaw the 18th of September, 1773, of a trade and free navigation, which, the republic of Poland ceded to his from time im memorial, they had carried Majelly the King of Pruliia the whole on upon a river, which, at its mouth, of Polith Pruflia, cnly the tons of and for its greatett extent, belongs to Danzig and Thorn, with their teri- their invereign. But not satisfied with tories, were exempted from this cef- pateing a top to this navigation, they fion; and, berides this, nothing was prevented the fruitians living on either ftipulated in favour of the city of lide of Danzig from having any comDanzig. His Majelly received, there- munication with each other, and from fore, by this ceifion, the places caliud exchanging their respective commodiLangführ, Alt, and Neu Schutiand, ties by land. Schieldlity, and Stolzenberg, which The King's subjects, thus oppreffed were, before that time, dependencies by the arbitrary and selsith proceedings of the crown of Poland, and which are of the Danig merchants, addressed their usually called the suburbs of D.O., moft grievous complaints to his Maon account of proximity to that city. jeity. The King at first only repre

The inhabitants of these piaces, linted the case to the magistrate, by when they were itill, with the city of Sieur Lindenowsky, his retident at Danzig, under the tanie do minion of the Danzig, verbally and in writing; bur crown of Poland, exerciseda live trade tu thue representations they either did upon the Viitula in pailing Danzig, not make any reply, or their answer and they went to pro ide cheinfeltes was nat at all satisfactory. with their commodities in the Prutlian liis Majesty's ministers of the cabinet country lituated on the other side when wrote to the magistrate of Danzig the they did not chuse to purciale then at 20th of June, and 24th of July, in terms Danzig.

as fullof moderation as his motives were This free commerce and navigation, juít; but the answers he received were as far as it is known, has continued to

vague, evalive, obscure, and founded be carried on as before, after the Polish upon irivolous pretexts, which of them. Prussia, and with it the towns above- felves fell to the ground. mentioned, had been ceded to his Ma- The impartial public, on perusing jelty, and feparated from Danzig. It these papers, as they have been annexed was not till the month of April, in the to the state of the case published in present year, that the magistrate of German, the contents whereof will Danzig would not allow the inhabitants furnith them with the detail of this of the Prufian towns, on this five of discullion, will soon discover the eviDanzig, to fetch their wheat and other dent injustice of the pretensions of the sommodities directly from the Prutilan magrirate of Danzig, and clearly per

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ceive the equity of what his Majesty they call the third order, by which they requires of them. The resident, by pretended to be controuled in a manorder of the ministry, joined to the ner which did not leave it in their letters his verbal representations, and power to act otherwise. This deterfummoned the magistrate to explain mined obstinacy obliged his Majesty to the reason of his proceedings.

use reprisals more rigorous. Their It was proposed to have the cafe trade by land was interrupted, and examined by commiftioners appointed their vessels were stopped at Neufahron either side, in order to settle it ami. wafter. But these few measures proved cably; they were assured, whatever pre- likewise ineffectual; the magistrate tensions on their side might prove well thought now to get clear of the busifounded would not be objected to, and nefs by the plausible declaration, that they were only defired to suffer the they had left the whole affair to be setPrufian subjects to continue their navi- tled by their sovereign the King of gation and inland trade as before, until Poland. The faid magistrate having, the matter could be properly arranged; on other occasions, when it did not but the city of Danzig declined these answer his views, refused to acknowproposals. The only way now left to ledge the sovereignty of the King of his Majesty to support the rights of Poland: for instance, when they rehis subjects, was to use reprisals, which, jected the treaty between Prussia and however, were exercited with great Poland, for abolishing the customs, moderation, though till now without the mediation of a distant court with efect.

respect to a pretension fo extraordinary The King, in August last, ordered and unjust might have been with proColonel de Pirch to poít a small de- priety refused. tachment in the Ife of Holm, being However, the King waited the issue Prusian territory, fecuring by this of the exertions made by the Count de means the partage upon the Viftula, and Unrich, whom his Majesty the King to send back, without any violence, of Poland had sent to Danzig; but all ali Danzig vessels coming from thence the representations of this minifter efto go into the Baltic, and from the fected no more than the final declaPaltic to go to Danzig; but to suffer ration of the city, that they would the vessels of all other nations to pass restore the liberty of commerce and unmolested. This step had no effect navigation to the King's subjects but neither; on the contrary, the whole falzo jure, and only till the end of this affair seemed to become less the con- year, and for no other articles than provicern of a wife and enlightened magi- fions, upon condition that all reprisals Itrate, than that of a lawless populace; should cease immediately. Such an no Pruffian subject, nor any body in insidious proposition it was impossible his Majesty's employ, could appear to agree to, because it would have with safety on the Danzig territory. been acknowledging indirectly the Colonel de Pirch endeavouring to make claim of the city, and they would hare a Pruffian vessel país the Vistula, was freed themselves from the reprisals, insulted with his troops in the grosseit which, when once stopped, are not manner by a mob, nor did the garrison easily recommenced; on the other side, in the block house, though near at hand, the Pruflian subjects would only have make the least attempt to prevent them. obtained liberty to carry on a naviga.

The Counsellor of the Regency, Mr. tion and trade during a couple of Meyer, was attacked in Danzig, and months in the winter, when "nature his life pat in danger. The magi- herself renders it impracticable, which strates excused themselves with not be- at all times they have freely enjoyed, ing able to restrain the impetuosity of and which the people of Danzig would the people; and, indeed, through the soon have disputed again. The King whole of this business, the magistrate therefore seeing no hopes of obtaining always appealed to the will and reso- by representations and negociations, lutions of the citizens, and of what nor even by moderate reprisals, that


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natural liberty which he claimed for subjects, his Majesty cannot but inlist
his subjects, was now forced, against upon a final and radical determination
his own inclinations, to take to more of this affair, and unlimited concession
serious measures. His Majesty or- to his subjects of a free passage through
dered Major-General Baron d'Eglof- the territory of Danzig, and continue
stein, with four battalions of infantry, till then the measures he has been
and four escardons of cavalry, to enter obliged to adopt. But as his Majesty
the territory of Danzig, which the never had, nor has now, any hostile
King's troops till then had not touch- design, or to act contrary to treaties
ed, and to block up the town from all against the city of Danzig, and is
{ides by water and by land, though at rather disposed to support its commerce
a certain distance, for the rest to ob- in a manner consistent with the advan-
serve the strictest discipline, and to tages of his own dominions, the re-
suffer all foreign vessels to pass with- prisals will continue no longer than
out difficulty. This measure has not the city of Danzig has restored to the
yet proved efficient to conquer the ob- Prusian subjects their free trade upon
itinacy of the city of Danzig, and has the footing it was before, and given
only produced a vague reply to General them solemn affurance of a free pallage
d'Eglofitein, dated the 16th of this of their persons and merchandize
month, whereby the magistrate repeat- through the territory of Danzig, and
ed his former declaration respecting an till they have made to his Majesty a
armistice of two months, and consider- suitable fatisfaction for their insolent
ing as obligatory the former offers proceedings againit his officers and
made to them only out of condescen- subjects; this done, the reprituls will
fion, they complain that now an en- ceat immediately.
tire and unlimited liberty of naviga- If this relation of the true state of
tion is required of them. It is true, the affair should not proye sufficient to
that during the contest the King has convince the impartial public, that
several times proposed to the court of through the whole of that contest the
Warsaw, as well as to the magistrale fault lies entirely on the side of the
of Danzig, to allow his subjects the city of Danzig, the following reasons
free paisage only falvo jure, and until may at leait be expected to have that
an amicable arrangement should take effect:-
place ; but according to the nature of Confidering the affair, only with
things, and in conformity to the ftriét. respect to the principles of the law of
eft equity, the trade required by these nature and of nations, which is the
proposals was understood to be entire- only rule to decide by between inde-
ly free, and not limited to a short pendent states, and according to which,
space of time. Now whereas the ma- if not modified by particular treaties,
giftrates have for a long time refused his Majeily undoubtedly ciairns, with
thefe proposals, and at last accepted equal right, a free pufage of his sub-
them, only as if it were out of con- jects through the finali territory of
descension, confining their conceflion, Danzig, as that city claims and enjoys
in a vague and insidious manner, to the same advantage, through the in-
articles of provision only, and to the comparably more extenlive dominions
1hort period of two months, in which of his ajeity, and upon a much larger
navigation cannot be practifed, and extent of the river Vittula.
wirich undoubtedly they would have of Danziz cannot alledge in her favour
Yudered to pass without fettling the a finale privilege, nor any concellions
affair, after the reprisals had been once made to her by former fovereigns of
discontinued, his Majesty cannot be Prullia, nor conventions sublilting be-
any longer bound by those voluntary tween her and the adjoining countries,
ofers which have not been accepted, nor even so much as a pollellion of
and seeing the inimical difpofition of that right; in short, the cannot alledge
the city of Danzig, and its obitinacy a tinyle reason for ufurping an exclusive
in opprefing continually the Prussian com.nerce in Poland, Prunia, and upon
Lund. Mag. App. 1753.


The city

4 H

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