and attend the sheriff on a certain day, termine me to leave the county repre who, affifted by such magistrates as may sentation untouched. choose to attend, is to caft up the fame, Answer to 4th Query. I think every and make the return.

man not incapable through infancy, The foregoing seems to me to be insanity, or criminal conduct, has a elear of all objection, as it disfranchises right to the franchise of being reprenobody, but only restores to liberty sented; but I cannot entertain a mosuch as are now unjustly disfranchised: ment's doubt in respect of those who and as it takes no man out of his bear the public burthens. parish, removes the only plausible ob- Answer to 5th Query. I rather think jection to frequent elections. .

it would not be wife to have the memI am, with great regard, Sir, bers returned by ballot; but as I must Your moit obedient,

candidly own some of the best men in humble servant,

this country are of a different opinion, Aug. 18, 1783. EFFINGHAM. 1. will briefly give you the reason for

mine. I had an opportunity fome P. S.-I beg to observe, that no argument has ever yet been produced years ago of learning how á ballot in favour of a seven years parliament, method of voting, and it was upon the

might be as easily abused as any other which is not equally good for one of following occation: the kingdom of feventeen years.

Sweden, it is well known, has in the SEPARATE ANSWERS, SC.

present century enjoyed about fifty

years of a free government; during Aufwr !0 fint Query.

which time they collected the rotes in I Would disfranchise nobody, but I their diet by ballot. When a member would coinmunicate to all those who was bribed, whose promise the briber are at preront injujtly disfranchifed a did not choose to rely on, it was the participation of liberty with the reft of custom for him to write on the faine their country. By consolidating the paper with his vote, some word or boroughs, and all other householders, lentence agreed on; by which it was every man would be represented by at known whether he had earned his wages kaft for members.

To prevent this, a law was Ingwr to Query '2d. The number of made, that if any such mark appeared members I take to be a matter of in- in future, the vote Mould be nuil and difference, provided they are amply void. fufficient to attend to all the local bx- In the year 1769 I was witness of a giuris, and not too many to fit and strong contest for the choice of a land deluate in one chamber. If any corrupt. marshal; when among other exertions Connexion is apprehended between the of each party, bribery and corruption reprefentative body and the crown, it were not forgot; but as the law aboveis the short duration of parliaments, and mentioned prevented the old method, not the number of members that melt they took the following, instead of prevent or cure that evil.

deiring any one to vote for the furour. Anfaver to 3d Query. The objection ite candidate, each manager applied to alluded to is, that as now two great the supposed friends of the oppofite families endeavour to return the two fide, and gave them moner to destroy county members, the same would be their own vote; by which, though donc by fix families were there fix they could not increase their own nummembers, I should think it probable, bers, they could diminish the number in such a case, that the two most power- of their adı erfaries. It is easy to conful of those families would return four ceive numberless other contrivances, of the members, and four families next whici, til kurun, will'ferre to evade in power would compromise for two; any regulation thai can be made. and thus the fıx united would totally Fut I have a much stronger reason chrow out thofe unconnected with against hallois. It is not merely in thein. This confideration would de- fenci, tüt feiret intelligence, that!


or not.


dread. For so long as riches or power which strikes me in the situation of the can confer any favours or benefits--and two countries as to their representation. fo long as good men shall possess gra- The very extensive line I draw for this titude -knaves avarice- or fools country may appear dangerous in Irepride- -fo long influence will exift

. land, on account of the great proporBut while that is brought to light by tion of Roman Catholics in that kingopen voting in the face of our coun- dom, and renders it necessary for me try, it appears to me in a less formi- here to make a short observation on dable light than if it worked in the that subject. A Papist is not dangerous : dark, where I could neither see the because he prays to saints, but because nature or extent of my danger. he sets up a foreign jurisdiction, pa

Answer to 6th Query. I think a tri- ramount to our laws. I will never ennial parliament the longest that can fight with my fellow-citizen, because be any ways consistent with the idea we cannot agree whether a wench in a of any controul in the constituent over white sheet be a facrament or a cerehis representative. Indeed, any fixed mony: I will only, as a good Christian duration beyond the session to which ought, pray to God to pardon him all parliament is called by the King's writ, his errors, and me all mine. But if he is granting an independence to the re- will go about to overturn the Protestant presentative for that term, and so far succession, or any other security for making that branch of the legislature the liberties of my country, I will, as an aristocratic body.

it is my duty, oppose him to the last Answer to 7th Query. As I cannot drop of my blood. On these prirfuppofe it possible that any gentleman ciples we have in England, very juftly has either procured his own as I think, relaxed in the severity of with a view to sell his vote, or taken our penal laws; and I hope the day is money to procure the return of another not far distant, when bigotry shall have man, I am at a loss to account for a given way to common sense, and our pecuniary claim in amends for a pro- religious opinions be all reconciled to perty in the lives and liberty of a people one plain truth, that to outrage the who call themselves so free, that they first laws of nature and reason cannut affert

negro llave does ipfo facto obtain be to serve God. his liberty by setting his foot among How far the situation of Ireland in them. If, however, by any former this respect may, or may not warrant mittaken notions, such a thing should what we have done, can only be deterhave happened; if any gentleman has mined by those who have the opportureally given a few thousands more than nity of knowing the numbers and the the true value of an estate, on account inclinations of the Roman Catholics; of a supposed privilege annexed to it; how far the influence of their clergy or if a poor member of a corporation operates upon them; what security they would by the proposed reform really have given or will give for maintaining believe that he was unjustly deprived the conftitution. On these circunof an octennial twenty pounds, I should fances mult depend the answer to the think that equity might, at the inter- first part of this question. As to the cession of liberality, so far relax the second part of it, viz.“ the iteps to be severity of her rules as to permit a suf- taken,” none appear to me more elificient sum to be distributed in secret gible than those we have adopted by Jervice money, to prevent the general joy county committees of correspondence, from being interrupted by any mur- to endeavour to fix on the principal murs of sorrow or discontent.

points. Answer to 8th Query. In all the fore- If the friends of reform then move going questions I have considered what parliament to consider of the present I withed to be established here, as itate of representation, it will appear equally applicable to Ireland; and have to every man so unequal, that there can reserved to this place my observations remain no doubt but that the justice and on the only very material difference propriety, I may add the necessity of a LoxD, MAG. App. 1783.



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reform, will be obvious, and conse- If I have not given so exactly as I quently with general confent adopted. desired my ideas upon a subject I have The mode of reform conring from par. so much ac heart, I hope you will atliament will give satisfaction to those tribute it to my want of ability, and who (having in some points differed not to any want of inclination to confrom other committees, and thinking vince you of the truth with which their opinions equally fit to be follow- I have the honour to be, Sir, ed) will readily submit to fuch au- your most obedient, and diority.

humble servant, Peckham.





Think myself greatly honoured by fion, no less inconsistent with their

the letter addressed to me in the liberty. The occasion is great, and name of the committee of which you the undertaking important and arduous are chairman. It is indeed with more in the highest degree. Should they be fatisfaction than I can express, I find blessed with success, they will have that the people of Ireland, after ref- completed their own happiness, and cuing their trade and their legislature exhibited an example which will for from the oppression of a lifter kingdom, ever shine in the annals of mankind. are now undertaking to rescue them. The fubjoined paper * will show that I felves likewise from an internal oppref- have been for some time withing they

would * To the armed VOLUNTIERS of IRELAND. A native of England, but a citizen of of Commons chosen, not by the people, the world, and a warm friend to uni. but, as in England, by a few grandees versal liberty, congratulates them with and beggars? great fatisfáction on their success in sthly, By establishing an equal reobtaining, without bloodshed, that pre- presentation, may not the people of cious bleling for which corrents of Ireland do their lister kingdom a most blood have been thed in America; and, important service, by provoking its rejoicing in their emancipation, he emulation, and rendering it alhained of wishes to propose to them the following its own corrupt and mock representaqueries:

tico? itt, Having seized the favourable 6thly, Hare they not reason to exopportunity which the war with Ame- pect, from the liberality of the new rica has offered them, should they not ininisters, and the endeavours which be anxious about improving it in the some of them are now using to gain any utmost, from a conviction that such equal representation of England, that another opportunity may never ofter they will rejoice to see this work unitself?

dertaken in Ireland, and give it their 2dly, Having succeeded in making encouragement and support? themselves free externally, should it Lailly, Is it not, therefore, almost not be their next concern to make certain that the voluntiers and patriots themselves free internally? And while of Ireland will easily succeed in this they want the one, can they poilefs any undertaking, if they set themselves to just fecurity for the other?'

it with that glorious zeal which they 3dy, Is not a free and cqual repre- have hitherto discovered, and by which fentation crential to the internal li- they have exhibited to the world an berty of a kingdom?

exarnple of public spirit and virtue Ithly, Is Ireland poflefied of such a scarcely ever before known, and which reprefentation. Or, is not, on the must render them the admiration of sontiary, a vast majority of its Houfe future ages?


would carry their views to this object. feldom practicable to extend the right It was shown to Mr. Grattan above a of voting so far. In America, where year ago, and written when the Duke new forms of government are eftablishof Richmond, the Earl of Shelburne, ed, more liberal than any the world Iras Lord Camden, Mr. Pitt, and other yet feen, this right is limited to perfons friends to a parliamentary reform were who pay taxes and possess property. in power. We are now governed by Perhaps it may not be prudent in Irean odious coalition, formed between land to go even this length. In thele whigs and the conductors of the late cafes, to avoid the danger of losing all war, to gratify ambition and party by aiming at too much, the attempis of rage by censuring the peace. These enlightened men Mould be governed by united parties are in general hoftile to a regard to what is most practicable, reformation; and this will make it confidering the present circumstances, more difficult for the people of Ireland and the attachment which always preto succeed in their riews: but nothing vail in a country to oli establishments. can be difficult to a people determined io In England I have wished that the recover their rights, If UNANIMOUS friends of reformation had confined

The motive commonly their views at present to the extension urged to check such exertions,“ not to of the right of voting to copy-holders disturb what is quiet”-would prevent and lease-hullers; and the fubftitution all improvements, and perpetuate dark- of a hundred kniglies for countics, for nefs and Navery amongit mankind. It a hundred meinbers for boroughs. would, in particular, had it influenced This, though in theory un!peakably in America, have prevented the revolu- too little, would have been a very inition in favour of the rights of mankind portant reform; and less than this I which has lately taken place there; have not thought much worth conand had it influenced Ireland, it would tending for. The people in Ireland have prevented that emancipation of its are more alive, and, therefore, probatrade and legillation, which has been bly, much inore may be attempted there lately so happily effected. The bleslings with success. But how much more I of legitimate government and a free am not qualified to say. Suppose the coníitution are inestimable. Too much right of voting was extended to all who cannot be facrificed to poles them; potless property of 1 certain value, and and no country possesses them u here the every county divided into fix districts, body of the people, equally and fairly each of which Mould chuse one reprerepresented, have not the chief thare in fentative, leaving the remaining reprethe powers of government.

tentatives to be chosen by the largest I can by no means pretend to that towns and boroughs:

- would this be degree of information and knowledge, too great an object? Is it too much to which is necesary to enable me to give be undertaken without deitzoying unaany proper answer to the queries con- nimity? tained in your letter; and the shortness The duration of parliament seems a of the time between this and the zoth point of leis consequence. If chosen of August, together with the dissipated by the people at large, they will be Itate I am now in at Brighthelmiton, short; für it is impordible that a people will not allow me to be very full and thould not see that the long poilellion explicit. The committee will, there- of power will corrupi, and that their fore, I hope, accept the following ge- fecurity agaiet an abuse of power deneral observations, as the best reply to pends on keeping their representatives their queries that I can at present give: in a constant state of dependence and

The principles of civil liberty require responsibility. that every independent agent in a itate if, on the contrary, parliaments are (that is, every one who can be supposed not cholen by the people, shortening to have a will and judgement of his their duration will be no remedy. They own) thould have a voice in the choice will not for this be less usurpations and of his governors, But it has been mockeries.


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Annual parliaments seem to me pre- robbery. It seems, however, necefları ferable to parliaments of any longer that a compensation should be allowed, duration; not only because they keep and this, I suppose, would be done in the representative body more subject to England, were the rotten boroughs disthe controul of its conftituents, but franchised. The neceflity of abolishing also because being chosen more fre- such boroughs I think very apparent. quently, they will be chosen more of There cannot be worse nuisances in a course, and with less tumult and riot. ftate.

'There seems to be no reason for I am sensible, Sir, of the great imperchanging the number of the representa- fection of these remarks, and must rely tive body in Ireland.

on the candour of the committee. InI am so much an enemy to persecu- deed, they have done me too much tion, that I cannot help withing the honour by fuppofing me capable of right of voting could be extended to advising them. From the Duke of Papifts of property in common with Richmond, Mr. Pitt, &c. they may Protestants. It is unjust to deprive any receive advice that will be more worth man of his rights on account of his their attention. But there is no one religion, unless self-defence makes it whose heart and wishes are more with absolutely necessary. The danger from them. May Hearen grant them fucPapists is, perhaps, more produced by cess! and may the example of Ireland the penal laws against them, than by influence this country, and shame it to their religion. These detach them imitation! With all possible respect, from the rest of the community, give I am, Sir, them a separate interest, and make them

your most obedient, enemies. . Why should not a Papist be

and humble servant, attached to the liberties of his country

RICH. PRICE - as well as a Protestant, if he is allowed Brighthelmston, Aug. 7. to share in them? In truth, a country

P. S.-Ireland is peculiarly situated which allows him no right he cannot in two respects. A great majority of reckon his country. It is nothing to the inhabitants are Papists; and a difri. him whether it is enslaved or free; nor bution of property, more unequal than can he care what becomes of it. in England or America, subjects them

If there is any remedy for the evil more to aristocratic tyranny. I have which occasions the objection against hinted as a remedy for the former in. increasing the number of members for convenience, the admission of Papists counties, it is that extension of the to equal rights; but there may right of voting and division of counties stronger objections to this than I am into districts which I have mentioned.

The proprietors of the enslaved bo- Trade and liberty will, it is to be roughs do not seem, in reason, entitled hoped, in time diffuse property more to a compensation, because they hold in Ireland, and produce a less unequal them by usurpation, and a kind of distribution of it.


aware of,



I by ,

ter dated the ist inítant, that the of your House of Commons as a mea. committee, of which you are chair- fure essentially necessary to the establishman, have done me the honour to de- ment of the liberties of Ireland

upon fire that I would comiaunicate to you permanent foundation. my sentiments respecting a parliamen- You have wisely reserved the confitary reform.

deration of this work to the present Ever since the commencement of the moment. If it be conducted with the Jaft important movements in your king- fame manly and determined spirit which


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