fettlement your detail stops. Had it Rajah Cheyt Sing had performed his proceeded, it must have exhibited the engagements with the Company, and conditions of the settlement, which that my conduct towards him was would have contradicted every fact “ improper and unwarrantable," you which you have asserted; and every proceed to say, that “ such further reman of candour will believe that this solutions, as you may think

proper was the only reason why it did not come to on this very important subject, proceed. For why are my speculative will be communicated to us by a future opinions on the claim made upon the conveyance." This I cannot otherNabob Aflof ul Dowlah at the cellion wise understand than as an indication of the Zemindary of Benaria, which I of your intention, to order the restorathought an infringement of a treaty tion of Rajah Cheyt Sing to the Zealready sublifting with him; and upon mindary of Benaris. It will be exthe mode by which we thould allow perted, after the judgment which you Rajah Cheyt Sing to exercise the ma- have paffed, as an act of indispensable nagement of his Žemindary, when it juftice; and, whenever this promissory had become the property

of the Com- declaration is made public, as it must pany, quoted in evidence against me; be, if not already known, what may when the actual deeds which conveyed have been expected will be regarded as to Cheyt Sing his poffeffion of the Ze- a certainty. "If any thing were wanting mindary, and all the conditions on but the express notification of your which he held it, were the only criteria intention to confirm it, the recal of by which my conduct towards him Mr. Markham, who was known to be could be tried? The debates from the public agent of my own nomination which my opinions are extracted are so at Benaris, and the re-appointment of voluminous, and my hare in them Mr. Francis Fowke by your order, conbears so large a proportion, that it tained in the fame letrer, would place would take up much time and argu- it beyond a doubt. This order has ment to prove, what I could prove, been obeved; and whenever you all that in their collective and relative be pleased to order the restoration of sense they are perfectly consistent, fo Cheyt Sing, I will venture to promise far as they can apply at all to my sub- the same ready and exact fubmiffion in sequent conduct; but were it other the other members of council. wise they were not to be made rules of of the consequences of such a policy my conduct; and God forbid that every I forbear to speak. Most happily the expresion, dictated by the impulse of wretch, whose hopes may be excited by prefent emergency, and unpremedi- the appearances in his favour, is illtately uttered in the heat of party con- qualified to avail himself of them; and tention, should impose upon me the the force which is ftationed in the proobligation of a fixed principle, and be vince of Benaris is sufficient to suppress applied to every variable occafion! any symptoms of internal sedition;

The wisdom of the legislature has but it cannot fail to create distrust and declared, that the whole collective body suspense in the minds both of the of the Governor-General and Council rulers and of the people, and such a Thall he bound by the opinion of the state is alvay's productive of dierder. majority; but the doctrine implied in But it is not in this partial considerayour quotation of my opinions is the tion that I dread the effects of your reverse of that obligation, if my ori- commands. It is in your proclaimed nions were not conformable to those indisposition against the tirti executive of a majority of the board; and, if member of your first government in they were, the acts of the board, formed India. It is as well known to the on such concurrent opinions, ought to Indian world as to the Court of EngLe quoted as the rules of my conduct, lith Proprietors, that the first declaranot the opinions which only led to tory inttraments of the disolution of them.

my iniluence, in the year 1774, were Having folemnly pronounced, that Mr. John Erittow and Mr. Tom.


Fowke. · By your ancient and known juftly attainted for his crimes, the conftitution, the Governor has been murderer of your servants and soldiers, ever held forth and understood to pof- and the rebel to your authority, arsess the ostensible powers of govern- rived two months earlier. You will ment. All the correspondence with learn, by our common dispatcles, foreign princes is conducted in his what diificulties Mahdajee Scindia tas name; and every person, refident with had to surmount in reconciling the disthem for the management of your po. ferent members of the Mahratta itate litical concerns, is underfood to be to the ratification, and even, wlen more especially his representative, and ratified, to the interchange of the trezof his choice and such ought to be ty concluded by him in May lait with the rule; for how otherwise can they this government. I dare to appeal even trust an agent nominated against the to your judgement for the reply, and will of his principal; or how, knowing to ask, whether the ministers of the him to act under the variable instruc- Peshwa, poflefling the knowledge of tions of a temporary influence, or the such a circumstance, would not have casual dictates of a majority, can they availed themselves of it to withhold rely on the measures which he may their consent to the treaty, either propose, and which a sudden change of claiming to include Cheyt Sing as a infuence, always expected in a devia- party in it, or either overtly or fecrettion from conttitutional furns, may ly supporting his pretensions, with the undo, and subject them, in every in view of multiplying our difficulties: ; stance of their connection, to a con- n-, or, which is most probable, waiting for tinual fluctuation of attairs?

the event of that change in the fupe. When the fate of this administra- rior gorernment of Bengal which such tion was such as seemed to admit of symptoms portended, before they prethe appointment of Mr. Bristow to the cipitated their intereits in a connection residence of Lucknow, without much with a declining influence, which they diminution of my own influence, I might obviously conclude would render gladly seized the occasion to thew my this, with all its other acts, obnoxious readiness to fubinit to your commands. to that which succeeded it. I proposed his nomination: he was Their counterpart of the treaty is nominated, and declared to be the ratified, and in our possession; and, agent of my own choice. Even this fuch is the character of the man whom etíect of my caution is defeated by your we have made our principal and the abfolute command for his re-appoint guarantee of it, that it will insure us ment, independent of me, and with against any change of sentiment, which the fuppofisicn that I should be ad- might arise, from any cause, in the verse to it. I am now wholly de- breatłs of his countrymen.. I am happrived of my official powers, both in py in having been the sole inftrument the province of Owd and in the Ze- of the accomplishment of so great an mindary of Benaris.

event. It originated in a scene of Nor will the evil ftop at these lines. universal revolt encompasing my own My general influence, the effects of person: it begin with the immediate which have been happily manifested for Separation of the first power of the the support of your intereis, is now Mahratta ftate from the general war, wholly loft, or what remains of it and was followed by the instant and funianied cnly by the prefcription of general ceflation of hostilities; in eflong povelion, and something perhaps fest, by a permanent peace; foz I hare of personal attachment, impressed by a right now to afirm this, ha: ing pothe habiis of frequent intercourse'. suvely aftured you that it would prove

i almoft fhudder at the reflection of such, ishile the forni confirmation of * hat might have happened, lad tha le it remained so long in a state of fuldenunciations against your own nur:- penfe. In every progretlive itate of it, ter, ir, favour of a man universulu con- it has met with obilnuctions which fillored in this part of the hoold 45 nighi hurc discourageu e in the racit


determined perseverance; in the known from the opposition of those very powcindifpofition of the presidency of Bom- ers from which I primarily derived my - bay; 'in the calamities of the Carnatic; authority, and which were required for

in the alarming interference of the the · support of it. My exertions, President and Select Committee of Fort though applied to an unvaried and St. George, by the exaggerated portrait consistent line of action, have heen ocof their affairs in a letter addressed to cafional and desultory; yet I please myour minister, and sent in circulation self with the hope, that, in the annual through the midst of Deccan and In- of your dominion, which thall be doitan, intreating him at all events, written after the extinction of recent and with whatever facrifices, to preci- prejudices, this terin of its administrapitate the conclusion of the treaty, and tion will appear not the least condufave them from deftruction; but, above cive to the interest of the Company, all, in the vehement exclamations for nor the least reflective of the honour of peace from men of every description the British name; and allow ine to in Great-Britain. To all these coun- suggest the instructive reflection of teractions I have opposed the principle what good might have been done, and of firmness and defiance; and, aided what evil prevented, had due fupport by the peculiar talents, and wariness, been given to that administration which and incomparable perseverance of Mr. has perforined such en:inent and subDavid Anderson, 'I have at length ftantial services without it. brought my wishes and your's to their You, honourable Sirs, can attest the deftined point. Perhaps with a lefs patience and temper with which I have able minifter I might yet hare failed; fubmitted to all the indignities which but even the merits of his services I have been heaped upon me in this lorrg claim as my own; for it was my choice fervice. It was the duty of fidelity which called his mind into action, and which I esentially owed to it; it was my confidence that gave it its best exer- the return of gratitude which I orej, tion. Pardon, honourable Sirs, this even with the sacrifice of life, had that digressive exultation. I cannot fupprefs bećn exitted, to the Company, my the pride which I fecl in this fuccefstui origiral masters and mot indulgent achievement of a measure so fortunate patior. "To these principles have I for your interests and the national ho- devoted cery private iceling, and pernour; for that pride is the fource of fevered in the riolent mainrenare of my zeal so frequently exerted in your my offire; because I was confiious that support, and never more happily than I poffet, in my integrity, and in the in those instances in which i have de- aanges of local knowledge, troje parted from the preferibed and beaten means of dif harging the functions of path of action, and affumed a refponfi. ir with credit to m delf, and with adbility which has too frequently drawn Fantage to my emplosers, which might on me the moft pointed effects of your be wanting in more splendid talents; displeasure. But, however I may yield and because I had stays a ground of to my private feelings in thus enlarge hope thit my long fufferance would ing on the subject, my motive in in- uilarm the prejudices of my adversatroducing it was immediately con- ries, or the rotation of time produce nected with its context, and was to that concurrence, in the crisis of pour contrast the actual ftate of your poli- fortune with my own, which migha tical affairs derived from a happier in- place me in the situation to which I fluence, with that which might have afpired. In the mean time there was attended an earlier diffolution of it. nothirg in any actual state of your af

It is now a complete period of ele- tairs which frould discourage ine from ven years fince I trit received the no- the profecution of this plan. There minal charge of your affairs. In the was, indeed, an interial, and that of course of it I have invariably had to fome duration, in which my authority contend, not with ordinary difficulties. was wholly detroyed; bor another vis but such as most unnaturally arose subtituteú in its place, and ;'

though irregular, was armed with the instant of his accomplishment of public belief of an influence invisibly treaty, and defeat the purposes of apholding it, which gave it a vigour which remain yet to be effected by ba scarce less effectual than that of a con- agency: I am also persuaded tha: ftitutional power. Besides, your go- would be attended with the loss of the vernment had no external dangers to commander in chief, in whose prefere agitate, and discover the looseness of alone I look for the restoration of pear its composition.

to the Carnatic, which he, perhz The case is now most widely differ- would think too hazardous an under ent. \Vhile your existence was threat- taking with no other support than a ened by wars with the most formidable of a broken government. I have son powers of Europe, added to your Indian no with remaining but to see the close enemies; and while you confessedly of this calamitous scene, and for that I owed its preservation to the seasonable hope a few months will be fufficien. and vigorous exertions of this govern- My services may afterwards be safely ment; you chose that season to annihi- withdrawn; but will ftill be due, in my late its constitutional powers. You conception of what I owe to my firi annihilated the influence of its executive conftituents, until they can be regularly member-you proclaimed its annihi- supplied by those of my appointed fuclation-you virtually called on his ceilor, or until his succession shall have associates to withdraw their support been made known, and the interval from him, and they have withdrawn but short for his arrival. it. But you have fubftituted no other It, therefore, remains to perform the instrument of rule in his itead, unless duty which I had assigned to myself as you suppose that it may exist, and can the final purpose of this letter; to de. be effectually exercised, in the body of clare, as I now most formally do, that your Council at large; possessing no it is my desire that you will be pleased power of motion, but an inert fubmif- to obtain the early nomination of a lion to the letter of your commands; person to succeed me in the governwhich, however neceffary in the wise ment of Fort-William; to declare that intention of the legislature, have never it is my intention to relign your service yet been applied to the establishment of as soon as I can do it without prejudice any original plan or system of measures, to your affairs, after the allowance of a and feldom felt but in inttances of per- competent time for your choice of a sonal favour or personal displeasure. person to succeed me; and to declare,

Uuder such a fituation, I feel myself that if, in the intermediate time, you impelled by the same spirit which' has fall proceed to order the restoration of hitherto animated me to retain my poft Rajah Cheyt Sing to the Zemindary, against all the attempts made to extrude from which, by the powers I legally me from it, to adopt the contrary line. poffetled, and conceive myself legally The feason for contention is paft. The bound to assert, against any subsequent prefent flate of affairs is not able to authority to the contrary derived from Lear it. I am morally certain, that my the fame common source, he was dif: fucceffor in this government, whoever potlefied for crimes of the greateft enor. he may be, will be allowed to pofefs mity, and your council fhall resolve to and exercise the necessary powers of his execute the order, I will instantly give fation, with the confidence and support up my ftation and the fervice. of those, who, by their choice of him, To these declarations suffer me to will be interested in success. I am add this reservation: that if, in the become a burthen to the fervice; and mean time, the acts of which I would intantly relieve it from the in- plain fhall, on a mature rerifion of cumbrance, were I not apprehenfive of the.n), be revoked, and, I Thall find creating worse consequences by my re- inyfelf poffefied: of such a degree of moval from it. Such an act would your confidence as shall enable me to probably be considered, by Mahdajee support the duties of my ftation, I will Scindia as a desertion of him in the continue in it until the peace of all


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your possessions shall be restored, or it cate my own character, and to state the

Íhall be your pleasure to allow me to difficulties of my situation. Neither 2 resign it. I have the honour to be, do I mean, by excepting one person, Honourable Sirs,

to caft a censure on any others. Yet Your molt obedient

I feel, in my efteem for Mr. Wheeler, and faithful servant, and in my solicitude to avoid eren the

WARREN HASTINGS. imputation of reflecting unjuftly on his P. S.-Upon a careful revisal of conduct, a duty impelling me to dete what I have written, I fear that an clare, that, in my experience of it, Edi expression which I have used, respecting since the time that we were first in the me the probable conduct of the Board, in habits of mutual confidence, it has

the event of orders being received for been fair and honourable to myself, the restoration of Cheyt Sing, may be and zealous to the public; equally free construed as intimating a fense of dif- from profession and subterfuge, and his satisfaction applied to transactions al- support, given to me in every instance, ready passed. It is not my intention equal to whatever claim I might have to complain of any one; but to vindi. to it.



Have received a letter signed by the depend on local circumstanceswhich

Secretary of forty-five corps of Vo- I am not sufficiently acquainted with to luntiers of Ulster, defiring my opinion be able to give so direct and explicit Concerning a reform of the representa- an answer as I could wish; I, therefore, tion of the Commons in Parliament think it is best to give you a brief acmay be transmitted to you, for the in- count of the plan I wish to see adopted formation of the Committee appointed in England, and afterwards to enclose by the Delegates of those respectable you a separate paper contaning each bodies.

query, and the best answer to it which From the first moment of that ques- I find myself prepared to give. tion's being agitated in England, I have My favourite plan for this country, invariably held one opinion as to the to secure a representation tolerably right of representation in theory, as equal, and to make as little alteration founded on one plain propofition, riz in the prefent mode as our security to be free is to be self-governed, and will admit, is as follows: rice versa. Therefore, every man must Let the counties and cities remain either vote in person or by his repre- just as they are at present. sentative, in making those laws which Let the counties be divided into four are to affect his life, liberty, and pro- or more classes, according to their imperty.

portance in the national scale, cons I am very ready to admit, however, lidering their population, agriculture, the posibility of our being obliged to and manufactures. reiinguish in practice what seems per- Let each return from four to ten or fect in theory; and on that account I twelve burgesses, making in the whole have joined in some affociations held the same number of members as for a reformation which I think far present. from complete, but the best plan in Let every man paying foot and lot which a sufficient number of persons have a vote for burgefles. were ready to join, so as to give us Let the poll be taken on a certain any prospect of faccefs.

day in every parith, before the parish In the eiglt queries contained in officers and principal inhabitants. the letter to me, there are some which Let the constable witness the poll,



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