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which I shall ever be rcady to give every affiftanco Their most obedient
in my power; and that it is with the highest

And most humble servant,
respect and admiration for their conduct that I

RICHMOND, & have the honour to be,

To Liewi. Col. SHARMAN.

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PHILOSOPHY.
FOR THE LONDON MAGAZIN E.
AN ACCOUNT OF THE LATE METEORS WHICH HAVE BEEN

SEEN IN ENGLAND; TOGETHER WITH AN HISTORICAL RELATION OF
THE CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH HAVE BEEN RECORDED CONCERNING
METEORS OF THE SAME KIND DURING THE LAST AND PRESENT CEN
TURIES:
Collected from the Philosophical Tranfaéiions of the Royal Society of London, the Mor

moirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences ai Paris, and cther periodical Publications,
both foreign and domeftic. To which are added the opinions of jome of the molt cer
lebrated Philosophers concerning the nature and properties of these Meteors.

(Concluded from our lajt, page 456.) N

phical Transactions, a gentleman which made its course nearly from the who figns C. M. (perhaps Cromwell S. E. to N. W. its height seemingly Mortimer, M. D.) says, as he was cros- not half a mile. The head and body fing the parade in St. James's Park, on emitted an extremely lucid and white the 16th of December, 1742, about fiame, and the tail was of a transpa40' past 8 at night, he saw a light rise rent blue, like the fiame of sulphur. from behind the trees and houses in Mr. Chalmers, of his Majesty's ship the S. by W point; which he took at Montague, then under the command of first to be a large íky-rocket; but when Admiral Chambers, being in lat. 42.48 it had risen to the altitude of 20', N. long. 9° 3' W. on the 4th of Noit took a direction nearly parallel to vember, 1549, about ten minutes before the horizon, not altogether in a straight noon, as he was observing the sun's line, but forvewhat waved, and went meridian altitude, was called to by one on to the N. by E. over the houses of the quarter-maiters to look to windIt seemed so near, that he thought it ward. He did, and saw a large ball pulled over Queen's Square, the island, of blue fire, rolling on the surface of and canal in the Park, and he loft fight the water, and about three miles from of it over the Hav-market. Its mo- them. They iinmediately lowered tion was fo ilow that he had it above down their topsails, and inanned their half a minute in bis right; and, con- fore and main clew-garnets, in order fequently, had time enough to co- to hand up their courses; but it came template its appearance fulls. lis down on them fo faft, that before they head was about 307 of a degree in dia- could raise their main tack they saw it meter, was

of

a bright flame, which rite froin the ica almcit perpendicular seemed to turn backwards, as if trointo it, and nue abure forty or fifty yards the resistance of the air, and of the co- from the main chains. It went off lour of burning charcoal, with fyme with an explofion, as if some hundreds opaque tripes on it, like the bends of of cannon had been fired at one time, an iron frame that contained the fiery and left so strong a smell of brinstone, matter. There itsued from it a train that the ship seemed to be nothing but or tail of fire, about 30 in length, and fulphur. . After the noise was over, one eighth of a degree in treadth, which did not last longer than half a that was bright towards the hea?, but second, they looked up, and law their fainter towards its extremity.

main-top-mast shivered into an hun. On the 27th of May, 1744, at 11' dred pieces, and the main-maft rent paft 11 at night, a ball of fire was seen quite down to the hcel, Some of the by Mr. Cradock, from the terrace at spikes that nailed the fish to the main.

mast were drawn out of it with such or three miles from him.

The beauty force, that they were stuck into the and splendor of its nucleus, particumain-deck fo fait, that the carpenter larly the fore-part of it, furpaffed all was obliged to use an iron crow to the fires he ever saw; being, he says, of draw them out. They had five men a bright silver colour; its tail was the knocked down, and one of them greatly colour of a burning coal, but rather burnt by the explosion. They thought fainter. The nucleus appeared to him that the ball, which appeared of the under an angle of more than 2°; and fize of a mill-ftone, struck the middle its tail was of 21 degrees. He loft of the main-top-inatt, as the top of fight of it in a cloud, not above 200 that mast, above the hounds, was not above the southern part of the horizon; splintered. They had had a very hard but a friend of his being about four gale of wind from the N. by W. to the miles more southerly, saw it again after N. N. E. for two days before the ac- it came out of that cloud, till it entered cident happened, with a great deal of another. The weather had been exrain and hail, and a large fea from the ceeding hot all the preceding part of northward, but no thunder or light- the month. ening either before or after the ex- On the 26th of February, 1754, at plosion. The ball came from the N.

10" 55' apparent time, Mr. Hirit, F. E. and went to the S. W.

R. S. coming down the hill adjoining On the 22d of July, 1750, and about to the South side of Hornsey-church, 20' past nine at night, a ball of fire found himself suddenly surrounded was seen by Mr. William Smith, of with a light equal to that of the full Peterborough, and others, between that moon, though the moon (which was place and Werrington, a village about then four days old) had been fet near two miles to the N. W. of that place. an hour. He turned round to that He saw it first on his left hand, about quarter from which the light came, and 20° high, moving from N. W. to s. had a distinct, though short view of a W. It was bigger than a star of the ball of fire, which, when he firft saw it, first magnitude, and not much unlike was about 15° high, and bore W. by a rocket; having a tail of light, to N. The path of its descent was not his conception, about 3 feet long. It perpendicular to the horizon, but made mored in a straight line, horizontally, an angle of 80° with it, so that it sunk and its motion through the air was a below the horizon at W.N. W. It moved little swifter than that of a pigeon, with great velocity, so that its continuhawk, or duck. He had sight of it ance above the horizon was not much for about three-quarters of a minute, more than 2''; but short as its duration and then loit figlit of it behind foine was, its size and shape night be well diftrees. It was seen also by several cerned; and Mr. Hirft judged that the persons on the south side of Peterbo- diameter of its nucleus,or head, was about rough, who

gave

the same account of half that of the full moon, when pretty it: also at Bourne, which is twelve high, and its tail, which terminated in miles N. W. of Peterborough, as well a point, seemed not longer than twice as in Borough Fen, which lies a con- the diameter of its head. Neither its fiderable way to the N. E. of it, on appearance nor exit was attended with the fame hand, of the same form, any noise; nor did it leave any lumiand moving in ihe same direction.

nous track behind it.

'There is fome This meteor was also feen at Nor- reason to believe this meteor was seen wich, by Mr. William Arderton, F. in Ireland; but the accounts which R. S. and many others, at nine o'clock were given of it were so extra: agant, in the evening, true time. Mr. Ar- that no reliance could be placed on them. derton says its direction was nearly On Sunday, the 26th of November, from N. to S. and it moved with great 1758, a very remarkable meteor, of the velocity. When due east of him, he kind I am now giving accounts of, was judged it to be about 300 high; and feen almost all over England and Scotby its distinctness not more than two land, as well as fome parts of Ireland,

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about nine o'clock at night, the track towards a point of the horizon, which, of which that excellent philosopher, as Mr. Mitchell found afterwards, lore. the late Sir John Pringle very care- N. 23° W. the head, which went forefully investigated: and I Mall give moft, was of a bright white, like iron, the substance of the information which when almost of a melting heat, but it he received in as short a compass as I emitted no sparks; and its diameter poffibly can.

was about half that of the moon. It The most southerly place in this had a tail, which was about a fifth part island that we certainly know it was the breadth of the head; and this tail feen at was near Ilchester, a town in was longett when the meteor was about Hampshire, about 45 statute miles W. 27° high, and might then be about so S. W. of London. It was seen there long. When the head was about ou by three countrymen; but the Rev. or 70 high the tail burst; and, afterDr. Shipley, then minister of that parith, wards, appeared like three small balls, took great pains to ascertain the cir- following the head, or large one, uncumftances, by taking the men to the til they defcended below the horizon. place, and making them point them The light, according to all these ctout, and the different situations, by the servers, was such, that the minuteít obobjects that were round them, and jects might be difcerned on the ground; taking the altitude and bearings with and when the tail burst, the light was proper instruments. They described it fo great to the Cambridge observer as to be at its first appearance of the fize to dazzle his eyes. The time was of a large thooting Itar; but its motion about half past eight o'clock. much flower: that its direction was Following the meteor northward, ič northerly, declining towards the hori- was next seen by Lord Derby's garzon, and leaving a stream of light behind dener, at Knowiley, about seven or it. Inits progressit grew larger, so that eight miles from Liverpool. He said at last it became as broad at the great he saw a ball of fire, of half the end as a man's head, was of a conical breadth of the moon, moving horizonfigure, with the point upwards, and appa- tally east, a little inclining toward the rently about five feet long. They further north, with a hilling noise. . That a related that, a little before it reached the train of light followed it, which being horizon, it burst into a flame resemblinga foon collected into a body, it burft; flash of lightening, and then immedi- part seeming to fall down like itars, ately disappeared. Dr. Shipley found and the rest vanished. He thought he from their description, that it burit at saw it for two minutes. Others, in the altitude of about 1° 15', and bearing the same neighbourhood, describe it N. 35o W. The time could not be as a ball of fire which rose in the east, determined.

appeared to increase in size for some It was seen by a person between time, and then burst without noise. Thorpe and Colchester in Essex, who lts direction, they say, was towards the says its direction was from N. W. to north. S. E. its motion very swift, its body

At Cockermouth, in Cumberland, not so large as the full moon, but more it was described to be as big as the bright; and that it left a train of light moon when high; but much brighter: behind. He did not see it break into that it had a tail of a conical form; Atars, like a rocket; but it seemed to and the light very intense. Its motion fall whole into a wood.

was towards the N. W. and very swift. In the neighbourhood of Cambridge None of the preceding observers heard it was seen by two persons; from one any explotion. of whom the Rev. Mr. Mitchell, then The fame meteor was seen at Carlisle, fellow of Queen's-College, collected, at the altitude of 32°, when it bore with

great care, the circumstances at- N. 41° W. moving towards the N, rending it. When they first saw it, it W. and it burft at an altitude of 80:: was at least 70° high, and it appeared about a minute after which two very to be moving directly from the zenith loud reports were heard, as of cannon LOND. Mag, Dec. 1783.

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fired at two or three miles distance, and, wise, and fa.dit was a ball of fire, about immediately after, a rumbling noise as big as the sun, with a tail as long as in the air, which continued for at leatt her arm; and that it passed almoft ditwenty feconils. It appeared here of a rectly over her head. That it burit conical forn, the head being about without noise into sparks, which fell fourteen inches diameter, and the down, and, as the thought, alınoit reachlength about five yards. It continued ed the tops of the houtes. in light about twenty-five feconds; and The Rev. Mr. Turnbull, minister of its path was wholly to the weitward of Abbotrule, a parish about forty-four thai city. The report was also heard, miles N. E. by E. of Dumfries, was though I do not find that the meteor fitting in his parlour, which had a S. W. was feen, at Stone-garthside, a place window, about nine o'clock at night, about fifteen miles N. by E. of Car- and saw a fian of lightening, as he lifle. The noise is said to be much thought it to be, but was surprised at louder than the report of any heavy its colour and permanence. However, cannon, and it continued about seven having no thoughts of any thing else, or eight seconds.

he waited in expectation of a ciap of The meteor was also seen to burst thunder; accordingly, at the end of when bearing N. W. by N. at Butterby, fire or fix minutes, be heard an exploabout a mjie fouth of Durham; but no fion, not indeed so much like thunder, noise was heard there. It palled a little as the craihing noise of a house falling weit of Newcastle, about nine o'clock, down: and being perfuaded that this was moving northward; and appeared to really the case, and that the gable-end be about the fize of a man's head, with of his own had fallen down, he ran out, a tail of two or three yards long. but found no damage done; and the

The Rev. Mr. Henderson, vicar of evening was very fine, and without Felton, a village about twenty-four clouds. miles N. N. Woof Newcastle, Taw it The best account by far, that we had a little after nine o'clock. The road of this meteor from Scotland, was given was instantiy enlightened, so that he by James Turnbull, a farmer at Ancould have seen a pin. Its head was cram. Ancram is a village about thirty the fize of a fix or seven pound thot; two miles S. E. of Edinburgh. This and it had a tail like a comet, of about very intelligent person was juit going a yard long. The relocity was very into his house, which fronts eie S. L. great, and the time he faw it not above about nine o'clock at night, and faw fix or seven fuconds; but his view was the whole side of his house fuddenly confined by a hili on one fide, and trees enlightened with a brightness, as if of on the other. Its path was towards funthine. He turned quickly about, to the N. K.

see what might be the cause of it, and It was feen at Dumfries in Scotland, faw a globe of fire, the diameter of which is a few miles N. of Solway which might be about half or two firth, and 30 N. W. by W. of Carlitle, thirds that of the moon when she is by a young man, who was in a room pretty high. It came from the S. F. by looking . E. and who described it to S. and, as he thought, directly towards be about as large as a middle fized man. him. ile had scarcely tinc to think According to his report, its direction before it pacted by him with great was from S. E. to N. W. and the switiness, and very highi in the air; broadest part went foremost. As it and when it came opposite to the gable proceeded, part of the tail was fepa- end of his house, he then faw the Tated from the reft; but he thought true figure of it: namely, that it was

till followed the rest for fome perfectly round at its great end, which time, and then burst to pieces, as if went foremost, and tapered for three fplit by gunpowder, but without noise, or four yards, as he thought, to a whilf the body kept its course as far point. It pailed to the south-west of as he could fee it. “A lady, who was his zenith; and when it had su done, in the direct at this place, saw it like and bore W. by N. about one third

that part

part of it, toward the small end, broke from the wejl, a little noriherly; towards of, feparated into sparks of fire, and the enft, a little southerly. That it passed immediately vanished; while the re- very near his zenith; but, if any thing, , mainder of it proceeded forward, until to the north of it. That it appeared to is bore W. N. W. when it vanished him nearly as large as the full moon, alio, and the former darkness return- when three or four hours highs

. That The whole time that this perfon it was perfectly spherical, without tail, faw the mtecr, he thinks, might be but emitted, or dropped, sparks of vaabout a minute; but one may reasona- rious colours and magnitudes; and bly conclude, from some circumilances that its light resembled the flame which in his own relation, that it must have arises from burning spirits. The time been much less. After he got into the was about nine o ciock, and the night house, he looked at his watch, and very dark indced. It may be proper found it to be 5 pait nine o'clock; to add, that after Dr. Mackenzie heard and in about five minutes more he his account differed to widely from heard a noise like a clap of thunder, others, he went ag in to the place where with fome continuance; and others of he saw it, revised all his bearings, and his neighbours heard also a noife, but returned perfectly satisfied with the compared it to the crash of a house fal- truth of them, as first related. ling down: one in particular ran out, It did not appear that this meteor thinking that the gable end of his own was seen out of the island of Greaihouse and that of his neighbour's had Britain, except by a few perfons on actually tumbled down. "Mr. Turn- the eaitern coast of Ireland; and all the bull could not speak politively to the information Sir john could get froin height of the neteor when it parled thence, was an extract from a register him, but was certain it was nearer the of the weather, kept hy Mr. Thomas zenith than the horizon: and, by com- Garret, of Iliand-bridge, near Dublin, piiring its path afterwards, with rela- which runs thus: tion to the gable-end of his houfe, it Nov. 26th, 1758. llard blowing was found io have been about 584 Weather: wind at S. E. Ats" 1512?

globe of fire moi ud from south to Sir John te eireil cany letters from north, as large, in appearance, as the the fouth-east parts of Scotland, all in full inoon; but of a golden colour. It general agreeing with the above, but broke and dispersed like a starry rocket, Lone of thein raiticular enough to nearly before the wind. When due merit a recital liere, except thai Mr. east, it was about 17° abore tle ho. Simfont, jun. a minifter, at St. Andrews, rizon. No found was heard; and Mr. which is chest miles N. E. by N. Garret saw it but a few feconds; but of Edinburyll, taw the Grit appearance Emanuel Miller, a neighbour, fai it of the meteor about S. E. and as they from the beginning to the end, and afterwards found, about 15° high. thought it was virible about haif a It appeared to him about us large as minute; and that it noved with less the full moon, at lier greatest height; rapidity than falling itars commonly and he fam no tail, nor hraniany nife. do.

Tle meteor was not fren in any of drom there observations it may rezthe N. E. parts of Scotland; but I dily be computed that this ineteor could must not omit to obterre that it was noi be much less than one hundred feen on the N. W. wait of that king- miles high when it made its first apdom, at a place called Flowerdale, in pearance over Camlridge. That it Rorshire, by Dr. Alexander Vacken- dirited its course N. w. by N. ntarly, zie, a phylician in that part of the and, perhaps, in a traight line, but inhland, as his obfervation corroborates clining a little towards the plane of the very strongly those made ar Cukkefter horizon, until it was veriícal to foine in ECex, and at knowilex, rear Li- place a little to the fouthward of the verpool. Dr. Mackenzie fuus that its city of Ghigow; where part of it motion was very rapid, and its dircctiun - broke off, and difparicd 'in bixho

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