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the foreign growers and importers, on this country are become much better a supposition that it could not be acquainted with the nature of cobalt, brought to any degree of perfection in and the manner of preparing zaffre this kingdom, has been very fuc- and smalt from it, than they were becessfully obtained by the considerable fore. And as it is well known, that premiums given for that purpose; and there are other mines, or, at least, fome the English Madder, produced in con- veins of this substance in Cornwall, sequence, was found as good, at least, Devonshire, and also in Scotland, and if not better, than any imported. probably in other parts of the kingdom,
“ As the culture of this article is it promises, in time, to become a matattended with great expense, the So- ter of very great and profitable imporciety was apprehensive that the pay- tance. For when it is considered that ment of tithes in kind might counteract all the cobalt used in our manufactothe good effects otherwise to be expected ries, and nearly all the zaffre and fmalt from their premiums: some of their consumed here, are imported at a large members, who had seats in parliament, expence from abroad, the discovery of applied to the legislature, and obtained the original material, and making the an act, by which the payment of tithes preparations from it, will open a new for Madder was fixed at five shillings business, and establish a manufacture, per acre.
which has hitherto taken place here By the removal of this obstacle, only on a small scale. Great quantiand a continuation of rewards from the ties of smalt imported, as has been Society, the effect principally required observed, from abroad, are used under has been fully obtained: foreign madder the name of powder blue, in washing is reduced to a reasonable price, and linen; and very large quantities of likely to continue fo, as the growers in zaffre are annually sent to China, for Holland, and other countries from the use of their manufacturers. Much 'whence it is imported, are thoroughly of the raffre brought to England is convinced that we can supply ourselves mixed with matters that debase its quawith any quantity, and of the best lity, and injure its colours; and as the kind, whenever, by an advance of the manner of preparing it from cobalt is price, the profits are found sufficient to now well known in England, and as engage the attention of our husband- all mixture of foreign matter may be
Our dyers and callico-printers easily avoided, there is not a doubt, have been greatly benefitted, and the that if a mine of cobalt should be pronation has fared many thousand pounds, perly worked in this kingdom, that by the reduction of the price of this material, so useful in our manufactures, article."
and of so much consequence as an artiII.
CHEMISTRY, Dying, and cle of commerce, may be prepared here MINERALOGY. The advantages of in a more atcurate manner than has hithe Society's rewards are tated in therto been practised abroad.” these observations:
CRUCIBLES AND RETORTS. COBAL T.'
“ As all crucibles and earthen re“ The discovery in these kingdoms torts used by chemifts, affayers, and of the mineral substance called Cobalt, melters of metals, were imported from from which Zaffre and Smalt are pre- abroad, the Society thought the discopared, was a very early object of the
very of proper materials for manufacattention of this society: and though turing them in this country was an their expectations, that a mine of it object well worthy of confideration; would have been worked, have not and having bestowed some few rewards been gratified; yet, by the several for that purpose, were pleased to find premiums offered and bestowed in order that a manufactory for making these to promote that design, this good effect vessels was established at Chelsea; where has followed, that a mine has been dif- they are not only made for home concovered, though not worked, and that sumption, but considerable quantities the miners, allayers, and chemiits of have been exported. It may be here
observed, that those kind of crucibles Lisbon or elsewhere, and of which large or melting pots, called black lead, or quantities have been exported to foblue pots, which are the only forts reign markets.” made use of in Cornwall for afsaying DYING TURKEY RED. tin ores, were not to be obtained from
“ The art of dying this colour on any part of Europe, except a small cotton, was formerly unknown in these place called Hafner's Zal lice. Potters kingdoms; but, by the attention of Place) or Pallou near Rehgensburg in manufacturers to the premiums offered Germany, where the only manufactures for the discovery of it, it can now be of this kind were carried on. This done here of as beautiful and as lasting inconvenience laid the tin smelters in a colour as that imported from the LeCornwall very frequently under great vant." difficulties, not only with regard to SAL AMMONIAC. the advanced price in time of war, but “ The making of this falt in Engfor want of an importation of the pots land has succeeded so far, that very a stop has often been put to many of large works of it are now carried on; their works.
to the attainment of which, there is “ 'I he Society have the satisfaction good reason to believe, the premiums to find by certificates from some of the offered, and the bounties given, by the most respectable aslay-matters in Corn- Society, have in a great measure, conwall, that in consequence of their at- tributed. And if it be considered, that tention and rewards, a manufacture of great quantities of this material are pots, fully answering all their purposes, confumed in various operations, the is now cttablished at Chelsea; and ma- whole of which was formerly importny of the principal refiners, and the ed, its attainment will be found to be workmen at the mint, using no other an object of great consequence.” than what are made there, the molt
V ARNISH. fanguine with the Society had on this “ The beauty and durability of the important object has been fully gra- Varnish invented and used by Mont tified.”
Martin, of Paris, and for which large TANNING with OAK SAW-DUST. sums of money were annually sent out
“ The reward given by the Society of these kingdoms, induced the Soto the person who discovered the use of ciety to offer premiums for discovering oak saw-dust in the tanning of leather the method of making the like here; (of which full trial was made, and the and the high perfection to which our efficacy thereof ascertained, as appears workmen are now arrived in that art by the samples in the Society's reposi- evinces that those preiniums have had tory) threw new lights on that very a happy effct." extensive and useful manufacture, and
VERDIGRIS. the improvements made in consequence “ This article, of great use to dyers, thereof will probably, in time, be and some other manufactures, was practised to great advantage, when the formerly wholly imported from France, legislature fail think proper to repeal at a very great expence; but the that law which confines the tanner to Society having reason to believe the cfe of very few materials in his bu- that verdegris might be made in Engfiness."
land, at a reasonable price, several DYING OR COLOURING LEA- premiums were paid for attempts to THER.
obtain it; and of late years a work has " 'The introduction of the eastern been established, where it is manufacmanner of dying red and yellow leather tured in very confiderable quantities; has been attended with great aivan- but an ingenious person at Mantages to the public, a manufacture of chester has discovered a method of preconfiderable extent being now establish- paring a cheap. substitute, which on ed in England, where these kinds of repeated trials has been found fully to leather are prepared and dyed in a man- answer the purposes for which verdigris ner fuperior to what are imported from is ufed in dying*."
III. Co. * An account of this discovery, for which the Society gave a reward, is publidied in this volume.
III. COLONIES and Trade. These easily excited by well-timed, though are the observations on the effects of moderate, rewards; and, therefore, that these rewards :
there should be a bank of generosity, “ The Society, influenced by the to which such genius may, without tenor and spirit of fundry acts of par- difficulty, apply, and from whom, with liament, fubfisting, for more than a certainty, it may expect the reward of century past, and being of opinion, merit, as well as a mark of honour, is that to encourage in the Britih Co- here undeniably proved to be the furest lonies the culture and produce of such means of employing and applying such commodities as we must otherwise im- genius to national benefit. port from foreign nations would be “ It is not our intention to infimore advantageous to the navigation nuate, that the rewards given by the and commerce of this kingdom, than Society have been, in any degree, equal if the like things could be raised with, to the national advantages obrained by in the island of Great-Britain, have them: we mean only to show what liberally extended their premiums and great benefits have been, and may be bounties for sundry articles fuited to derived from small means well adthe climates and circumstances of the ministered." North-American provinces : among
CARPETS, which, the manufactures of Pot-Ath Manufactured in the Turkish manner. and Pearl-Ath happily succeeded to “ This was an early object of attentheir wishes, and the importation of tion in the Society; by their rewards these articles from North-America was it is now established in different parts an eftablished and important branch of of the kingdom, and brought to a detrade.
gree of elegance and beauty, which the “ The planting of Mulberry Trees, Turkey Carpets never attained." the propagation of filk worms, and the
CAMEOS and INTAGLIOS produce of tilk, were so far advanced,
in artificial Gems. that, in consequence of the rewards given by the Society, eleven thousand
“ In consequence of premiums of five hundred and seventy-five pounds fered in the class of polite arts, for inof raw silk were imported from those troducing and improving the art of provinces.
imitating ancient sculptured Gems, “ The planting of vines, and making Cameo and Intaglio, by exact impreswine from grapes;
fions, in various coloured pastes, a main the making of indigo, and the ob- nufacture of this kind is established in taining oil trom vegetables, the pro- England, and fucceeds fo well, that alt duce of thofe colonies, have been the forts of engraved or embossed geins, anobjects of the Society's attention."
cient or modern, can be exactly copied, IV. MANUFACTURES. From the and at so finall an expence, that whatrewards several beneficial discoveries ever there may be of taste and elegance have arisen, on which we shall give the in these epitomised compositions of observations, as they stand in the Tran- the ancients, they are now no longer factions :
confined to the cabinets of the curious, “ The great and good effects of re
but for the benefit of young artists, and wards bestowed in this class afford the gratification of all others, are dif
fused the clearest proofs of the advantages
among the publick." which this nation has derived from the
CHIP HATS, benevolent labours of the Society,
Being of very general and popular “ Genius, though not contined to use among the female
of the naany particular rank, often fleeps with tion, are consequently, while they the affluent, while neceflity compels continue to be imported from abroad, the indigent to exert it.
an important article in the national “ That noble enthusiasm, which outgoings; but now they are brought always exifts in the authors and in- to fuch perfection in the manufactories ventors of agreeable and useful arts, is set up in Devonshire and other parts,
as to give hopes that the importation loom itself: the general intention in all will soon cease.
these machines being to shorten laCOMB PO T.
bour, and to save expence; the ma“ It is of the greatest importance, chines themselves, or perfect models of that every branch of the woolen ma- them, are preserved in the Society's nufactory, esteemed the staple trade of repository. the kingdom, should be carried on at " It is no improbable conjecture, that the smallest expence.
the great improvements in Spinning, “ The combers of wool generally which have taken place within twenty heat their combs by charcoal, which, years, in these kingdoms, particularly in parts where wood is scarce, is im- in the cotton works in Lancashire, Dermoderately dear, The inventor of a byshire, Nottinghamshire, &c. are to Comb Pot, whereby the same opera- be assigned to the premiums offered and tion is effe&tually performed by pit- paid by this Society. coal, was judged to be well worthy of “ In the year 1760, premiums were being distinguished and rewarded by a first offered for the best invention of bounty."
a machine for spinning fix threads of DRUG G E T S. wool, cotton, fax, or silk, at one time, “ The Society having been informed, and that will require but one person by merchants, that a particular species to work and attend it;' and in 1764, of foreign druggets were in great re- some premiums were paid for attempts queft in the southern markets of Europe, at obtaining that desirable object. eitablished and continued annual pre- At the time, therefore, of the first miums, till our manufacturers made the offering rewards on this subject, there like fort in perfection equal to the seems reason to believe the thought had foreign."
not occurred to the manufacturers in LEA THE R.
general; for from the best information “ Hides being a native commodity, hitherto obtained, it appears, that about the converting them into leather was the year 1764, a poor man, of the attended to by the Society, as another name of Hargreaves, employed in the staple manufacture. In consequence of cotton manufactory, near Blackbum, their rewards, Losh, or Buff-Leather, in Lancashire, first made one in that has been made in England, equal to county, which spun eleven threads; the best imported.
and that in the year 1770 he obtained “ Also, a very extensive manufac- a patent for the invention. The conture of Red-Leather, in imitation of struction of this kind of machine, calTurkey or Lisbon, has been established led a Spinning Jenny, has since been ander the influence of their rewards: much improved, and is now at fo high great improvements having been made a degree of perfection, that one woin the process laid before the Society man is thereby enabled, with ease, to by the foreigner from whom they pur- spin
an hundred threads of cotton at a chased the secret (see the article in time : nor did the spirit and ingenuity class Chemistry). The skins are now of the manufacturers in this extenfive prepared and dyed in so excellent a branch stop here, for since that period manner, that they are not only pre- those stupendous works, the Cotton ferred to the foreign by the consuiners Mills at Crumford, in Derbyshire, and of that commodity at home, but have several other places, have been erected; been exported in considerable quanti- where, by the motion of a large waterties."
wheel, the cotton is carded, roved, SPINNING, WEAVING, &c. and spun into threads, infinitely more
“ Great and repeated improvements expeditiously, and with greater truth, have been produced to the Society, in than can possibly be done by hand, and Spinning-wheels, and, machines for better adapted to the general purposes winding, doubling, and twitting linen, of the manufacturers. cotton, and worsted yarn; and also a Of how great advantage these conTery extraordinary improvement in the trivances have been to the trade of
Manchester, Manchester, and the country many may safely say, if the whole fund and miles round it, and, by laying the revenue of the Society had been given foundation of a very extended com- to obtain this one article of trade, the merce, to the kingdom in general, is national gain in return should be conso well known, as to render a further fidered as very cheaply purchased.” detail unnecessary.”
V. MECHANICKS. The effects of PA P E R.
the Society's rewards are thus related: “1. Of Silk Rags. 2. For Copper- “ One great and general effect of Plate Printers.
Mar- the rewards given in this class, has bled.
been the removing, in many instances, “ Under the encouragement of the old vulgar prejudices against all new Society, all these have been established inventions. The most ignorant are or promoted; the first, from the diftin generally the most obftinately attached culty of discharging the colours from to the ways of working wherein they dyed lilk, has not been yet made per- have been brought up. "The husbandfectly white; but is manufactured in men of Surrey, Berkshire, and sundry fmall quantities of different shades of other parts, can scarcely be prevailed brown, or other colours, and is the upon, at this day, to use the Norfolk beft paper for drawing on with chalks, and Suffolk plongh in fimilar soils, or crayons: the second was necessarily though it operates at half the expence imported, at a considerable expence, of their own. But the many valuable from France, cill its manufacture at machines and models, the mechanical home was promoted by the Society: inventions or improvements produced the third and fourth forts were also fo. in near thirty years (and every year reign manufactures; and the last, being increasing) being preserved in the Soof very general use, was imported in ciety's repository, for the inspection great quantities, and to a great amount and information of the publick, and in value; but it is now made here to the several convincing experiments perfection, at several manufactories, and made under the auspices of the Society, is become an article of exportation." have begun, by means of its members
QUILTING in the LOOM. and other gentlemen, to excite and “ When the proposition was firft diffuse a spirit of improvement, para made in the Society, of offering a pre- ticularly in instruments of husbandry, mium to encourage the making, in the through all parts of the kingdom." loom, an imitation of that species of
SAW - MILLS. Needle-work, long known by the naine
“ Intiinidated by a groundless fugof Marseilles Quilting, it was almost rejected as visionary and imposible; gestion of a pretended prohibitory aët but the laudable spirit of enterprize,
of parliament, this country submitted, which has always diftinguished this so- for many years, to have timber cut into ciety, determined them to publish the boards by the faw-mills of Holland and Premium, and the confequence has
other foreign countries, till the public justified the meafare. This success spirit and the rewards of the Society animated them to continue their pre. interpoling, the prejudice was overmiums, in hopes of further improve come; and to the great credit and emoment, in which they were not disap- lument, both of the public, and of pointed. The manufacture is now to the particular undertakers, law-mills thoroughly eltablithed, and so exten
are now firmly established in Enge
land." five, being wrought in all the different materials of linen, woolen, cotton,
WHALE-FISHERY. and blk, that there are few persons of “ The invention of the method of any rank, condition, or sex, in the striking Whales by the Gun-Harpoon, kingdom (and we may add, within the now confirmed by experience, will, extent of British commerce, so greatly most probably, make the profits of that is it exported) who do not use it in fishery much more considerable than fome part of their clothing; so that we they were before." LOND. Mac. Nov. 1783.