be applied to music, which is poetry to like the paintings of the liuman form, advantage dressed; and even to paint- itrictly imitations, but let it be consiing, many kinds of which are poems dered that words and sounds form no to the eye, as all poems, merely descrip- resemblance of visible objects; and imitire, are pictures to the ear. Thus tation implies resemblance. We, there. we (hall consider them all, as fpeaking fore, think that the parts of these three the language of passion, not refined by arts, which are merely defcriptive, act unnatural forms, or the corruptions of by a kind of sulftitution; that is, they false taite,

raise in our minds affections or fentiPictures, which represent the human ments, analogous to those wh ch arife figure and countenance, are indeed ftrict- in us, when the respective objects are ly imitative, but let it be remembered, presented to our senses, in nature. that thofe paintings, which place before But on these subjects, a fyfternatic our eyes fome palicn, ftrike deeper, on series of differtations might be written. the affe&tions. But then, their power-Let me, therefore, conclude this crude ful effect arises, not from any imita- effay. tion, but from fympathy, that grand If our arguments are founded in mover of the affections of mankind, truth, and our atertions have justice that innate faculty of sensation, seated in for their baís, it will appear that the the deepest receffes of the human mind, to noblest effects which poetry, music, or which the arts of poetry, mufic, and painting can produce, are expreffive of painting are indebted for their powerful the paflions, and operate on the mind, efeéts.

by sympathy; while the subordinate In opposition to our arguments, it parts are defcriptions of natural objects, may, perhaps, be alledged, that de- and affect us by substitution. fcriptive poetry and descriptive music are,

Το γαρ γερας εσ. θανων. .


His father Nicola, however, poffeffed A RIOSTO was descended from an

ancient family, that had flourished little taste for literature, and rather in high eftimation for a long course of wished his son to desert those flowery years at Bologna. The house of the paths, and pursue fome fucrative Ariofti, however, removed to Ferrara, profession, with affiduity. He was, on the marriage of Lippa Ariosto, with therefore, sent to Padua, to study civil Obizzo III. Marquis of Ette.

law. Among other branches of this name Ovid, Petrarch, and Taffo had fawas Nicolo, who filled several import- thers cast in the same mold, and the ant posts, under the Dukes of Ferrara, conduct of all thefe great poets was the and was sent on several embassies to the fame. The natural bent of their ges Pove, the Emperor, and the King of nius led them all to the cultivation of France. He was at length appointed poetry, and every other acquirement Goremor of Rheggio, and then

married was esteemed only as far as it was conDaria de Malagazzi, a lady of wealth ducive to the grand object of their and family, by whom he had five sons wishes. and as many daughters, of whom Ludo- Nicolo, by the interference of a near vico, the subject of these memoirs, was relation, at length permitted his son to the eldeft, and gave very early presages obey that strong propensity to literaof a superior genius.

ture, which had created an early aver. His progress in the Latin language fion for the law, and had instigated him exceeded that of almost all his contein- privately to peruse, and even transiate, poraries, and while he was in his rudi- several of the French and Spanish ro. ments, he composed a tragedy on the mances. fory of Pyramus and Thilbe, which Ludovico was now at liberty, and was acted by his brothers and sisters. under the tuition of Gregorio de Spo


leti, he applied himself with unremit- which the subject seemed to demand, ting assiduity to recover the time which he formed a plan of such a composition, he had loft. He was now twenty, and at about thirty years of age, which he previous to a perusal of the Greek wri- communicated to Cardinal Bembo. He ters, he determined to make himself a was now advised to write in Latin; but perfect master of the Latin tongue. he replied, that he would rather be the But in the midst of his literary pursuits, first among the Tuscan writers, than his master was sent into France, with the last among the Romans. At the the grandson of Alphonso of Naples, same time, he produced some stanzas where he foon after died, to the inex- of his Orlando, which changed the opi. pressible grief of Ariosto.

nion of his friend, who gave him such This lors, however, was not the only encouragement, that he determined to misfortune by which his studies were prosecute his plan with rigour, impeded. His father Nicolo was car- The story which Boyardo had begun, ried off, about the same time, and left as it was well known, he determined to a large family to the care of Ludovico. finish. He, therefore, retired to the He has described his situation in his villa of a relation, near Rheggio, in fixth satire:

order to pursue his studies without inMi more il padre e da Maria il pensiero, &c. terruption. He has given an agreeable My father dead, I took the father's part,

ketch of his retreat, in his fourth faAnd chang'd for household cares the muse's art; tire. For tunetul verse, each thoughtful hour I spent But his literary employments were To husband well the little heaven had sent: Each filer claim'd by turns myguardian hand, again interrupted. He was sent on an To watch their youth, and form their nuptial embassy to Pope Julius II. by the Duke band;

of Ferrara, and acquitted himfelf very While piety and love my heart engage, honourably in his comıniffion; and at To rear my helpless brethren's tender age. the battle of Ravenna, in which the

He was thus plunged into a fea of Duke's party conquered, our poet took troubles. The design of prosecuting the one of the largest of the enemy's verGreek language was necessarily relin- fels, filled with stores and aminunition. quished, and the Latin almott aban- Ludovico was then sent a second doned. His friend Pandolfo for some time to the Pope, but so incensed was time stimulated him to the continuance his holiness against the duke, that Ari. of his studies, but death deprived him oto with difficulty escaped alive to alio of this companion.

Ferrara. All these disappointments could not When these tumults had subsided, damp the vigour of his genius. His Ludovico returned to his retirement, vein for poetry defied all obstruction, and after many interruptions, occafionand at the age of twenty-nine, his La- ed by his continuing in the cardinal's un verses had acquired him uncommon service, he sent his Orlando into the reputation. His company and converfation were now eagerly sought by the But the prelate's farour did not conlearned, and Cardinal Hippolito of tinue much longer. For on his de. Efte, invited him to his court, and en- clining to accompany him into Hun. tertained him for fifteen years in his gary, on account of his health, he loft service.

his patron's protection. On which acAs his mind was now freed from count, he retired from the bustle of a the load of care which had depressed it, court, and published a new edition of he turned lis thoughts again to his poem, in 1521, with corrections. verse, and displayed such a happy ver- At the death of the Cardinal, he fatility of genius, that, in whatever had resolved to take a final leave of {pecies of poctry he wrote, as his Ita- public life, but was appointed, a few lian biographer observes, that appeared years after, to the government of Grato have bien his particular study. fagnana, a province on the Apennines,

As no author iad written a poem of in which the people were very licenthe romance kind, with that dignity tious, and almost without law or rule.


world in 1515.

By prudence, and proper exertions of of the modern Italian poets, it will authority, he reduced them to their undoubtedly be expected that some acduty; and by his conduct during this count should be given of his manners, period of his power he gained the af. his person, and his modes of life. There tection of his subjects, and the appro- is a curiosity, inherent in human nature, bation of his sovereign.

which urges us to enquire into the miHe again returned to court, at the nutest particulars that respect men of expiration of his government, and for eminence. And surely this curiosity the amusement of the Duke wrote fe- cannot but be deemed laudable, when reral tragedies. His service was more we consider that these characters should agreeable now, than it had been while he be viewed as objects worthy of imitalived with Hippolito, and as his imagi. tion, as they raised themselves by their pation and fancy were again at liberty, talents to posts of dignity, or extendhe published fome satires.

ed their reputations in the eyes of their A law-fuit, however, involved him contemporaries, or delivered their names in new difficulties, and for some time pure, and unsullied by the breath of he was obliged to lay aside his compo- dishonour, to enjoy the united love fitions. But when his affairs were set- and admiration of pofterity, tled, he purchased a small piece of Ariosto then was modest and affable ground, opposite the church of St. Be- in his conversation, as we are told that nedict, on which he built a house, and our great countryman, Dryden, was, Laid out a garden.

and by his behaviour he seemed almoft On this ipot, he spent the remainder unconscious of his fuperiority. In arof his life in retirement, as much as gument, he was close and correct: in poffible fecluded from public employ- general conversation, quick and agreements, and devoted his hours to poe- able. He feldom laughed; but though tical meditation.

his temper was father

of a melancholy He was seised about the end of the cast, his difpofitions were far from ful. year 1532, in the 59th year of his age; len or morose. He was fond of feof a lingering illness, not long after he male society, and was always observed had committed his Orlando Furioso to to be most lively in the company of the press, in the improved state in women. He disliked ceremony, but which we now have it. In defiance of respected power and rank, with the medical affittance, as, indeed, the re- exactest propriety. He scorned all digmedies applied brought on a confump- nities which could only be acquired by tion, he expired at Ferrara, on the 6th fervitude. Of his country he was a of June, or as other writers say, on fincere lover. To his

prince the 8th of July, 1533.

loyal, and in his friendships steady. Thus died Ludovico Ariosto, a man Towards the evening he usually made of uncommon reputation, whether we his fingle meal; and as


rather a consider him as a public character, or defpiser of luxury, his table was neias a poet. In the former point of view, ther remarkable for variety of dilles, we find him beloved by Leo X. and in nor curious for delicacies.' In of the closest friendship with the family his fatires, he says, of Medicis. In the latter, he appears I little heed what plenteous wealth affords, to be one of those rare geniuses, who Where costly dainties pile luxurious boards : have obtained the zenith of reputation, Well had I lived, when man, to hardship bred during their life-time, while their works In early times, on fimple acorns fed. have preserved an equal reputation, While he was composing his Orlando, when the judgement of contemporary he would frequently rise, in the middle critics has been fanctified by fucceeding of the night, a custom which Mr. Pope · generations, when personal attachments likewise observed. Whatever then oco have lost their influence, and the early curred, he committed to paper, and in decisions of public taste have been coolly the morning communicated to his examined by mankind.

friends. After this short life of the greatest His integrity was incorruptible, and LOND. MAG. July 1783.



he was



so well known, that an old man, who He was fond of gardening and plantwas afraid of being poisoned on ac- ing, though quite ignorant of botany. count of his great wealth, trusted him. His farourite authors were Virgil, Ti. felf without hesitation in the hands of bullus, and Horace. Propertius he did Ariosto.

not admire. As a son and a brother, his conduct He was of an amorous constitution, towards his family, which we have al- and very susceptible of the powers of ready related, is sufficient to establish beauty. Geneura, however, is the his character.

only name which he has recorded in His fondness for building was re- his sonnets: and to that indeed he only markable; and when one of his friends alludes. expressed his astonishment that he could His person was rather above the be contented with so small a house, common size. His countenance grave, when he had described such wonderful and contemplative. From Titian's adedifices in his poem, he told him that mirable picture of this delightful poet, it was much easier to put words toge- he appears to have been partly bald, ther than bricks, and then led him to to have had black curling hair, a high the portico of his house, where he forehead, arched eye-brows, a large shewed him these lines, which had aquiline nose, and a complexion rather been engraved, by his direction, over inclining to the olive. the door:

He is reported to have met his difParva, sed apta mihi, sed nulli obnoxia, sed non

solution with great composure, and, Sordida, parta meo sed tamen ære domum. indeed, seemed impatient to leave this Small is my humble roof, but well design'.

world, as he was strongly impressed 'To suit the temper of the master's mind;

with the most pleasing of all ideas, that Hurtful to none, it boasts a decent pride, in another ftate he should know all the That my poor purse the modest cost supplied. friends whom he had loft during his

He was naturally timid, and espe- life-time. cially on the water, although he disco- He was interred in the church of vered great perfonal bravery, in an en. St. Benedict, under a plain monument, gagement between the Pope's and which was afterwards enriched with Duke's vessels.

several Greek, Latin, and Tuscan inHe was never satisfied with his scriptions. Terses, but continually altered them.

T. T.

I ,


THE SCIPIOS. Me quidem ... non tam operibus magnificis, exquifitisque antiquorum artibus dele&ant,

quam recordatione fummornm virorum ubi quijque habitare, ubi sedere, ubi difputare fit folitus: ftudiofeque eorum etiam fepulcra contemplar.

Cic. de Leg. Lib. 2. T has long been a question among read, had the least idea of its true fiAppia, was fitunted the sepulchre of the actually discovered some years since. family of the Scipios. This dispute has About the year 1616, a Roman, 22been conducted, and indeed has termi. fant working in his vineyard, which nated in a similar manner to that re- was situated about a quarter of a mile lative to the situation of the ancient within the Porta Caffina, now called Herculaneum. While some authors San Sebastiano, difcovered a comb-stonc placed it upon Mount Vesuvius, others with the following inscription : placed it at the edge of the sea fhore, at Resina; others again, at Torre del

Hone. sino. ploirume. confentions. R.

Duonoro. Oprumo. Fuiffe. Viro. Greco; others at Torre dell'Annun.

Luciom. Scipione. Filios. Barbari, ciata, &c. &c, but not one, that I ever

Consol. Cenfor. Aidilis. His. Fues.


Hec. Gepit. Corfica. Aleriaque. Urbe. &c. and close to it the following, en. Deder. Tempeftaribus. Aidé. Mereto.

graved on Tiburtine stone: This discovery, it naturally was imagined, would finish the contest; and it L. Corneli. L. F. P. . did for some time; till the learned

Scipio. Quasit.

Tr. Mil. Arnos. Marchese Maffei, of Verona, in his

Gnatus XXXIII. book, intitled De Arte critica Lapidaria,

Mortuos. Parer. endeavoured to prove, that the stone Regem Antioco M in question, must have been brought here by some vine-dreffer, &c. to build

The walls are composed of alternate or repair his little cottage; and that layers of brick and tile, and appear as the fepulchre of the Scipics lay on the fresh as if but just finished; if my meaber jide of the Via Appia; and, as a mory does not fail me, this room may further proof, he or some other of that be about 20 feet below the surface of time, brought the following quotation the vineyard, perhaps more. Besides from Cicero's first Tusculan disputa- this of Scipio Afiaticus, in a little tion:-an tu egreffus Porta Capena chamber adjoining was found the folCaza Catalini, Scipionum. Serviliorum, lowing infcription: Metellorum, fepulchra vides, miseras putas Quei. Apice. Infigne. Dial, Aminis. Geffei. illos?" and from hence observed, that Mors. Perfec. Tua.wi. Elint, omnia. although he (Maffei) might be mistaken Brevia. Horos. Famo. Virtusque. as to the exact spot; yer from Cicero it Gloria. Atque. Ingenium. Quibus Sci. was evident, that it must have been In. Longa. Licuifer. Tibe. Urier. Vira. zvitbout the Porta Capena; and there. Maiorum. Qua. Re. Lubens. Te. in. Gremia.

Facile. Fasteis. Superafes. Gloriam. fore, not where the old infcription was found: besides, it is added, that the

In the same place were also found custom of the ancient Romans was, ne

several human bones; and as, from the ver to bury any one within the walls teftimony of Livy (4. decal.) and of of the city, and even the bodies of the old Calabrian bard Ennius, was in

Cicero (Orat. pro Arch.) it appears that their emperors were burned in the Campus Martius. To this opinion all the terred among the Cornelian family, to learned have fince acceded:

but a late ther proof, these lines of Ovid,

which indeed may be added, as a furdiscovery in Rome has again thrown them all into confusion; and they are

Ennius emeruit Calabris in montibus orius, row forced to acknowledge, in oppo.

Cortiguus póni Scipio magne, ribi. fition to Maffei, that the spot where I could not help imagining that the the stone was found in 1616, is the fa- bones in question, were the remains of mily tomb of the Scipios.

that famous poet; of him, as Lucre. It came to light in the following tius says, manner :- A vineyard dresser having

Qui primus amano occasion to enlarge his little wine celo Detulit ex Helicone perenni fronde coronami lar (which, with his cottage, is built And, therefore, notwithstanding the on the scite where the above-mentioned strict watch kept over them, until the infcription was found, in 1616) in Holy Church had determined, whether digging, came to a wall, which he they were of Christian martyr, or pabroke through, and found a small gan infidel, I contrived, by the alattchamber, in which was placed an ear- ance of a gentleman who was with me, then jar, made of baked earth, with to procure the tibia: and Aatter my. two handles, containing cinders, alhes, felf, that the want of this will not im

pede • As the learned reader may not be displeased with a classical interpretation of this piece of antiquity, he is presented with the following:

Hunc. unum. plurimi. confentiunt. Roma.
Bonorum. oprimum. fuisse. Virum.
Lucium. Scipionem Filius. Barbari.
Conful. Cenfor. ædilis. bic. fuit.
Hic. cepit. Corsican. Aleriamque. urbem.
Dedir. Tempeftibus eodem, merito,

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