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But, as Virgil says of the countrymen, the manfion, in which pleasure had

O fortunati nimium, sua fi bona norint! wantoned, and in which learning had In our youthful days, we are un- displayed all her various allurements, acquainted with the various advan- was rendered by this one sad ftroke, the tages, which might follow, if we did seat of misery. not neglect the opportunities that What a reverse! long was the time, offer; and were not more solicitous in and many and severe were the pangs of the pursuit of pleasure, than of rational Dinarchon, before his philofophy, or inquiry, and solid knowledge. his reason could mafter his grief. At

Some little artifices, therefore, are length, however, the affection of the allowable, and may be practiced, in father, and the duties which he owed order to restrain the ardour of youth, his son, abated his affliction, and he from the attractions of pleasure and again appeared to submit to the decres dissipation, and bend his thoughts to of Heaven without regret. the acquisitions of learning, and his The education of Eutyches now footsteps to the paths of virtue. totally engrossed his thoughts. He

The following story was brought to fent for the best instructors in every our recollection by the train of reflec- art and science, to superintend him. tions which gave rise to these senti- The care of watching his dispositions ments on education. We do not re- he took upon himself, as he juftly member the author of the tale, but as judged it to be too important a trust it is applicable to our parpose, we shall for any other, as he had now arrived present it to our readers, without apo- at his sixteenth year. logy or preface:

He discovered in him an insatiable During the happy period, in wäich passion for letters, and observed that he the government of Sparta ficerished attended to the instructions of his vaunder the legislation of Lycurgus, rious tutors with eagerness and plcalived Dinarchon, a nobleman, on sure. Dinarchon again seemed to enwhom fortune had, with a lavish hand, joy life, and to be again susceptible of bestowed her favours. His manfion, the comforts of society. One only which was a few miles diítant from drawback prevented the completion of Lacedemon, was the resort of the his happiness. He perceived that his wealthy, the witty, the learned, and son was a most ardent admirer of the che beautiful. Nor were ample pof- female sex, subject to the dominion of feffions the only endowments which an eye, and influenced too much by mere bestowed on Dinarchon: his the charms of personal beauty. person was graceful and elegant, and Even the delight with which he his conversation was rendered

attractive listened to the precepts of philofophy, by eafe, sense, and varictv.

the effusions of poetic fancy, and the Such was Dinarchon. He had early narrations of history seemed to abate, in life united himself with a fernale, in when a visit was to be made to a beauevery particular, worthy of such a tiful woman, or when the attractions partner. They were blefied with one of any female guest allured him from child, a son, whom they named his tutors. Eutyches. 'Thus did domestic en- This trait in Eutyches was obferred joyinents render almost perfect the fe. with infinite pain and regret, by his licity of this noble Athenian, whom parent, who began to fear that his son a:Huence of fortune made the delight rould fall a prey to the designs of meof the poor, generosity of temper the retricious contrivance, and that his example to the rich, ard extent of hopes were nearly receiving a most fatal knowledge the ornament of his bait. He knew that advice would

very probably fail, as in any favourite But how uncertain and delufive is pursuit, human nature usually follows human happiness. In the midst of all ihe ruling pallion implicitly. On this these gay scenes, his wife was carried account he determined to endeavour at si suddenly by a viclent fever, and leat, by feine innocent artifice to wear


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him from this unrestrained admiration, in order to attain such an height of which might involve him in numberless happiness.” difficulties, and at laft, perhaps, prove The news of chefe obstructions rena his utter ruin, as the vivacity of his dered Eutyches more eager than ever, temper woald not conduce to render The father still seemed to deny, and. kim capable of withstanding the fe- the fon pressed, with redoubled ardour. ductions of the world.

At lengih, Dinarchon, apparently overThe tear of affection would often come by the vehemence of his folicitatrickle down his cheek, while he at- tion, thus addressed his son: “ I can tended him, and by the general tenor no longer withitand the vehemence, of his conversation, wished to convince with which you urge your request, but him, that virtue was the only path to will instruct you, in a mystery, that real pleasure. At length, he thought may teach you the means of acquiring of an expedient to render pleafure the a treasure, at least equal to that reprepallage to virtue, and resolved to put sented in yonder painting. his plan into immediate execution. “ That 'picture is copied from an

Dinarchon, therefore, led his fon, original, preserved in the Temple of as if accidentally, into a gallery of Diana at Ephesus. Remember, there, pictures, which had been collected by fore, Eutyches, to observe an inviolable his ancestors, and to which he had made secrecy, and not to deviate in the leaft large additions; and then pointed to particular from the injunctions of the one of the performances, in which the mystery, into which I am now going genius of the painter had displayed all to initiate you. Remember the bet its powers, in the design, and in the trayer of the secret, and the non-ob, colouring. “ Look at that piece, my server of the mandate, are always put boy, said the father, observe the ex- nished with death, Consider, there treme beauty of the female, and how fore, before I proceed, whether your admirably the raptures of the youth courage will support you with firmness, are painted, whom he is embracing in the trials, which the Goddess will with extacy, while he is on his knees, impose.” before her!"-" Who can wonder at Dinarchon paused. Eutyches looked his raptures (returned Eutyches) when again at the picture, and desired his he contemplates the divine figure who father to go on, as he was prepared to is blessing him with such an embrace? fuffer any hardships, in such a cause. the master piece of Heaven almost “ The youth, then, resumed Di. seems in his poffeffion. O happy youth! narchon, whom you behold there, was

enviable itate!"_" You speak, in- a native of Cyprus, and an enthufiaftic deed (said the father) as if you envied admirer of women, and fell in love with his situationNay, one would almost an ideal object, a beauty, created by be persuaded that you would purchase the powers of his own imagination. such a treasure at any expence! But « One day, as he was fitting beside you speak with too enthusiastic a a stream, and contemplating the vifionwarmth of a poffeffion which may so ary form, a deep sleep seized him. In casily be obtained."" So easily

, a dream Diana appeared to him, and (quickly cried the fon) so easily! Oh! told him, that if he would retire in how? where! by whom? If I can ac- ftantly to Ephesus, and keep his chaticomplish a design, that must teem with ty inviolated for the fpace four years, , fo much rapture, 0 tell me the means? and devote his time to the cultivation Do not hesitate to render your child the of his mind, that he might in some most happy among the sons of the measure be worthy of such a pofseflion, earth.”—" It would not be an arduous she would grant him all his wilhes. 'A talk, my Eutyches (said the father) beauty, faid the Goddess, as tranbut I am afraid, that the impetuosity scendent in shape, and as amply of your temper, renders you incapable blessed with mental qualifications, as of such an undertaking. Great felf- the female who now engages your denial, and long delays are necesary, attention, shall be yourş. Gothen

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follow P;!'


follow my injunctions, and be hap- the journey, with the idea of giving

loofe to his pleasures in future, al“ After this speech the Deity va-, though he was confined by such fevere nished, and the youth awoke. The reftrictions at present. dream made a deepimpression upon him; During the first year, however, the and as it was repeated at night, after a ftruggle between duty and inclination little consideration he refolved to com- was severe; and on several occafions, ply with the heavenly admonition. his fortitude could hardly fubdue his

“ He retired to Ephesus. Secluded paffions, a copy of the picture, however, himself from female society, and pure which his father had placed in his study, sued his studies with unabated ardour. was his constant resource, and soon reAt the expiration of the stated time, ftored him to his reason. the Goddess again appeared to him, The next year, his difficulties deand told him to repair to the fountain, creased. A life of solitude became less at the side of which he had before seen irksome, and the mind unaccustomed her, and that there he hould meet with to pleasure, before the third year was the reward of his fortitude and perse- expired, became indifferent to amuseverance.

ments, fond of literature, and attached “ The youth immediately obeyed, to philofophy. The picture was almost and was put in pofleision of the prize, difregarded, and female beauty loft its for which he had so long sighed, and powers of attraction. which he had gained by his fortitude I labitual study completed the triand labour.

umph, before half the latt period was “ in process of time this became a Eutyches was now mafter of religious myftery. As you are now himself. His paflions were regulated acquainted with its original, you are by reason, and his first inducement to inevitably doomed to undergo the tryal. literary pursuits was forgotten. Diveft yourself, therefore, of your love In a conversation, however, one day, of pleasure, which may prove your Dinarchon mentioned the picture, and

Livest yourself of your admira- his son instantly asked when he should tion of the fex, which may lead you to pofiess the fair reward of his self-dedestruction. Remember the resolution nials and labours. “ You have it now, of the amorous Cyprian. Be it your faid Dinarchon, the account of the care to emulate his fortitude, and the Cyprian lover was a fable of my own Goddess will confer on you a similar invention. The figures in the painting reward."

are allegorical. They are suppofed to Dinarchon now stopped, and watched represent Human Life, courting the the countenance and appearance of his embraces of HaPPINESS, who is filed fon, who had liftened to him, with the the daughter of Virtue, and MODE. most earneft attention. He faw that he RATION, and always loads those with was torn by a thoufand contending paf- favours, who are conducted to her, by fions. He walked up and down the gal. her parents. Jery, Several times he seemed inclined to Happinefs, therefore, now prepares fpüal:, but could not. The father did not to meet you. Virtue has instilled her attempt to control him, but let the purest principles into your foul, and affections of his heart have full play, Moderation is the directress of all your

At length, Eutyches told his father, actions. You have already found the that he consented to the hard conditions advantages of such a society, and will imposed by the Deity. His departure not, I am sure, desert your new comwas immediate, as Dinarchon was fen- panions. Purfue your present plans, fible, that deliberation and reflection through life, and you will soon be conmight easily defeat all his wishes, and vinced, that the treasure which you Tender his favourite plan abortive. poffefs is more valuable than riches, Entyches consoled himself during and more permanent than beauty."






Hæc ftudia adolefcentiam alunt, senectutem oblectant. Cic.
French writer has attempted to human mind. If we attend very close-

prove, that all the fine arts have ly to the effufions of joy, love, and a relation to one common principle of admiration, or to their oppofites, grief, Imitation. With respect to Painting, hate, and anger, we mall perceive in perhaps, he has succeeded, but surely them something nearly allied to caPoetry and Music may claim a no- dence and measure. In ancient times, bler origin. The firt language was' when the vehemence of the brators was probably poetical and musical; and na- poured forth in panegyric or censure, tions, where no species of imitation is there was a kind of rhythm, nearly as encouraged, where sculpture and paint- regular and as melodious as that of pocing are prohibited by the laws, as is try, in their sentences. the case among some of the Maho- To joy, then, we may attribute the metans, and where dramatic represen- origin of hymns of praise; and to these tations are utterly unknown, cultivate hymns the drama of Greece was in. poetry,

debted for its birth. “ That gentler soother of our cares,” To love, may be assigned the rise of with great success, and an almost en

the ode. The modern love-song, inthusiatic fervour.

deed, 'This idea of calling music, poetry,

“ – Sequitur patrem non paflibus æquis," and painting, arts of imitation, seems and consists in the idle tattle of darts to have originated from an assertion of and wounds. Of a far different nature, Aristotle, who tells us, that all poetry. most probably, were the productions consists in imitation. The opinions of an of the ancient lyric poets. They were eminent writer are frequently adopted by simple, tender, and natural: their ensucceeding generations, when, perhaps, dearients were unaffected, and their they can allign no better reason than complaints were gentle. The rage

of that a genius has said it, who is of an order passion which is attributed to Dido, superior to the general rank of authors. and the impetuofity which Sappho felt This sentiment, therefore, with respect and has described in her celebrated ode, to one of the arts, has been applied to were produced by those restraints which the other two, by almoft all who have the refinements of society introduced. written on these subjects, whether they Grief for the death of friends and treated the subjects in a philosophical, relatives, occafioned the dirge, at first critical, or scientific point of view. short, and consisting of a few pathetic

But men should learn to think for sentiments, of which some of the Greek themselves; and surely if they do, they anthologic epitaphs may be considered will instantly perceive that these arts as specimens. These, in process of communicate a pleasure to them, which time, were lengthened, and when ficticannot arise from imitation.

tious ornaments began to supply the It is my intention, therefore, to en- place of real amiction, the elegy was deavour to prove, that though in some written. degree these arts may poffels the pow- Moral poetry, which was passionate er of imitating mankind, yet that their and severe when vice first began to principal effect is produced by some prevail in the world, was the effufions ionate faculty of sensation which is of rcfentment: the resentment of the wise seated in the deepest receties of the hu- and virtuous attacked the corruptors man mind.

of mankind. But verse can only reThe originat of poetry was, perhaps, prore, it cannot change the dispositions only a strong and forcible way of ex- of mankind. Improvement, therefore, Freiling the various pasions of the very soon became the motive, rather than correction, and these poems were true music, that it is only poetry, defilled with precepts of morality and livered in a succession of harmonious


exhortations to virtue. Hence, likewise, sounds, so disposed as to please the arofe epic poetry, which expresses indig- ear, we must consider the music of the Dation of mankind against bad characters, ancient Greeks. as much as it does their admiration of We shall not here enlarge on the courage and goodness. The examples of amazing effects that are attributed to kings and heroes were introduced as it, by the gravest historians' and philoillustrations of some moral truth to the sophers; but remark that its close union fubordinate ranks of men; and their with poetry, as it was wholly pafsionhistories served to thew that misfor- ate and descriptive, always increased tunes always purfue vicious principles, its influence. Great part of its miraand advantages always attend virtuous culous powers may be attributed, like. conduct.

wise, to the ignorance of the hearers, As vice is detestable, and as the who, as they had heard but little other Arongest antipathy must subsist between music, were incompetent judges. Nothe good and the bad, hate was the velty made them commend, what an Source of fatire; a species of poetry, improved tafte would, perhaps, have rewhich the ancients called lambic*. je&ted. They obeyed the impulse of sur

Such have been the fountains, from prise, the power of which was strength. which the various kinds of poetry have ened by national prejudice. {prung; and from the fame, perhaps, In our definition of

poetry, likehave flowed the different kinds of music. wise, we have confidered, principally,

Genuine poetry is surely then a ve- the works of the ancient poets. A man hement pasion expressed in forcible really joyful, when he writes cannot words, measured with exactness, and be said to imitate joy, any more than pronounced in a common voice, in just the bard, who composes in any deep cadence, and with proper accents ; such affliction, can be said to imitate affliction. is the famous ode of Sappho. Pure and The lyric poems of Alceus, Alcman original music, likewise, affecting to and Bacchylides, the hymns of Callithe heart, as well as soothing to the machus, and the elegy on Bion by car, would be produced if the fame ode Moschus, are all beautiful pieces of were expressed in a mufical voice, with poetry; yet who shall be so hardy as suitable sounds, sung in due time and to term Alceus an imitator of love, measure, in a simple and pleasing me- Callimachus an imitator of awe and relody. But these are not imitations of ligious admiration, or Moschus an imi. nature, but nature itself.

tator of grief for the loss of his friend? The ancients assigned different modes The Scholion on the expulfion of to the different subjects of poetry. Pisistratidæ from Athens, by HarmoThese modes, indeed, originally; be- dius, and Ariftogiton is still extant, longed peculiarly to those nations from but the author of it can never be styled which they derived their names. In an imitator of patriotism; and if the modern mufic, the number of these music were extant, and we could hear modes is increased, and when they are it, with the unadulterated ears of an tkilfully interwoven, and changed as Athenian, we should readily allow that the sentiment changes, they can un- it was no imitative production. Again, doubtedly express all the variations of a fable in verse, is no more an imitathe voice, and give additional beauty tion, than a fable in prose. Shall we to the accents of a poet.

call poetical narration imitarize, be. According to the definitions which cause it describes the manners, and rewe have given of native poetry, that it lates the actions of men? If we do, is the language of the passions, expres- every art, and every history muit bear fed in exact meafure, with itrong ac- the same appellation. cents, and fignificant words, and of What has been said of poetry, may

be Examples may be forrd in Catullus, and the Epodcs of Horace, as well as in Archilochus, whof manner and Pyle the latter imitated.

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