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M E D I C I N E.
HILE the general fears of mankind and the particular attention of go
vernment are justly awakened by the breaking out of the PLAGUE in various parts of Europe, the following observations, and method of prevention, recommended by Dr. Cullen, in his First Lines of the Practice of Physic, appear to us fo rational, and so applicable to every species of endemial contagion, as to demand a place in that department of our miscellany which is allotted to phyfical disquisitions. WITH respect to the prevention; trine already laid down; and from that
as we are firmly persuaded doctrine we infer that all persons who that the disease never arises in the nor- can avoid any near communication ther parts of Europe, but in conse- with infected persons or goods may be quence of its being imported from saved from the infection. some other country, so the first mea- For avoiding such communicafure necesary, is the magistrates taking tion, a great deal may be done by the care to prevent the importation; and magistrate : this may generally be done by a due “ ist. By allowing as many of the attention to the bills of health, and to inhabitants as are free from the infecthe proper performance of quarantains. tion, and not necessary to the service
“ With respect to the latter, we of the place, to go out of it. are persuaded, that the quarantain of adly. By discharging all assemperfons may safely be much less than blies, or unnecessary intercourse of the forty days; and if this were allowed, people. the execution of the quarantain would “ 3dly. By rendering some necefbe more exact and certain, as the temp- fary communications, to be performed tation to break it would be in a great without contact. measure removed.
“ 4thly. By making such arrange“ With respect to the quarantain of ments and provisions as may render it goods, it cannot be perfect unless the easy for the families remaining to shut fufpected goods be unpacked, and duly themselves up in their own houfes. ventilated, as well as the other means “ 5thly. By allowing persons to employed for correcting the infection quit houses in which an infection apthey may carry; and if all this were pears, upon condition that they go inproperly done, it is probable that the to lazarettos. time commonly prescribed for the qua- “ 6thly. By ventilating and purifyrantain of goods might also be short- ing, or destroying at the public exened.
pence all infected goods. “ A second measure in the
of “ Lastly. By avoiding hospitals, and prevention becomes requisite, when an providing separate apartments for ininfection has reached and prevailed in fected persons. any place, to prevent that infection “ The execution of these measures from spreading into other places. This will require great authority, and much can be done only by preventing the in- vigilance and attention on the part of habitants, or the goods of any infected the magistrate; but it is not our proplace, from going out of it till they vince to enter into any detail on this have undergone a proper quarantain. subject of the public police.
“ The third measure for prevention, • The fourth and last part of the to be employed with care, is to hinder business of prevention respects the conthe infection from spreading among duct of persons neceffarily remaining the inhabitants of the place in which in infected places, especially of those it has arisen. The measures necessary obliged to have some communication for this are to be directed by the doc with persons infected.
« Of “ Of those obliged to remain in in- “ Besides giving attention to obviate fected places, but not obliged to have the several circumitances which favour any near communication with the fick, the operation of contagion, it is prothey may be preserved, by avoiding bable that some means may be emall near communication with other ployed for strengthening the bodies of persons, or their goods; and it is pro- men, and thereby enabling them to rebable, that a small distance will an- lift contagion. swer the purpose, if, at the same time, “ For this purpose it is probable there be no itreams of air to carry the that the moderate use of wine, or of effluvi of persons or goods to some fpirituous liquors, may have a good distance.
effect. For those who are necessarily “ It is probable also, that exercise, obliged to have a near communication when it can be employed, if so modewith the fick, it is proper to let them rate as to be neither heating nor faknow, that some of the most power- tiguing to the body, may be employed ful infections do not operate but when with advantage. the bodies of men exposed to the con- “ Persons who have tried cold bathtagion are in certain ci.cumftances, ing, and commonly feel invigorating which render them more liable to be effects from it, if they are any way affected by it; or when certain causes secure against having already received concur to excite the power of it, and, the infection, may possibly be enabled therefore, by avoiding thele circum- to refift it by the use of the cold bath. stances and causes, they may often “ It is probable that some medicines, escape infection.
also, may be useful in enabling men to “ The bodies of men are especially refift infection; but among these, we liable to be affected by contagion, can hardly admit the numerous alexiwhen they are any how considerably pharmics formerly proposed, or, at weakened, as they may be by want of least
, very few of them, and those food, or even by a scanty diet, or one only of tonic power. Amongst these of little nourishment; by intemperance lait, we reckon the Peruvian bark; and in drinking, which, when the ftupor it is, perhaps, the most effectual. If of intoxication is over, leaves the body any thing is to be expected from anin a weakened ilate; by excess in ve- tiseptics, I think camphire, whether mery; by great fatigue; or, by any internally or externally employed, is confiderable evacuation.
one of the most promising. “ The causes which, concurring with “ Every person is to be indulged in contagion, render it more certainly ac- the use of any means of preservation of tire, are cold, fear, and full living. which he has conceived a good opi
“ The several means, therefore, of nion, whether it be a charm or a meavoiding or guarding against the action dicine, if the latter be not directly of cold are to be carefully studied. hurtful.
Againit fear, the mind is to be " Whether issues be useful in prefortified as well as pollible; by insuring serving from or in moderating the efa favourable idea of the power of pre- fects of contagion, I cannot determine servative means; by destroying the opi- from the observations I have yet read, nion of the incurable nature of the “ As neither the atmosphere in gedisease; by occupying men's minds neral, nor any considerable portion of with business or labour; and avoiding it, is tainted or impregnated with the all objects of fear, as funerals, passing matter of contagion, so the lighting beils, and any notice of the death of of fires over a great part of the infectparticular friends.
ed city, or other general fumigations, “ A full diet of animal food in- in the open air, are of no use for precreases the irritability of the body, and venting the disease, and may perhaps favours the operation of contagion; be hurtful. and indigestion, whether from the “ It would probably contribute quantity or quality of the food, has much to stop the progress of the infecthe same effect,
tion, if the poor were injoined to purpofe; and if they were, at the fame make a frequent change of clothing, time, induced to make a frequent venand were suitably provided for that tilation of their houses and furniture.”
To these ingenious remarks, little, perhaps, can be added. The following reasons, however, have been assigned for the Plague's being less frequent at prefent than it was formerly in our metropolis.
DR. TIMONI, in his account of denham to the present, there appears the Plague at Conftantinople, observes to be a considerable alteration for the that the cleaner houses were less liable better, with respect to the health of to be infected with that disorder than the inhabitants of this metropolis; for, the dirty; and Forestus attributes the beside that they have known no plague, Plague at Cologne and Paris, in his they have not suffered in any great detime, to the multitude of poor inha- gree from epidemic fevers, or fatal bitants, and the filthiness of the streets; dyfenteries; nor, if we except a few auin short, it is plain that for this last tumnal fevers of a bad kind, the smallcentury, peftilential fevers, putrid scur- pox, and measles, from any infectious vies, and dysenteries, have remarkably diftemper that could be called general. abated in all parts of Europe, a blef- In some of the lowest, moistest, and fing which we can attribute to no other closest parts of the town, and among second causes, than to our improve- the poorer people indeed, a few spotment in every thing relating to clean- ted fevers and fluxes are yet to be seen, liness, and to the more general use of which are seldom heard of among those hopped beer, wine, and vinous liquors. of better rank, living in more airy fi
Greens and fruit are also more uni- tuations. Although many things, reversally eaten: and falted meats make lating to the health of the people, a much less part of our diet than for- might be better regulated, yet, fome merly. To this, says Sir John Prin- of the main points have been well atgle, may be joined the more general tended to; such as regard the priories, consumption of tea and sugar; which the common fewers, and the constant that learned physician, from several ex- fupplies of freth water; beside that the periments, has proved to be great ene- commonalty are very cleanly. mies to putrefaction. How far they The London dirt of the channels may be ab:sed, or become the cause of does not seem to affect the health of other distempers, is not the question the inhabitants of this respectable city; before us.
for though the more offensive kind of Perhaps there is at present no great it may concur with other matters to city in Europe so little subject to pefti- render the air less healthful, yet it lential fevers, and other putrid diseases, appears to have little influence in proas London, though it seems formerly ducing peftilential diseases. to be little less infected than others; I cannot conclude this part of the notwithstanding, the great advantages subject without obferving, that whilft of its ftuation, in a climate not liable this, and other large cities, furnim to great heats or close weather, on a materials for vitiating the atmosphere, gravelly foil, and on the banks of a they are provided with two contideralarge river, which not only supplies ble antidotes; the first arises froin tie fresh water, but fresh air, by the con- circulation of the air, by the coriani ftant motion of the tides. London motion of the people and carriages, also ftands in a wide plain, where the and by the efficacious draughts made fields in general are kept extensively by fires; the other from the quantity open.
of an acid, produced by fuel, the firongFrom the days of the great Dr. Sy- eft refilter of putrefaction.
a former paper of the “Hypo. three tongued power of eloquence, and
CHONDRIACK” your readers were the three path'd road of wisdom: the presented with some curious speciinens trident of creation, the tripod of subof singular dedications to books, strong- stance: the three-coloured rainbow: ly characteristic of the humour and turn the three-finger'd hand; the threeof mind of the several authors. I have, mouth'd fountain; and the rope with however, in the course of my reading three knots.” These are sufficient by met with some ftill more extraordi- way of a specimen of the author's fannary: George Edwards's dedication cy; though the allusion is carried on of his works to God is not to be con- through twenty tris, beside those pared with Cornelius à Lapide's dedica- which are here enumerated: such as tion of his Exposition of the Prophets “Deus frismegistus” and “ Adamas trie to the Holy Trinity. It confitts of gemmis; "-" Arx TfreieBonce" and "Trifix folio pages: and in it we have remis Abysi." praise and prayer in all their branches : In the year 1657 a book was pubschool divinity with all its distinctions: lished, entitled " The Art of Logick, and rhetoric with all its figures. Scrip- unfolding to the meaneft Capacities the ture is quoted for proof; and the fa- Way to dispute well, and to refute all thers for illuitration. Schismatics are Fallacies whatsoever." By Zachary claffed with Saracens, and Heretics Coke, of Grays-Inn, Gent. The book with Pagans: their total downfall is de- itself runs into all the intricacies of voutly implored, and the triumph of artificial reasoning, and instead of “ unthe orthodox most confidently antici- folding the principles of logic to the pated,
meanelt capacities," would rather render The learned commentator, who was them incomprehensible to the strongeft; a Jesuit*, about the beginning of the for it fetters the understanding in the latt century, and whose exposition con- chains of forms, and confounds the fiits of eight huge folios, hath racked imagination in the labyrinth of diftinchis invention in this singular dedication tions. But my concern is only with to find out metaphors and allusions that the dedication, which is the most extrahave even the most distant tendency to ordinary I ever remember to have read. convey an idea of Trinity in Unity. It is composed in that species of lanThe fertility of his imagination in this guage which Hudibras calls a Babylonish respect was wonderful: but if he had dialect. It is English cut on Greek and seriously meant to burlesque the doc. Latin. This mode of composition trine he was so zealous to support, he gained repute from the fanction of could hardly have discovered a more fome eminent names: particularly Sir likely method to effect it, than that Thomas Browne's; whose writings are which in the fimplicity of his heart he so frequently quoted as authorities, in adopted, in order to illustrate it. Johnson's dictionary. “ '1 hou art (says he) the triangle of Put to return to Mr. Zachary Coke's divinity; the tripartite hypoftafis: and dedication. It is addressed to the the triumvirate of co-etlentiality.- illuftrious, his Excellency OLIVER Thou art the three-faced mirror, the CROMWELL Generalislime of England, three-bodied mind, the three-forked Scotland, and Ireland, Chancellor of lightning, the three-edged sword, and Oxford, &c. &c. and to the most rethe three-leaf tree of Paradise.- Thou nowned his general council of officers.” art the alpha of three corners; the It is an apology for logic against the
inlinuations + He was a nadve of Hollando His real name was Stain or Stone, in Latin a Lapide.
infinuations of felf-razegbt fanatics, who lit:he deity residing as a guest in a body decried human learning (like our mo
of fieis.”. “ You will says he) dern Methodists) and fee reason and render England the world's Urpia; grace at variance. " The finitering the most felicitous of nations; and
Sciolus) soul of lapsed man (says this having a cohed your courses through author) in its molt rigorous contend. the zorlack of praise-worthy actions, ings unto beatitude by its own acies, you will let, laden with honours and cannot now, as in its eftate of native satisfying foul-peace :-treasures of a innocence, with the eagle, behold the higher carac than the world's maznalia; refulgence of funny truths, foaring in and the prayers of saints ascending the highest regions of contemplation, with you will petar your entrances penetrating the arcana and essences of through Heaven's portcullis, while you things; but, through the flagginess of scale the battlements of glory to perfect herpinion, fiutters, otrich-like, in gross your triumphs, and with seraphic hicand earthly ideas; forming sensual and rarchies chaunt eternal trifagions in rafaint conceptions; and in its survey, vihing divifions, and every colon and after taking thew's and thadows for column of your lives, quartered with fubitances, gets the mind big of distem- the memory of your atchievements, perature in the fate of insecurity.” cause your name, rivalling with time, The thought is poetical; though the to survive on earth, perfumed as inexprettion is affected and fantastic.- cense, and odorous as a pile of spices." In enlarging on the benefits of logic, Could irony itself have rendered Cromthe author says, “ This is that which, well and his officers more ridiculous? by grace, recovers us to our primoges To those who know the real characters nial condition; unclouds the masqued of those heroes, this extravagance of mind; plows up and unleals the depth praise hath all the effect of pointed faof reason; evolves the hidden ideas of tire. things, and unites the knottiness of I will present the reader with anoevery emergency.
By it confused ther specimen of that species of panythings are made diftinét, abitruse ob- geric which produces nothing but disvious: and the planetick thought to guft and contempt for the writer, and act concentrick, and in its (phere. though seriously intended for an enThis also rangeth the pill-mell concep- comium, yet hath all the appearance of tions to battalia and order. It unfolds banter and ridicule. In the dedicaoracle;, making them tco:hless; turneth tion of two volumes of sermons to the into milk bony paradoxes, and cloudy late Bishop Warburton, by the Rev. ænigmas into clcar sunmine.”
Thomas Hunter, a Cheftive clergyman, From declamation the writer proceeds we have the follos ing high-flown exto compliment; and he is equally ex- presions of bumble adoration: travagant in his flattery of Cromwell, as address to Bisnop WAREURTON is not in his recommendation of logic. “You an easy part. 'The jingulurity, the dig. drive on couragioully (rays he) and rity, the greatness of the character, ha: e almost doubled the Case of Good Atrike us with awe and reverence; and Hote. Reformation and a happy peace a retreat from the presence which conwill not longer ride at a dead anchor.” funus us with our own insignisicance --" And since God hath made you might be thought molt prudent, dit thus great may he also make you grate. not the experience of your loruihip's ful. He hath given you the conquet goodn fs and distinguished humaniof afairs to give you the congueit of ty di pite our fears, and invite our yourself. Be the iliadow; be the echo; approach." -" Your lordilip, like the or rather be the he!introje, shutting and first lo.ninary in our sittem, may com.. opening to his good pleasure.”. municate without diminution or fear Speaking of the effect of the admini- of long any of your own fullness and ftration of affairs under Cromwell and lustre.' Our vanity is flattered by his officers, the author favs, “ The your lord hip’s notice. The molt in- . world will venerate each of you as a lignificant acquire coniideration in the LOND. MAG. Sept. 1783.