fing into a law. There must be a head- a controuling power over their comthip, a controuling power fomewhere. merce, and to have exerted it for the Where ought it to be lodged but in purpose of restraining their navigation, England England ought to have the would have been suffering the great regulation of every thing that is con- evil complained of to have exifted still nected with her commerce - that which in its full force, If, when we have is her chief support. To sei up a granted all that Ireland follicits, the power that shall oppose and counteract hould choose (and it will be for her it would be urnatural and dangerous. interest to choose) to make the British It would create constant jealouties, and navy her guardian, we Thall possess an be the source of confusion and discon- authority over her, not as the tretch tent. His lordship strengthened his of power, but as the fair acquisition of arguments by appeals to the statutes of mutual consent: our interests will bethis kingdom; and remarked that the come cemented, and our friendship in, right we have to legiflate for Ireland feparable. ---- His Grace exprefied a in matters which relate to its external with to be informed whether the new govemment is a right founded in the administration were determined to enconftitation, and is inseparably inter- ter into the claims of Ireland, and purwoven with the very first principles of sue the plan that had been adopted to it. He particularly quoted the itatute redress her grievances, and further her of the 20th of Henry VI. as express welfare? He wished to know whether to the purpose, viz. « The Parliament the present bill would be followed up of England cannot bind Ireland as to by another? He had the utmost cons theit lands, for they have a parliament fidence in the noble Duke at the head there, but they may bind them as to of the Treasury: but his confidence in things transitory, as the shipping of the aggregate body of administration wool or merchandize, to the intent to was not so firm, since he faw men carry it to any place beyond the sea." forming a part of it to whose perniThis statute expresses in the cleareft cious measures this nation may attriterms the object his lordship contended bute its disgrace and its misfortunes, for; it maintains the right of external Such men he could not trust, and he legislation with respect to navigation was grieved to see them possess such and commerce, but disclaims the right high offices in the state. He had heard of internal legislation, and aligns the that the cabinet was already divided: reason—" for that they have a parlia- and what but divilion could be expect ment there." His lordihip asked if Ire- ed from men whose principles and proland expected to have her commerce feslions have all along been so diilimiprotected by Great-Britain? If not, lar? He again urged it on the miniwill she be permit:ed to equip a navy try to enter heartily into the affairs of herself? Hihe is once allowed to be- Ireland; and again expressed an earnest gin, can any one foretell where the wish to be informed of the steps meant competition will end?

to be pursued for that purpose. The Duke of Richmond so far agreed The Duke of Portland apologized with the noble lord, as, to think that for not having it in bis power to give the internal legislation of Ireland ought -any explicit satisfaction on this head. to be exclusively refted in her own The shortness of the time in which he parliament, and that the repeal of the and his friends had been in office; the 6th of Geo. I. was nothing more than .multiplicity of business which had dea free people had a right to demand, volved on them rendered it impoffible and which it would have been equally for them to fix on any determinate tyrannical and impolitic in us to have plan; at least to have digefted it into refused. But he did not coincide with fuch a form as would be requisite behis lordship in the opinion he had ad-fore it could be submitted to the judgevanced respecting the right of Eng- 'ment of the House. He trusted that land to interfere in the external regu- the integrity and consistency of his past lations of Ireland, To have polieiled conduct, as it entitled him to, would

Bb 2

ensure him the confidence of the pub- harmony. And with respect to those lic.

who were supposed to be linked togeThe Duke of Richmond professed a ther by a fimilarity of principles, and high veneration for the private charac- have long been in the habits of political ter and personal honour of the Duke friendship, yet in a recent cafe we have of Portland; but he still expressed his seen how night and precarious the tedoubts with respect to the principles nure was by which they were united! of the party he had, to the astonish, Every day saw some or other fall off ment of the whole nation, connected from the stock of administration, like himself with. He wished to call forth ripe fruit in autumn, till the whole their sentiments on the present subject. tree was left almost bare and naked ! He had one noble lord in his eye with respect to Ireland the deserved to [Lord Stormont) who was never defi- have every preference this country cient in words when he had an inclina- could give her. We had promised her tion to speak. He considered the pre- indulgence; and if we did not inviosent occafion as a call on him to be ex- lably keep our faith how could we explicit. The state of Ireland was in pect to be credited for the future? If many respects critical. It called for any alterations were to be made in the all the vigilance and wisdom of the original intentions, it would be in a government: and he wished the mem- vein of generosity to give her much bers of it might not forfeit the claim more than she hath asked. to confidence which they so freely held Lord Thurlow declared himself to out on all occafions to the public. The be totally independent of party. Ic laws in favour of the Catholics he was a matter of perfect indifferenee to would not condemn; but without great him who was in, or who was out of tare and precaution, they might be at- administration. He withed the present tended with very alarming consequen- to be more permanent than the laft: ces. Some accounts ftated the majo- and should rejoice to see them entitled rity of that perfuafion in Ireland to be to the public confidence, not by what as seven to one: the most moderate ac- they had done already, but by what counts stated them to be as four or five they should in future do for the profto one. This disproportion was a loud perity of their country. If they meant call to circumspection. If the Catho- well' to Ireland, he should be glad if lics should be admitted into the army they would ex; licitly declare their senthey might acquire an influence so timents. If there was nothing dark commanding as to affect the state it- and equivocal lurking behind, they felf. After having declaimed fome need not be afraid or ashamed to bring time on these topics, his Grace return- it forward to the view of the public. ed to the subject more immediately in The Duke of Chandos attacked ad. his eye through the whole of his speech, miniftration with some warmth, and viz. Whether this bill was, 'or was not charged the members of it with a forci. to be considered as final; and begged ble invasion of the cabinet. They had the noble lord in the green ribband to driven from the state the ableft man in favour the House with his sentiments the kingdom, and could not find one on it. Lord Stormont remained f- of their whole party capable of filling lent; but

his high office." (He alluded to the Lord Townshend vindicated admi- late Lord Chancellor.] niftration from the imputation of dif- Lord Carlile defended administrafention-an imputation founded only tion against the charge of having taken on fufpicion, and such fufpicion as the cabinet by storm: the charge, he could do no credit to the persons who faid, was a solitary one; and there was - maintained it. The past opposition of no truth in it, unless it meant that - the respective members of the cabinet they would not serve with men who could be no obstacle to their present had betrayed the interest and tarnished agreement. Coalitions equally strange the honour of their country by the have taken place and maintained their peace they had made.


Lord Radnor said that the charge absolute lords of the soil. These should not remain a solitary one. He higher tributaries let out their zeminwould himself repeat it: and it was daries to inferior tenants, in parts and his fixed sentiment that the present ad- parcels, at certain ftipulated rents, and, Ininiftration had forced themselves into while the conditions of the tenure offices against the wishes of one of the were performed, the subordinate tribubest of princes.

taries looked on their possessions as pero The Marquis of Caermarthen was manent and secure. This equitable pringoing to enter into a general defence ciple prevailed till the year 1728, when a of the Preliminary Articles, when he contrary law, equally subversive of all was interrupted by the Earl of Carlisle, justice, was introduced, which made the who declared that in his reflections on Great Mogul himself absolute lord of all the terms of peace he only alluded to the soil of India; and subjected it to his the flender and precarious provision arbitrary disposal, in spite of every inthat had been made for the faithful ferior claim, however sanctified by and unfortunate loyalists.

right, or established by custom. This Lord Mansfield put the question, and unjust principle hath been made the the bill was ordered to be read a third instrument of the most horrible optime the succeeding day.

pressions; and he meant by his bill to The same day in the House of overtum it altogether, that it may Commons the Lord Advocate moved never be set up as a plea for tyrannical for leave to bring in a bill for the exactions. He meant to give strength better regulation of the government of and permanency to the tenures in India; India. This motion he introduced and render the landholders as secure in with an explanation of the plan he in- their poffeffions as they would be in tended to pursue; and touched on the England. The other part of the bill leading objects of it. The first related moved for respected the Rajah of to the government general of Bengal. Tanjour and the Nabob of Arcot. He proposed a governor and council The fears of the former had been often who thould have a controuling power practised on; and many, by awakening over the inferior governments of India; an alarm in his bosom with respect to and to the governor general he meant the precarious grounds on which he to give a higher degree of power than stood, had extorted from him immense had heretofore been given to persons of fums. He meant to put a total end to that description. He would even in- exactions so unjust and cruel, and baffle veft him with a power of acting con. the Venal and Oppressive in all their trary to the opinion of the council, future attempts to raise a fortune by when the public interest required him methods fo base and ungenerous. He so to act. But as in that case he would observed, that the hopes of the Nabob have the sole direction of affairs, so he of Arcot, who had his eye on the posalone should be responsible for them. sessions of the Rajah, had also been The second head of the bill related to practised upon, like the fears of the the inferior governments. He would latter, by the same class of oppressors, not give to those governments the to answer the same wicked purpose. power of acting in opposition to the The bill before the House was designed fuperior council; but he would allow to secure to the Rajah, by act of par. then a negative on every propofition, liament, all he was at present poffeffed till the will of the governor general of. The debts of these Indian poten. and council of Bengal ihould be known. tates ought, he said, to be enquired The third head related to the zemin- into; for though many of them were, daries and other tenures of lands in he doubted not, just debts, yet too India. In the year 1573, when Hin- many of them, he feared, were the doftan was conquered by the Moguls, debts of corruption. He stated the atribute was imposed on the Zemindars; necessity of recalling Mr. Hastings, and, while they continued to pay this and making such regulations tribute, they considered themselves as Mould for the future effectually hinder


the for

the Court of Proprietors from coun- House in adinitting the baffardizing teracting the will of parliament. clause, moved the next day (April 16) He enlarged on the qualifications of in the House of Lords, that the report the man who should be fent to India of the committee on Mr. Bayntun's in the room of Mr. Hastings, and de- Divorce bill be deferred till the 7th of fcribed him so particularly, that every May, and that the judges bo ordered to perfon plainly perceived that the cha- attend, to give an answer in point of racter he drew was designed for Lord law: to a question he had drawn up Cornwallis.

their confideration, which was, “ Whe. Governor Johnstone defended with ther if a child was born ten months much zeal his friend Mr. Hastings, and after a woman had cloped from her heitowed on him the most flattering en- bufland and lived in open adultery, comiums. He particularly observed and where no access of parties were that the conduct of that governor in his proved, but the husband during that late treaty of peace with the Mahrattas īpace had sued for a divorce in the was of itself fufficient to confer im- ecclesiastical court--that child was to mortal honour on his name.

be confidered as a bastard ?” Lord Mr. Burke was of opinion that none Thurlow supported the motion: but it would be fo proper to be fent to India was itrongly opposed by Lord Bathurst as those who had been already there, and Lord Mansfield. It was, however, and were well acquainted with the laws carried for the adjournment. There and customs of the country.

appearing for it ten; againit it eight. The Lord Advocate totally differed In the House of Cominons, April from him in this respect; and faid that 15, Mr. Fox's bill to facilitate a trade thofe who had occafioned so much dif- with America by repealing the act cord in India were in every view im- which required certificates, &c. &ca. proper to be sent mither again ; espe, was read a second time, and after a cially as one object of the prefent bill flight debate was committed for Thura was to restore harmony, and remove all day. occafion of division, as much as possible, The same day Lord Mahcn moved for the future.

for leave to bring in a bill for preventAt laft the question was put, and it ing expences at elections for enembers was carried without a division.

of parliament. He did not enier into In the House of Lords, April 15, any particular explanation of its con. fome debate took place relative to a tents; he only observed in general that bill of divorce instituted by Mr. Bayn- it differed in many respects from the tan against bis wife Lady. Maria, biil he brought in last year. daughter of the Earl of Coventry. The motion passed without any op: The adultery was clearly proved and position. universally admitted; but the bastar- The next day, April 16, his lord. dizing the child which her ladyship ship presented the bill, and it was ormight have after passing the act brought dered to be printed. on an argument, in which the Lords The order of the day for going into Bathurst and Thurlow took an opposite a Committee of Ways and Means have fide. The former insisted on the ne- ing been called for, the Speaker left ceflity of admitting a specific claufe in the chair; and Mr. Ord having taken a divorce-bill, that should baftardize the chair of the Committee the issue of an adulterous connection. Lord John Cavendish arose to open The latter would notadmit such a clause the budget as Chancellor of the Exin any case whatever. His general reason chequer. He relied on the indulgence had been frequently given; and it was of the Committee; to which, he said, in brief this the House was not competent he had a more than ordinary claim, to decide on tise justice or injustice of the having been obliged to negociate a claims of an individual unbeard.

great loan when he had been but ten Lord Radnor, not being thorougily days in office. He stated the difficulfatisfied with the determination of the tics he had to itpuryle with through every period of the negociation, and was fo fluctuating and precarious that confessed that it had been the most fa- it never could be made a fixed rule by tiguing and the most embarrassing bua which to regulate any measures of finess that he had ever been engaged ftate. The rumour of a loan would in. He acknowledged that the bar- of itself cause the stocks to fall. And gain he had made was more advan- as soon as the terms are known they tageous to the money-lenders than he always rise. The present loan was incould have wished it to have been; deed very advantageous to the money and the negociation had been suspend- lenders. They would reap an enored, and had like to have been totally mous profit; no less than a premium broken off on account of his seruples of fix per cent.

He need not say on that head. He wished to have had how much the nation would lose by the negociation regulated by the price fo extravagant a bargain. He thought of the stocks. This proposal was pe- the best method to prevent such exorremptorily rejected: and the matter bitant gains would be to create a com, was obliged to be accommodated by petition among the monied men; and what is vulgarly called splitting the dif- put up the loan to the beft bidders. He ference. His lordship then ftated the also was of opinion that a ministee various sums which had been voted by ought not to have such an instrument the Committee of Supply for the ser- of corruption in his hands as the previce of the army, navy, ordnance, &c. mium attending so vaft a loan. He for the year 1783, the whole of which stated it to be 240,000l. amounted to 16,812,5681. 25. ud. Lord John Cavendish declared it was

Towards raising this supply the Com- imposlible for him to have made 1 mittee of Ways and Means had voted more advantageous bargain. He ear. 1,000,000l. fterling in Exchequer bills nestly wished it; and as earneftly enand 2,750,000l. on lands and malt. deavoured to effect what he wished; In addition to these grants he would but he found it out of his power to propose a loan of 12,000,000l. for borrow the money that was requisite every 100l. of which he proposed to to supply the necessities of the Itate on, give rool. stock 3 per cent. valued at other terms and of other persons. He

4.66 10 o attempted to create the competition 251. stock, 4 per cent. at

which Mr. Pitt recommended; but he 831. 1os.

found his attempts fruitless. He withAnnuity for 79 years of

ed and endeavoured to extend the loan 13 6 8

to other parties; but those who had A lottery ticket

4 treated with himn would not consent to

it; and if they had left him, there Discount 1

were none capable of advancing the

money required. He was reduced to Total 103 18 a very disagreeable alternative; and

the lionse would excuse him for His lordship concluded with making a making choice of the least evil. motion which called upon the Com- , Mr. Fox acknowledged that the loan mittee to agree to the above terms. considered as a peace loan was not an

Mr. W. Pitt readily admitted that eligible one: but as it was the best his lordship's claims of indulgence that could be made, and as good as · were well founded: but whatever fa- could have been expected, we must reit your was due to the noble lord, yet fatished with it. He contradicted Mr. in a matter of such consequence to the Pitt's statement of the premium, and public as a loan of twelve millions, faid it was not so great as he had reit was a debt he owed his conftituents presented it. After several calculato deliver his opinion with freedom. tions and comparisons, he inferred that He did not consider the market price the loss to the nation would, ont ile of the stocks as the proper criterion to Cubule, be no more than 5000l. He Settle the terms of a public loan. It reflected on Mr. Pitt for not having



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