mence another, before he can understand in what those peculiarities consist.

The observations of the Author on Latin pronunciation are few, but on this subject it was not necessary for him to enlarge. There exists not any uniformity of practice among the learned of the different nations of Europe, from which rules could be deduced, and the prejudices and customs which have been so long prevalent are not to be removed. The anomaly, however, of some modes of pronunciation seem to be so evident, that an improvement may at least be suggested. Pax, pakis --- Felix, felikis, might offend modern ears; but an ancient Román might be in no small perplexity on hearing Par, pasis-Felir, felisis. Tiara and totius, he would know, but toshius would be a strange sound to his ears.

The General Rules of Genderare, in this Grammar, given before the declensions. This arrangement, which to some perá sons may seem objectionable, but which is the arrangement adopted in some other grammars, appears to us to be the correct one, since the pupil who has mastered the distinctions will be prepared, very much to his advantage, to proceed with the declensions. In the sections which comprise the declensions, no unnecessary examples are introduced, and in all anomalous cases, the requisite information is conveyed with perspicuity; the necessary explanations being never rendered embarrassing by a confused brevity of remark. The section on the pronouns has received considerable enlargement from the Translator, and is sufficiently copious. The numerals are very excellently displayed. A large proportion of the work is devoted to the verbs, which, in their several kinds, are treated of with great clearness and fulness; and lists are furnished of the various irregulars in the different conjugations. On the prepositions, there are two valuable sections; and the section on the conjunctions which follows them, is equally creditable to the Author's judgement and taste.

These qualities, however, are particularly to be remarked in the Syntax, which occupies nearly one half of the volume. A more copious and better arranged Syntax than is generally found in the grammars in common use, has long been desired by instructors. Philosophical grammar was less studied and less understood when the prevailing systems were drawn up, than it has since been; and the various lights which have been cast upon the most curious and interesting subjects of philological' investigation by modern critics and other writers, afford advantages to a grammarian in respect to the essential qualities of his art, by which he may diminish or remove the perplexities which attend the study of a particular language, and present a knowledge of its principles in the most simple,

or at least in a greatly improved form. Some writers on Grammar, it must be confessed, have carried much too far the application of metaphysical principles to the subjects of their researches. To explain obscure relations would seem to be less the object of their pursuit, than to announce some brilliant discoveries, for which they might expect to take credit as the possessors of original genius. Professor Zumpt publishes no intricate theory or fanciful hypothesis, to mislead or to interrupt the attention of his scholars. His knowledge is always used with judgement; and under his cautious direction, the student never loses sight of the objects with which he seeks to become familiar. We cannot too highly prize the Syntax of the volume before us: for precision and fulness, for clearness in the statement of principles, and for pertinent and copious illustration, the several sections into which it is distributed may confidently be recommended to the notice of both teachers and learners.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Three sections, Of the arrangement of Words in a 'Latin sentence,' Of Grammatical Figures,' and Of the Roman mode of Reckoning,' are appended to the Syntax by the Translator. The last two sections are on Quantity and Accentuation. A useful Index is added. The excellent manner in which the work has been prepared and published by Mr. Kenrick, should not be overlooked. Interruptions in the text, and frequent references to foot-notes are, as he remarks, so repulsive to young readers, that what is presented to them in this way is in great danger of never being read at all.' He has therefore preserved the pages of this volume from every incumbrance of this kind, and has distributed the whole of its contents in the most acceptable and useful manner,

Art. V. 1. A Practical Inquiry into the Number, Means of Employ

ment, and Wages of Agricultural Labourers. By the Rev. C. D. Brereton, A.M, Rector of Little Massingham, Norfolk. Third

Edition. 8vo. pp. 140. Norwich, 1826. 2. An Inquiry into the Workhouse System, and the Law of Mainte

nance in Agricultural Districts. By the Rev. C. D. Brereton,

A.M. Second Edition. 8vo. pp. 124. Norwich, 1826. 3. An Address to the Manufacturers of the United Kingdom, stating

the Causes which have led to the unparalleled Calamities of our Manufacturing Poor, and the Proposal of a Remedy. By William

а Hale. 8vo. pp. 32. Price 6d. London, 1826. 4. Observations on the Nature, Extent, and Effects of Pauperism ; and

on the Means of reducing it. By Thomas Walker, M.A. and

Barrister at Law. 8vo. pp. 96. London, 1826. 5. An Essay on the Circumstances which determine the Rate of

Wages, and the Condition of the Labouring Classes. 24mo.

Edinburgh, 1826. 6. The Cause and Remedy for National Distress : a Sermon preached

at Percy Chapel, Charlotte-street, Fitzroy-square. By the Rev. James H. Stewart, A.M., &c. 8vo. pp. 32. Price !s. 6d. Lons don, 1826. F it be one symptom of a degeneracy of public spirit, when

political parties come to be distinguished by their leaders, rather than by their principles, we may be allowed to draw from the converse of the proposition a favourable augury with regard to the present times, which exhibit the extraordinary spectacle of a truce between the great leading parties of the senate, attended by a brisk war of opinions. The distinctions between Whig and Tory have now become almost obliterated; Pittites and Foxites are no longer known by those designations; and the King's friends do not now consist of a mere faction. Nay, the ministry and his majesty's opposition' have of late formed a sort of joint administration in carrying into execution those measures which had at least for their object the national welfare; and the new opposition has certainly been raised against the measures, not against the men. It has been pleasing to notice, in the progress of the present election, that the candidates have been questioned more with regard to their opinions than their party; and the past conduct of members has been canvassed in reference to the measures they supported, rather than the side of the house they sat Nor has it been one question merely, as formerly, that bas divided the public voice. Even wbere the No Popery faction have been inost busy and clamorous, the subject of Emancipation has no longer been put



[ocr errors]

forward as the sole, all-important, and all-engrossing question on which the existence of Church and State is staked, but has been obliged to take its turn with other subjects-the cornlaws, the abolition of slavery, cheap bread,' and free trade.' Now to whatsoever cause we are indebted for this, we are disposed to hail the circumstance as a propitious one, and as some proof that knowledge is on the increase among all


It is probable, however, that the exhausted and depressed state of the commercial world may have in some measure tamed the spirit of faction. Though somewhat less clamour has been heard than usual, it is not the less certain, that a contest is silently preparing, occasioned by the clashing interests of the grand subdivisions of the community, the agriculturists and landholders in alliance with the Malagrowthers on the one side, and the mercantile and manufacturing interests supported by the political-economy men on the other.

is an awful

'Political economy,' it has been remarked, thing.' It is appalling to think, that the Legislature is often called upon to decide questions which involve the interests of millions, by the rules of a science that is changing from day to day. But ought it not rather to be said, that government is an awful thing, which involves decisions affecting the interests of millions, whether those decisions be guided by such rules or not? Those who are enemies to all written theories, will be found to have their own unwritten ones, which are often far more dangerous. With all the errors and uncertainties attaching to the science, political economy is but another name for the sum and substance of all that is known with regard to the causes and means of national prosperity. Nor is it true, that its general principles are varying and uncertain. What is still problematical in the science, bears no proportion to what is ascertained; and the opposite systems of different writers on these subjects are built on facts and principles which remain true, whatever becomes of the reasonings founded on them.

By drawing erroneous conclusions from right principles, we may, it is true, be as fatally misled as by taking up with wrong ones; but the fault, in this case, is not to be remedied by denying the truth of the premises, but by detecting the fallacy which lies in the inference. The rule may be right, but the sum is wrong, and the error lies in the calculation. We admit that a great deal of miscalculation has been mixed up with the rules of political arithmetic, and most of our systems require to be supplied with a copious errata. Political economy wants sifting; and it is likely to have it. That indolence of mind which has indisposed persons to enter on such perplexing in


quiries, is beginning to yield to the necessity of the case. Men are quick learners, when their interests are at stake; and the alarming fluctuations which have lately taken place in the supply and value of money, the availableness of capital, and the demand for labour, give to such inquiries a paramount


With regard to the causes of the late distresses, it is a point gained, that we are all agreed as to what they were not occasioned by;-not by a transition from war to peace, the cause assigned for the distresses of 1816; not by a low price of corn, as was then contended by the landed gentry; not by excessive taxation, for the burden had been considerably lightened; not by a depreciated paper currency, for Bank paper was of the same value as the coin; not by any cause affecting the wealth and prosperity of the country, for our agriculture, manufactures, and commerce were alike in a state of rapid improvement, and the public revenue exceeded the minister's estimate. The ultimate cause has been supposed to be the defective nature of the Banking system, and the immediate occasion of the distress, the sudden contraction of the currency, rendered necessary by the state of the exchange and the drain for gold upon the Bank of England. Both the cause and the cure of the evil are, according to a high authority in such matters, (the Edinburgh Reviewers,) abundantly obvious. The cause was, an over-issue of paper, producing an excess in the total currency, and a consequent depreciation, not of paper as compared with gold, but of both paper and gold as measured with the currency of foreign countries. The cure is, such legislative restrictions on the banking system as shall obviate any extreme fluctuations by preventing excessive issues. It seems ' quite indispensable,' says the Reviewer, that a complete and 'radical change should be made in the entire system of country 'banking, that Government should interfere to put down a 'system that naturally and unavoidably leads to periodical ' revulsions that plunge themselves in bankruptcy and ruin; and that when it gives private individuals the power to issue 'money, it ought, at the same time to have ample security, that the public shall lose nothing either by their improvidence or their fraud.'


[ocr errors]

The necessity of some such reform as this in the Banking system, most persons will be disposed to admit; and there can, we think, be no question that the late distress was greatly aggravated, if not produced by the causes referred to. But we are by no means satisfied with this imperfect view of the subject. Excessive issues of Bank paper or a redundant currency cannot be assigned as the cause of the lowered rate of interest

« VorigeDoorgaan »