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He (Claude) feared rough boldness of delineation from a just sense of its danger, but yet he had not the stiffness of Albert Durer, who carried his apprehension of that danger much too far; and therefore imparted to many of his productions, a most disagreeable want of life and meagre conception.'

Now where is the evidence, internal or external, that Claude was influenced by timidity in the choice or the treatment of his subjects? Albert Durer is brought in à-propos des bottes; and as to his apprehensions of danger,' there is just as much foundation for the imputation, as in the instance of Claude. We suspect that Mr. Thomas is as imperfectly acquainted with Albert, as he evidently is with other painters of whom he writes very glibly. If he will look over some of this great artist's wood engravings, he will find no deficiency of vigour or 'boldness,' still less will he have to complain of 'meagre conception.'

Mr. Thomas, having coined a new compound from the Greek -Philancosmist, subscribes the following learned note.

In the formation of this word, which is, I think, wanting in our language to express the term a lover of the world,' I have been guided by the word 'philanthropist,' and have therefore altered the Greek ος into ist; for the Greek x, the first letter in xooμos, I have substituted the English c, in imitation of Callistratus, Calliope, calligraphy, &c.'

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This is all vastly well, and though we should have thought that Philanthropist' and Cosmopolite' might, between them, have answered the purpose, we will not object to Philancosmist,' if Mr. Thomas will tell us what business the second syllable has there. In Philanthropist' it is in its place, inasmuch as it is the commencing syllable of the second of the two words which make up the compound; but with Philocosmist' it has no affinity whatever. It is an additional objection to the word, that xoxoμos signifies fond of ornament."

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Expiation and revenge are often hailed as highly virtuous, when they should be condemned as vices. They arise from an excess of virtue in some few extraordinary instances, but their origin does not prove their goodness. Several cases occurred during the late war, in which innocent victims were inhumanly and unjustifiably sacrificed to the furious feelings of excessive momentary resentment. It may be on some extreme naval and military emergencies, necessary for the sake of justice and even of mercy, to execute military violators of faith, as an example to deter others. But such executions are not to be vindicated on the ground of revenge. The laws of nations are the laws of nature and of justice, applied to international affairs. It is a perversion of language to denominate an unfair act of cruelty

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• expiation. Expiation, according to Todd's Johnson, means "re.. paration.' But what reparation for the faults of the guilty, can the murder of innocent persons, make? When the Spanish governor of La Guaira in the West Indies, refused in the year 1799 or 1800, to surrender to the British admiral on the station, the Hermione, which had been carried into the port by its sailors who had mutinied on account of oppressive severities, it was the extreme of cruelty, perhaps of injustice, to shoot two hundred Spaniards on her decks, on her being retaken, in order to avenge, as it has been said, an outrage on the laws of nations.' But I hope that I shall not subject myself to the imputation of appealing merely to the feelings, when I enquire what possible excuse can be supported, for the slaughtering of two hundred innocent men in cold blood, when their utmost crime had been to obey the commands of their properly-constituted officer, the governor of La Guaira? It is remarkable that the origin of this unhappy carnage was the mutiny of English sailors. And yet Spanish combatants were executed in this revolting manner, because they did not mutiny, but on the contrary, followed the orders of resistance given to them by their commander. This was an anomaly of the grossest nature, and as irreconcileable with the principles of justice, as with the exercise of moral sensibility. Of such a nature, are the miserable effects of the retaliative impulses of the mo ment. pp. 134, 5.

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We are reluctant to believe this story, though Mr. Thomas, no doubt, asserts it on sufficient authority. That there was a tremendous slaughter, we are quite aware; but we cannot suppose that it was in cold blood,' or that the gallant Hamilton would thus tarnish the glory of his splendid achievement. The shore batteries were firing to the last, and we would hope that there was sufficient resistance on the part of the Spanish crew, to take off the atrocity of the act.

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In a meagre sketch of Coreggio's life, we are twice told that he painted the Assumption in the cupola of the Duomo'the Cupola de Duomo'-without giving us the slightest intimation of what this Duomo' means, or where it stands. Is Mr. Thomas ignorant that it signifies Cathedral,' and that the edifice in question was at Parma?

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We come now to a point which we have no particular dis position to meddle with, but, as we suppose that Mr. Thomas, if we quite neglected it, would attribute our forbearance to fear, we shall slightly advert to it. Mr. T. betrays throughout, a very sufficient share of the odium theologicum against fanatics and Predestinarians; but with this, as it is accompanied with ample demonstration of profound ignorance respecting the very state of the question, we should give ourselves no trouble, were it not for the rancorous personality contained in the fol lowing passage.

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'It is not surprising, when we consider the peculiarly cold tenets

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Fuller's Hints to Ministers, &e.

189

of a certain doctrine, that the disciples of a celebrated theologian, the founder of that doctrine, are generally such bitter and unpleasant companions. Every idea which derogates from the divine beneficence, must lessen not only the happiness, but the benevolence of the man who entertains such idea. And is not that creed a horridly repulsive one, which openly ascribes to the deity, an unjust, arbitrary, and capricious dispensation of final happiness, and which represents him as tyrannically consigning an immense majority of his own creatures to eternal wretchedness? That such disciples should be frequently disagreeable men, is far from unaccountable. It is natural for men to imitate the character of the deity whom they worship. Such is the conclusion to which the history of religion leads us.' pp. 169, 70.

We shall leave this paragraph to speak for itself. It illus trates, far more forcibly than any exposure of ours could do, the spirit, the temper, and the intellectual calibre of the man.

Art. XI. Hints to Ministers and Churches. By the late Rev. Andrew Fuller. 12mo. pp. 226. Price 4s. 6d. London. 1826.

No

man was better qualified than the late Mr. Fuller, to give hints, broad hints, and wise and useful hints to both ministers and people. His views of the Christian ministry, the pastoral office, and the duties of church-members, were unusually clear and just, the dictates of strong sense and sage experience. The present volume lies under the disadvantage of a posthumous publication. It consists of outlines of sermons delivered at ordinations, some of which were addressed to the minister, some to the church, some to both; and they have been judiciously selected from the manuscripts of the Author, as specimens of his sermons, in preference to a miscellaneous volume. Some of them are more than outlines, -spirited etchings rather, not less striking than the finished compositions of many. They appear to us for the most part strongly characteristic of Mr. Fuller's manner; and as the subject is one on which, as the Editor remarks, there is by no means an excess of instruction,' we should be glad to find that the volume obtained an extensive circulation. We subjoin a specimen.

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'The end of your existence as a church of Christ, is to "hold forth the word of life." There are two ways of doing this, to both which I hope you will religiously attend; First, By supporting the preaching of the gospel; and Secondly, By recommending it in your spirit and practice.

I. By SUPPORTING THE PREACHING OF THE GOSPEL.-I scarcely need inform you, that to do this, you must support him that preaches it; and now give me your attention while I mention a few different

ways in which it is your duty, interest, and honour, to support your pastor.

1. By a diligent and constant attendance on his ministry-If possi ble, at all the services of the Sabbath, and in the week. And those who live in neighbouring places, may support the cause essentially, by receiving their minister at their houses, for the purpose of village preaching.

2. By a free and affectionate carriage towards him.-Treat him as a friend and a brother. If, in his preaching, he should occasionally make a mistake, do not magnify it. Do not make him an offender for a word. You are as likely to mistake in judging, as he is in advancing a sentiment. If you perceive faults in his deportment, do not whisper them about; but kindly mention them to him, Do not give ear to every report concerning him. He has a right to expect this as a brother, much more as an elder. "Rebuke not an elder, but intreat him as a father." That is, an elder in office, and as such, he has an especial claim on your forbearance and protection. Ministers are the objects of envy; and if every report against them were encouraged, they would be unable to stand their ground. Under trials and afflictions especially, you should manifest great tenderness towards them. God often afflicts ministers for the good of the people that they may be able to comfort those who are afflicted surely then, it becomes the people to be very affectionate towards them under their trials,- You that are officers in the church, should especially be concerned to bear up his hands, as Aaron and Hur stayed the hands of Moses.'

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6. By not hindering, but helping him, in the exercises of his pastoral office.-Be not of a touchy temper, so as to prevent him from freely giving you advice and caution, and even reproof. It would be to his dishonour to deal in personal reflections in the pulpit; but out of it, it will be to your dishonour to be offended with plain and close dealing. If you are of such a temper, that you cannot bear to be told of your faults, you will hinder him in the discharge of his office. Be, at the same time, also, willing to take your share in the exercise of discipline. In cases of personal offence, it may be well for your pastor, in some instances, to be excused; lest the parties contract a prejudice against him, and so prevent the success, of his ministrations. But where he cannot be excused, be you always ready to join him, to stand by him, to sanction and encourage him in the execution of the laws of Christ; even though the offenders be among your relatives and acquaintance. Let the deacons in particular stand by him; and never let a church censure have so much as the appearance of being passed by the influence of the minister. The address of the elders of Israel to Ezra, in a most painful case of discipline, will - furnish you with a good example: "Arise, for this matter belongeth unto thee: we also will be with thee: be of good courage, and do it."

7. By liberally contributing to the support of his family.—It is to the honour of Protestant Dissenters, that what they contribute to their ministers, they contribute freely, without constraint; but it is a

greater honour still, if they contribute liberally. Consider your minister's salary, not as a gift, but as a debt; and not as done to him, but to Christ. Give liberally, or you will lose the liberal reward. Give it as due to the cause of Christ, or Christ will take no favour, able notice of it... A generous and punctilious regard to God's servants, even in their temporal character, was a feature of the great reformation in the days of Nehemiah. pp. 19–21.

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Art. XII. A Letter to a Friend on the Authority, Purpose, and

Effects of Christianity, and especially on the Doctrine of Redemption. By Joseph John Gurney. 12mo. pp. 70. Price Is. 6d.

London. 1824. THIS little publication deserves to be noticed as a brief,

compendious summary of the leading evidences and distinguishing features of Christianity. The calmness of manner and scriptural simplicity by which Mr. Gurney's writings are characterised, render them particularly adapted to gain attention from that large class of semi-infidels who, while professedly acknowledging Christ as a master, have never fled to him as a Saviour, or submitted to the righteousness of God. Among a portion of his own community, and still more extensively among the Protestants of France and Germany, a specious Theophilanthropism prevails, attended by a morbid dislike of theology, which it is very difficult to deal with. The principle of unbelief is the same in every heart, but its operations are almost infinitely diversified, and require to be met with a dexterous accommodation of the mode of argument or appeal to the prejudices and habits of the individual, in order " to save some.” With one, a simple statement, freed from all technicality of phrase, like the present Letter, shall succeed in conciliating attention and awakening inquiry, where a more direct appeal to the conscience would fail ; while with another, the full-toned explicitness of Mr. Wilberforce's “ View," or even

” the homely tract, shall be best adapted to prevail.

In dealing with all sorts of unbelievers, the first thing is to ascertain what common ground exists between us, because, till certain premises are settled, all argument is useless. Perhaps it is not sufficiently borne in mind, that infidelity, though

always connected with an irreligious state of heart, partakes a. more or less of the character of a mistake, -an awful as well

as a guilty one, we admit, yet one which it may rest with us "to confirm by injudicious treatment, or, by kinảness and con

cession, greatly to remove.

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