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settled with the United States these ques-, upon it with the American Commissioners, tions like all other questions with the Unit- and when the choice lay between the seted States, cares not the least in the world tlement of all the other differences between about them; scarcely knows of their ex- the two countries on terms which her istence; is intent on votes in Parliament, Majesty's Government believed to be honon English interests, on English public ourable to both, and beneficial alike to opinion, and will attend to nothing but Canada and the rest of the Empire, and these. The inevitable misfortune of such the frustration of all hope of bringing the a State as Canada, so ruled and so placed, negotiations to a satisfactory issue, they is often to have what she cares for sacri- could not hesitate as to the course which it ficed to what England cares for and she was their duty to take." does not, and always to be suspicious that Now we cannot blame a Canadian for this has happened when really it has not. saying that this only means that he is not

Upon two points this is precisely what to be paid for the Fenian depredations, bethe Canadians complain of in the Treaty cause England wants to settle with Amerof Washington. The first is the case of ica about the Alabama. And a man who the inroads of the Fenians into Canada has himself been plundered will not like from the United States. Canadians say that reasoning, whatever a philosopher or that the Fenians only came into Canada Secretary of State may think of it. because it was a dependency of England, Secondly, — there is a most difficult and the Fenians wanted to hurt England ; question as to certain rights of fishery, that the American Government only con- which is always among the most vexatious nived (for they persist that it did connive) species of boundary questions. On this at the Fenian expeditions and preparations, point too the Canadians say boldly — because they wished to annoy and hurt England gave up our fish because she was England. In this way Canada was hurt, in a diplomatic difficulty as to the escaped they say, because she belonged to us. cruisers, and wished to make a concession." They contend that we are bound to get We do not admit that it was so. The fishthem reparation — not only because they cry question is most complicated. But still are, as much as if they were New Zeal- we can quite understand how a Canadian anders, subjects of the Queen, and there will persistently think so, and never be fore, as all will say, to be protected, but convinced to the contrary. likewise since they were specially injured For these reasons the Canadian Governin an Imperial dispute, and in order to vex ment is dissatisfied with the Treaty of another and more considerable part of the Washington, and says that some equivaEmpire. But when England is making lent ought to be granted to it. And our the Treaty at Washington, she gives up Government have agreed (not indeed forthis claim on behalf of Canada at once. mally as an equivalent, but in a manner The correspondence explains it with grave which practically amounts very much to formality. “Your Lordship,” says Lord the same thing), to guarantee a Canadian Kimberley, in writing to Lord Lisgar, the loan of 2,500,0001., the proceeds of which Governor of Canada, “your Lordship will are to be used in the construction of a observe from the Protocols of Conferences, railway from Canada to the Pacific. Of copies of which were transmitted

to you in course this is objectionable — scarcely anymy Despatch, No. 444, of the 17th inst., thing is so objectionable as a guarantee; that the American Commissioners declined scarcely anything is so objectionable as to entertain the proposal made by the paying a price to some of your own subBritish Commissioners to include these jects to do as you wish, and to be content claims in the Treaty. Her Majesty's Gov- with that which you have done. But the ernment were well aware of the serious real objection is not to this or that particdifficulties in the way of settling this ques- ular arrangement, but to the whole praction, and they could not, therefore, feel tice in which our relation to Canada consurprised at the result. At the same time, sists. When you begin with a great anoinit was with much regret that they acqui- aly you must expect it to cause other esced in the omission of these claims from anomalies. If nation A undertakes to the general settlement of outstanding manage the foreign relations of nation B, questions between Great Britain and the nation B will always say that A is thinking United States. But it seemed to them ev- of its own interests and not of theirs; and ident that the British Commissioners were if this has really been 80, or if there is a right in thinking that there was no reason- strong case for saying it has been so, able probability that by further pressing something must be given to B if the conthe point an agreement would be come to Dection between A and B is to continue.

From The Specttaor.
WEAKNESS OF CÆSARISM.

all his confidence in the system he still at

heart approved for doing the very thing The immense importance attached in which it is now demonstrated in a manner France to the speech of M. d'Audriffet convincing even to his intelligence never Pasquier on the Imperial Army contracts to have done. It is of no use to tell him, is not at first sight very intelligible to Eng- as Bonapartists are telling Englishmen, glishmen. The Orleanist Duke did indeed that the corruption was no worse under show, past all doubt or question, or denial Napoleon than under Louis Philippe. from M. Rouher, that under the Imperialist Very likely it was not, indeed it may be régime corruption was rampant in the War frankly admitted it was not, but then the Department; that contracts for war ma- raison d'être of the Orleans House was not tériel, such as cartridges and rifles, were efficient administration. It was the raison given, paid for, and never fulfilled; that d'être of Cæsarism. The proof of the the accounts of the arsenals were cooked; Cæsar's failure to keep his arsenals full is that the numbers of guns, chassepôts, and proof to the French mind of his failure to cartridges ready for use were criminally be what he was enthroned and obeyed in exaggerated; that the charge of supply- order to be, and it will be accepted all the ing the most necessary articles was sold to more readily because it will gratify in a men who could not hope to supply them; strange but direct way the dominant nathat in fact the Supply department, on tional foible. If the French soldiers were which the efficiency of armies depends, was defeated because they were not “furcynically corrupt. But this had been sus- nished,” they might when furnished be vicpected long before, and the first deduction torious, that is the sub-suggestion of the from the facts is not necessarily a new con- exposé, and it is one very comforting to tempt for the Emperor or his cause, but men who cannot conceive themselves secrather a new pity for a man who had been ond in war, except when betrayed, or sold, so systematically deluded. The Emperor or unprovided with munitions. They will certainly did not wish to be left without believe that not they, but the Empire, lost sufficient guns, and would, if a legitimate the provinces, and the belief is fatal to the monarch, have been held entitled to the Imperial cause. So clear was this to M. excuse that he as well as France had been Rouher, that for the first time since his betrayed and sold. The Assembly, how- election he rushed to the Tribune, and encer, regarded the revelation in a very dif- deavoured to deaden the blow by asking ferent light, - as one fatally damaging to whether the present Administration had the Napoleonic cause; they ordered the remedied the evils shown to exist. That speech to be printed and circulated in was clever as a Parliamentary counter-bit, every commune of France, as a final argu- and it bothered the Ministry, who have been ment against the Emperor, and they were thinking of other things; but it will seem in all human probability in the right. to the people only an admission that the The speech destroys the one argument for charges were true. This régime may be inCæsarism in the minds of average French-efficient too, but Napoleonism would be no men, the belief that it was an efficient and effective substitute. It could not be relied strenuous form of administration. It on to secure the strength which is the proves to every Frenchman that in the de- compensation it offers for the refusal of partment supposed to be the strongest, | all

liberty. the most necessary, the one on which Na- The effect of this exposure on foreign poleon most prided himself, his supervision critics, though not perhaps on the French had been a hollow sham, that the Empire, peasantry, will be greatly heightened by which demanded so much on the ground the extraordinary fact that the corruption of its military necessities, did not give in did not extend to the Naval administrareturn ordinary military effectiveness. Ittion. The Committee on Contracts indid not do even the one thing it professed quired of course into their transactions to do, did not prevent peculators from eat- as rigidly as into those of the Army, and ing up guns, rifles, and soldiers as vora- the President affirms that there was not ciously as the most imbecile Monarchy, or in them all a penny to condemn. The deRepublic, or Commune could have done. partment, notoriously the one in all counThe Liberals had all along suspected this, tries in which jobbery is easiest, was abbut the French peasant is not a liberal, is solutely pure, a fact which may explain in not moved by gossip, is slow to believe some degree its comparative efficiency in anything not certified on authority. But the field. As Admirals like money as he will believe Duke Pasquier and the As- much as Generals, and as pursers can rob sembly, and believing, will lose once for quite as effectively as paymasters, there

can be but one reason for this difference, tween him and the people, could not dethat the Emperor had reasons for laxity in fend the Tuileries, could not keep down the Army which did not extend to the Paris, and consequently in the Navy de Naval service; that his great military of- cent men were promoted and theft was ficers knew their offences would be con- rigorously and successfully prevented. If doned, while his Admirals had no certainty the corruption was due to the Emperor's of the kind. And we believe this to be ignorance, why was not the Navy corrupt ? exactly the truth, strange as the light is If it arose from the rotten state of society, which it throws on the intellect of Napo- how came the Marine Department to esleon. With all his knowledge of French-cape the noxious influence? If it was “ a men, and all his army of policemen, and necessity of the system,” why was the sys all his confidence in plébiscites, the Em- tem not a necessity in every department ? peror never was aware of his own foot- The plain truth of the matter is, that corhold in France, never realized how power-ruption existed only in the departments less his agents were against him, never which were feared, and that among these ceased to believe that the military chiefs the principal was the department which stood between him and a disaffected peo-controlled, and guided, and provided the ple. He might have dismissed all the mar- Army. It was the military tone of the shals by a decree in the Gazette, and there Empire, the idea that it was based on the would have been no émeute ; but he could bayonet, which led by a direct consequence not think so, and hesitated all through his to Sedan; and this military tone was inreign to “create disaffection" by probing fused into it by the Emperor himself, who military scandals. We utterly reject, as it though absolutely free from militarism is clear the Assembly rejects, the theory and often impatient of military dictation, of his ignorance. He remembered the never after the 2nd of December could Italian war and what he discovered then, gain self-confidence enough to see that the and he must have received hints enough, soldiers around him were his creatures, if only from dissatisfied officers, to justify not he theirs; that in pampering them he inquiries which he avoided partly because did not conciliate but pro tanto alienated they involved trouble, but chiefly because the affections of the Army. The blunder he held the contentment of the War De- was the Emperor's own, and was due to partment to be essential to his régime. It the circumstances of the coup d'état much was not in the least essential, the mass of more than to any inherent weakness in the the Army being entirely uninterested in structure of the administration, which, as frauds, or rather entirely hostile to them; we see on the Naval side, remained honest, but he fancied it was, and under that strong, and successful. In one service at fancy overlooked practices which any le- least of the French organization no gitimate Sovereign or any elected Presi- has fled, or robbed, or intrigued, and the dent would have ponished not only as excellence attained in one service might State offences, but as personal affronts. have been attained in all. The Navy, however, could not stand be

One

SOME time in the summer of 1871 it was stat-composed of four rubber cylinders fastened to ed that Mr. Octave Pavé, a young Louisiana gether on the decks by wooden slats, to which Frenchman, had started toward the North Pole the masts and riggings are attached. It is inby way of Siberia and Wrangell's Land, and tended to head, after leaving Cape Yakan, for that, in the absence of news from him, the Wrangell's Land, a large island discovered by assistance of the Siberian Government had been Captain Long in 1867. This being reached, the invoked, in consequence of grave fears for his island is to be crossed on sledges; and if an safety. It now appears that he has not yet open sea occur beyond, he is to take the raft started on his mission, but is to sail from San again, and endeavour to sail to Greenland or Francisco in May for Kamschatka, where he Spitzbergen. The entire enterprise is conducted will take in supplies, and proceed to Cape ai the expense of the traveller; and however Yakan, on the north-east coast of Siberia. Here hazardous or chimerical the plan may be, we the vessel is to be abandoned, and a further ex- cannot but wish him suocess in his move ploration attempted on an India-rubber raft, I ments.

No. 1462. — June 15, 1872.

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CONTENTS. 1. THE ENGLISH SONNET,

Cornhill Magazine, . 2. OFF THE SKELLIGS. By Jean Ingelow. Part X.,

Parix., Saint Pauls, 3. THOMAS CARLYLE,

Quarterly Review, 4. THE MAID OF SKER. Part XX.,

Blackwood's Magazine, 5. A Month AT SEAFORD, IN 1825, WITH GEORGE

CANNING AND HOOKHAM FRERE. By A. G.
Stapleton,

Macmillan's Magazine, 5. THE SWISS PLEBISCITE,

Spectator, 7. GENERAL CHANZY AND M. GAMBETTA,

Saturday Review, 8. THE CANADIAN QUESTION,

Economist, 9. THE LATEST PHASE OF THE ULTRAMONTANE STRUGGLE IN GERMANY,.

Economist,

POETRY. FOOTSTEPS,

642 CARCASSONNE, THE LATE' Rey. F. 'D. MAURICE,

SHORT ARTICLES. MB. HORACE MAYHEW,

683 | IMMIGRATION OF SOME ANIMALS TO MAUALABAMA CLAIMS,

683 BITIUS AND REUNION, OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUN,

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PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY

LITTELL & GAY,

& GAY, BOSTON. .

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FOOTSTEPS.

From Lippincott's Magazine for June.

CARCASSONNE.

FROM THE FRENCH OF GUSTAVE NADAUD.

In the quiet hour of gloaming,
When the hush is upon the earth,
When the stars gleam out and the low winds

moan,
I sit and listen listen alone,
By the side of the desolate hearth.

Another translation of these beautiful verses will be found L. A. vol. 24, p. 578.

I'm growing old, I've sixty years;

I've labored all my life in vain :
In all that time of hopes and feurs

I've failed my dearest wish to gain.
I see full well that here below

Bliss unalloyed there is for none.
My prayer will ne'er fulfilment know

I never have seen Carcassonne,
I never have seen Carcassonne !

I listen, but not to the homeless leaves,
As they drift 'gainst the window pane;
Nor the soughing wind from the fir-crowned hill,
Nor the sigh and sob of the swollen rill,
Nor the whisper of careless rain.
I listen, I listen, and but to hear
The footsteps that fall around;
The footsteps that gladdened my life of yore,
The footsteps that seek my side no more,
That fall on no earthly ground.
The tiny steps of my first-born
Come pattering quick and soft;
He had trod like a man, had he stayed, by this,
Yet oh I yearn for the baby kiss,
He tottered to give so oft.

You see the city from the hill,

It lies beyond the mountains blue, And yet to reach it one must still

Five long and weary leagues pursue, And to return, as many more!

Ah ! had the vintage plenteous grown ! The grape withheld its yellow store :

I shall not look on Carcassonne,
I shall not look on Carcassonne !

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Thy pardon, Father, I beseech,

In this my prayer if I offend; One something sees beyond his reach

From childhood to his journey's end. My wife, our little boy Aignan,

Have travelled even to Narbonne; My grandchild has seen Perpignan, And I have not seen Carcassonne, And I have not seen Carcassonne !

APRIL, 1872. Who has not known some Author, Artist, Saint, Whose image he has worshipped from afar, But, drawing near, has felt the light grow faint, Found meteoric stone for vanished star? Scan not too closely; mighty men of war In fighting Self have shown a coward taint; The grandest actor dons peruke and paint, Bring not full daylight in, his gifts to mar! 'Tis so with many, 'twas not so with thee, Thou Christ-like man, new laid below the sod, Fair in the distance, fairer near to see; Pointing the way, thou walkest Gospel-shod. From thy bright presence all things dark must

flee, Or stay transformed and own thee child of God ! Spectator.

A. B.

So crooned one day, close by Limoux,

A peasant double-bent with age, “ Rise up, my friend," said I : “ with you

I'll go upon this pilgrimage." We left next morning his abode,

But (Heaven forgive him !) halfway on, The old man died upon the road :

He never gazed on Carcassonne.
Each mortal has his Carcassonne !

John R. THOMPSON

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