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bread-and-butter, and wine of Argenteuil probabilities, but from the ostrich-egg day soon grew into the staple bill of fare. Dur-probabilities were discarded. ing the Revolution the Longchamps nun-peared measuring a foot in diameter — big nery vanished, but the Longchamps fair chocolate and sugar eggs filled with sweetcontinued, and it flourishes to this day, no meats, or monster eggs filled with toys; or, longer as a thing for booths and egg picnics, again, huge mahogany eggs, with brass but as a three days' drive to the Bois de mountings and feet, to stand up on end Boulogne, in which the new spring fashions and act as liqueur receptacles. Then are worn for the first time, and everybody people used the Easter egg as a medium possessed of a barouche and horses airs for giving presents which they would have them. As for the eggs, the yearly sale of had no good excuse for offering at other them never once flagged after the Long-times; and also for paying off arrears of champs revival, for, though no longer eaten étrennes. An august personage very graceat Longchamps itself, they were retailed fully sent one of his Ministers the insignia in annually increasing quantities for home and patent of the grand cross of the Legion consumption till time, human ingenuity, of Honor in an Easter egg; and the late and the Second Empire between them merry Duc de Caderousse-Gra:nont prebrought them as an institution to the pitch sented an actress with the most stupendous of prosperity where thrifty Parisians groau egg on record : it was a colossal wooden to see them now.

thing, painted white, and containing a For there is no disguising that they have brougham. They conveyed it along the become to many persons a tax, a burden, boulevards in a cart to the delight of adand a source of bitterness. So long as no miring crowds, and it was the nine days' further innovation was attempted than sell- wonder of that Easter. ing sugar eggs in lieu of genuine ones it There must have been people who hoped was well; for a sugar egg even when col- that the collapse of the Empire would have oured pink and filled with carraway com- entailed that of the Easter egg; but they fits is not much to be alarmed at. But one were mistaken. This year the confectionday there appeared an artificer of woe who ers, jewellers, and nick-nack shops are as set himself to blowing out all the yolk and full of eggs as ever, and the only differwhite from an egg, cutting the shell neatly ence between to-day and two years ago in two, lining the halves with white satin, seems to be that the tradesmen have adapted them to each other on the screw-drawn from their country's woes further top system, and then putting a gold or a inspiration in the way of egg contrivances, silver thimble inside. This was the first and have added about ten per cent. all auf à surprise. It looked like the real round on the prices of former inventions. thing, and could be set by the donor in Thus, a Parisian bachelor who has dined the donee's egg-cup without fear of detec- out this winter, and feels himself bound tion, until at the critical moment when the to give eggs, has only to set out on a ramspoon was going to crash through the top ble of inspection, and he may choose either everybody round the table would cry out a stuffed hen, life size, sitting on a nest of affectionately “Gare !” and pleasantly twelve eggs, each containing a silver eggmystify the recipient. Of course this in- cup; or a stuffed turkey, whose upper genious invention cost from twenty to fifty half comes off, and discloses a berceaufrancs and found

imitators. nette with baby's layette complete; or an Ducks', geese's, and swans' eggs were unpretending pheasant's egg with an empressed into service as capable of contain- erald ring inside; or, more unpretending ing not only thimble, but small scissors, still, a little wren's egg with a set of studs ; needle-case, &c., and of being sold at from or, if he be bent on gratifying a lady five to ten guineas. Then somebody asked whose tastes are authorlike, a smooth why one should not put earrings, sleeve- ebony egg that slips into the pocket like links, or brooches into the eggs instead of a darning ball, and houses inkstand, pens, thimbles; and this led to an enterprising sand-horn, stamps, wafers, and pencil. jeweller drawing ahead of every one else To be sure, he may choose nothing, argue by fitting up ostrich's eggs as work-boxes, that he is not rich, that eggs are an abuse, scent-bottle stands, or jewel cases. This that he emptied his pockets to feed his jeweller, who deserved well of his kind, friends with sweetmeats at Christmas tide. worked in the Easter-egg trade the same But in this case he had better go and adsort of revolution as Victor Hugo and the mire the monuments of London for a fort“ Romantiques "wrought in the drama. Up night, or proceed to Rome to see whether to that time it had been considered essential the Holy week festivities there have deto keep up some semblance of respect for generated; and when he returns he must plead that he was called away by urgent and commerce on a footing of perfect private affairs. Even then, however, let equality. This, as regards all such pretenhim not be surprised if society watches sions, must be the beginning of the end ; him for some time with a cool and guarded and in that, perhaps, lies its chief signifieye as one inclined to make light of those cance for Western Powerz. With the Japbeneficial observances which raise man anese it seems but the natural consequence above dumb brutes.

numerous

of all the other startling innovations which have inarked their national life during the past ten years. But it is different with China, which has neither accepted rail

roads, and telegraphs as necessary to the From The Pall Mall Gazette. national progress and development, nor NEW JAPANESE AND CHINESE TREATIES. admitted in practice the nullity of their

The treaty recently entered into be- pretensions to supremacy in the governing tween China and Japan is significant as an

hierarchy of the world. The settlement indication of policy in regard to both of the audience question must soon, howThat two nations inhabiting countries so ever, tear away the last shred of this near to each other as China and Japan

worn-out mantle of universal doininion ; both of Asiatic race and with many fea- and it is a question the solution of which tures in common — should for more than cannot much longer be deferrred either in 2,000 years have maintained a policy of their interest or in ours, since delay tends isolation towards each other, and now to dan age the position of foreign Powers, suddenly enter into close alliance, signing and to falsify the policy of the Chinese a treaty of reciprocity and equality, is a Government to their own peril. A new striking demonstration of the irresistible Russo-Japanese Treaty has been announced influence of modern intercourse and civ. in the telegraphic notices from Berlin, and ilization in breaking down all barriers of appeared in the Times of the 20th inst. race or religion. Since the days of the We have reason to believe, however, that great Mongul conqueror, Kublai Khan the correspondent has simply blundered in who twice in the thirteenth century sent his intelligence, and mistaken a treaty conforth a great armada for its conquest, cluded between China and Japan for one from which few ever lived to return – the which has no existence with Russia. It only intercouse between the two nations, is bad enough for the Japanese to have after a long series of reprisals on the entered into something very like an alliCorean coast from Japan, has been of the ance offensive and defensive with China, most restricted kind. A small colony of in a clumsy attempt to transfer to their Chinese traders permitted to reside at treaty the Chinese version of the article Nagasaki, but carefully locked up every in the American treaty, by which it is night within the wards of their settlement, stipulated that, in the event of a war with and the admission of two or three Japan- any third Power, the good offices of Amerese junks at one, or sometimes two, ports ica should be accepted. As between two in China, has been all the communication countries like China and Japan, such meallowed for the last five centuries. And diation of the one on behalf of the other this is the more remarkable, since the Jap- would have no meaning when a Western anese a thousand years before had bor- Power was in the field. And if, as the rowed from the Chinese not only their apocryphal summary from Berlin would written character, but their religion and indicate, there is any engagement for philosophy, with such cultivation of their China and Japan to close their ports relanguage and literature as Europe in the spectively to any Western belligerent middle ages kept up with respect to the making war on either, it is pretty sure to Greek and Roman classic3. Now, each involve the neutral so acting in the quarnation, abandoning its lofty pretensions rel, without possible benefit to one or the of unapproachable dignity and isolation, other, but much and certain damage. has freely entered into relations of peace

No. 1456. - May 4, 1872.

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CONTENTS. 1. TURNER AND MULREADY,

Macmillan's Magazine, 2 The Maid or SKER. Part XVI.,

Blackwood's Magazine, 3. HENRY WARD BEECHER. Part II.,

Contemporary Review, 4. Ore THE SKELLIGS. By Jean Ingelow. Part VII., Saint Pauls, 5. FRENCH MANNERS,

Blackwood's Magazine, 6. FREDERICK DENISON MAURICE,

Spectator, . 7. The Dutch TERCENTENABY,

Saturday Review, 8. FRANCE AND GERMANY,

Pall Mall Gazette,

267 278 289 300 312

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816

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318

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POETRY.
A THANKSGIVING FOR F. D. MAURICE. By | F. D. MAURICE,
Geo. MacDonald,

258 A WIND IN THE STREET,

258 258

MISCELLANY,

266, 277, 320

NUMBERS OF THE LIVING AGE WANTED. The publishers are in want of Nos. 1179 and 1180 (dated respectively Jan. 5th and Jan. 12th, 1867) of The LIVING AGE. To cubscribers, or others, who will do us the favor to send us either or both of those numbers, we will return an equivalent, either in our publications or in cash, until our wants are supplied.

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY

LITTELL & GAY, BOSTON.

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. FOB EIGHT DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING Age will be punctually for. warded for a year, free of postage. But we do not prepay postage on less than a year, nor when we have to pay commission for forwarding the money; nor when we club THE LIVING Age with another periodical.

An extra copy of The LIVING AGE is sent gratis to any one getting up a club of Five New Subscribers

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money.order. If possible. If Deither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money.orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & GAY.

ers,

A THANKSGIVING FOR F. D. MAURICE. O Maurice! brother! friend! the Spring's sweet

breath, THE veil hath lifted, and hath fallen; and him

That wakens buds, and birds, and early lowWho next it stood, before us, first so long, We see not; but, between the cherubim,

Has touch'd thee with the silent stroke of death, The light burns clearer; come,

-& thankful

To leave us lonely through the length’ning song!

hours;

But on thy brow is placed a heavenly wreath Lord, for thy prophet's calm, commanding That needs no warmth of sun or dew of voice;

showers. For his majestic innocence and truth;

Spectator.

John Dennis. For his unswerving purity of choice;

For all his tender wrath and plenteous ruth;

A WIND IN THE STREET.

For his obedient, wise, clear-listening care
To hear for us what word The Word would

say;
For all the trembling fervency of prayer,
With which he led our souls the prayerful

way;

For all the heavenly glory of his face

That caught thy white Transfiguration's shine, And cast on us the glimmer of thy grace,

Of all thy men late left, the most divine;

For all his learning, and the thought of power

That seized thy one Idea everywhere,
Brought the eternal down into the hour,
And taught the dead thy life to claim and

share;

A COUNTRY wind is in the street;
'Tis blowing soft, 'tis blowing sweet;
How fresh it falls on cheek and eyes !
'Tis kissing us from Paradise.
Oh, it has travelled sea and height,
On thymy flowers, the red and white,
O'er golden gorse, and rosy bells
That spread their splendour to the dells;
It slumbered all a perfumed night
On hundred hues of blossom bright;
And shooks its wings in glowing skies,
Where lost in blue the planet dies;
And sped away to farm and fold,
All touched with morning's early gold.
It leaped upon the sleeping lake,
And waked the fawns with waving brake;
It rustled through the leaf-hung deeps.
Where'er the shy-eyed squirrel leaps,
And out on grass and plough in line,
With song of birds and low of kine;
And now 'tis in the mist-blue street,
But newly thronged with passing feet!
Why blows it here so light and glad
On many a forehead dark and sad ?
It is that God's immortal love,
From radiant plains in Heaven above,
Has suddenly, in pity, come
To visit Man's o'erwearied home,
And breathes a breath of hope and life
On scenes of sorrow, care, and strife.

Chambers' Journal

For his humility, dove-clear of guile,

That, sin-denouncing, he, like thy great Paul, Still claimed of sin the greatest share, the while

Our eyes, love-sharpened, saw him best of all;

For his high victories over sin and fear;

The captive hope his words of truth set free; For his abiding memory, holy, dear;

Last for his death, and hiding now in thee; –

We praise, we magnify thee, Lord of him!

Thou hast bim still, - he ever was thine own;
Nor shall our tears prevail the path to dim
That leads where, lowly still, he haunts thy

throne.

When thou, O Lord! ascendedst up on high,

Good gifts thou sentest down to cheer thy men;
Lo! he ascends, - - we follow with the cry :

Send thou his spirit back with thine again.
Spectator.

George MacDonald.

WHETHER thrallèd or exiled,

Whether poor or rich thou be,
Whether praised or reviled,

Not a rush it is to thee :
This nor that thy rest doth win thee,
But the mind that is within thee,

Wither, 1682.

F. D. MAURICE,

How much does England lose in losing thee!

The wise, large heart, the fearless intellect,

The spirit formed to counsel and direct
By sympathy wide-spreading like the sen,
And passionate love of truth; th'example high,

To fight for God in spite of Church or sect,
To
grasp

the real and the false reject, Patient midst slander, calm midst obloquy.

SICK or healthful, slave or free,

Wealthy or despised and poor,
What is that to him or thee;

So his love to CHRIst endure ?
When the shore is won at last,
Who will count the billows past ?

Keble.

WITH

ESPECIAL

REFERENCE

TO

BY R. LIEBREICH

OPHTHALMIO

BURGEON

gh the

From Macmillan's Magazine. every illuminated point having been TURNER AND MULREADY.

changed into a vertical line. The elongaON THE EFFECT OF CERTAIN FAULTS OF VISION ON tion is, generally speaking, in exact proPAINTING,

portion to the brightness of the light; TUEIR WORKS. *

that is to say, the more intense the light

AND which diffuses itself from the illuminated LECTURER AT ST. THOMAS'S HOSPITAL,

point in nature, the longer becomes the When I arrived in England about line which represents it on the picture. eighteen months ago, little thinking that Thus, for instance, there proceeds from a short vacation tour would end in my the sun in the centre of a picture a vertipermanent residence here, I at once paid a cal yellow streak, dividing it into two envisit to the National Gallery. I was anx- tirely distinct halves, which are not conious to see Turner's pictures, which on the nected by any horizontal line. In Turner's Continent I had had no opportunity of do- earlier pictures, the disc of the sun is ing. How great was my astonishment clearly defined the light equally radiating when, after having admired his earlier to all parts; and even where thr works, I entered another room which con- reflection of water a vertical streak is protained his later painting's ! Are these duced, there appears, distinctly marked really by the same hand ? I asked myself through the vertical streak of light, the on first inspecting them; or have they suf- line of the horizon, the demarcation of the fered in any way? On examining them, land in the foreground, and the outline of however, more closely, a question pre- the waves in a horizontal direction. In sented itself to my mind which was to me the pictures, however, of which I am now a subject of interesting diagnosis. Was speaking, the tracing of any detail is perthe great change which made the painter fectly etfaced when it falls in the vertical of “ Crossing the Brook” afterwards pro- streak of light. Even less illuminated obduce such pictures as “ Shade and Dark-jects, like houses or figures, form considness,” caused by an ocular or cerebral dis- erably elongated streaks of light. In this turbance? Researches into the life of manner, therefore, houses that stand near Turner could not afford an answer to this the water, or people in a boat, blend so question. All that I could learn was, that entirely with the reflection in the water, during the last five years of his life his that the horizontal line of demarcation bepower of vision as well as his intellect had tween house and water or boat and water suffered. In no way, however, did this ac- entirely disappears, and all becomes a concount for the changes which began to

glomeration of vertical lines. Everything manifest themselves about fifteen years that is abnormal in the shape of objects, before that time. The question could in the drawing, and even in the colouring therefcre only be answered by a direct of the pictures of this period, can be exstudy of his pictures from a purely scien- plained by this vertical diffusion of light. tific, and not at all from an æsthetic or

How and at what time did this anomaly artistic point of view.

develop itself? I chose for this purpose pictures be

Till the year 1830 all is normal. In longing to the middle of the period which 1831 a change in the colouring becomes I consider pathological i.e., not quitə | for the first time perceptible, which gives healthy, and analyzed them in all their de- ! to the works of Turner a peculiar charactails, with regard to colour, drawing, and ter not found in any other master. Optidistribution of light and shade.

cally this is caused by an increased intenIt was particularly important to ascer-sity of the diffused light proceeding from tain if the anomaly of the whole picture the most illuminated parts of the landcould be deduced from a regularly recur- scape. This light forms a haze of a bluish ring fault in its details. This fault is a colour which contrasts too much with the vertical streakiness, which is caused by

surrounding portion in shadow. From the A Lecture delivered at the Royal Institution on year 1833 this diffusion of light becomes the 8th March, 1872.

more and more vertical. It gradually in

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