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mons to show the enormous moral value of pect that a distant future might yet the principal of resentment, if kept within come in which, — if moral surgery were the right limits. Such positive proof of possible, if there were such a thing as a course would be as admissible if the new moral excision capable of being performed, notion of organic superfluities in the body it might be of the first benefit to man be granted, as before. But would not even to eradicate some of the persistent there be a very much weaker analogical inoral tendencies which we have received case for the real worth of each of the ele- as heirlooms from our ancestors. Take mentary desires, emotions, and other prac- some of the cases of kleptomania, as it is tical tendencies, as we now have them ? called, or even of the worst forins of avWould it not be argued very gravely that arice, - i.e., of deeply persistent tendencies, if we all really inherit from our ancestors probably in some degree inherited, which superfluous bodily encumbrances of which have become to their present possessors it is our duty to rid ourselves, we are ex- what Sir William Gull asserts that the ecceedingly likely to have also inheritedcentrically developed duct he tells us of mental and moral superfluities of the same was to its victim, not only not useful, but kind, where again there would be a new centres of local disease,

- and can field opening not merely for restraint and doubt for a moment that here we have the culture, – but, so far as that is possible, trace of a greed for accumulation, which for the intervention of moral surgery, for in the hard Stone Ages, for instance, may radical excisions of natural impulses and have been almost a condition of existence, tendencies ? If the human reason applied developed into a thoroughly unsocial and to physiology has discovered that it has destructive passion in an age of comparapruning duties in relation to some of the tive ease and wealth? And if it be mornormal organs of the human body, will not ally certain, as it seems to us to be, that the human reason as applied to psychology in a higher state of existence the competibe strongly biased in favour of the belief tive instinct so deep in us, and, within that it may have pruning duties in relation limits, so useful to us now, will disappear, to some of the normal organs of the human why should it be incredible that even on mind?

this earth in some distant future the moral We should reply that it is of course far uses of such a passion might vanish, and it more difficult to determine what is a dis- might linger, if it lingered at all, as a mere tinct organ of the mind than it is to deter- centre of disease ? mine what is a distinct organ of the body; We do not see anything really to startle and further, that as the mind is the highest us in Sir William Ğull's striking suggespart of man, you might fairly expect nor- tion that science may in the future show inal organs of the body to have become for us how even to prune away superfluous all purposes of advantage obsolete, al- organs of our body with a purely benefithough still inherited from our ancestors, cial result to man; nor why something parwithout expecting normal organs of the allel might not happen, in some still more mind to have already lost all their primi- distant future, in relation even to the mentive functional uses; and that, consider-tal tendencies of men.

All such a suging the extremely small number, even if gestion would imply is that God educates there be any, normal bodily organs which us to educate ourselves; and that in the medical science can venture to pronounce course of that education, as the higher really useless to man and mere monuments functions of both body and mind become of a primeval body to which they were developed, some of the lower will gradualuseful, there is no good analogical reason ly be of less and less use, and finally may to expect that anything equivalent would become really superfluous, without, howbe discernible in the mind. But it would, ever disappearing until our own reason and we think, be perfectly true to say that conscience are trained to help in extinthere are, in the mind itself, traces not guishing them. It is hardly possible to perhaps of completely useless habits, or doubt that in the only perfect human naappetites, or impulses which are inherited ture which ever lived upon this earth, in from our forefathers, but certainly and the divine humanity, some of the lower frequently of great excess of activity in principles even of the mind, — notably the such babits, or appetites, or impulses ; competitive impulse, — was kept altonor would it be at all unreasonable to ex-l gether inactive.

WEST AFRICA.

POSITE.

or not.

Another paper in the same the rock-islands in the river, the smoking mounjournal, accompanied by a map, gives a com- tain of Otombi can be seen to the north-east, plete history of the attempts which have been and, according to native report, there is a secmade to penetrate West Africa in the neighbor- ond volcano, named Onshiko, beyond this one hood of the delta of the Ogowai river, along in the same direction. The existence of a great with a summary of our knowledge of that part lake fır in the interior was confirmed to the of the continent. Ogowai must be one of the traveller by every report, but whether this main arteries of the country, but nothing what- forms the source of the Okanda could not be ever is yet known of its course beyond a disc ascertained. More recent excursions by the tance of 150 miles inland from its great delta, French have completed a rough survey of the the outmost branches of which are more than region of the delta. The Ogowai is the gate 50 miles apart on the coast. In recent years through which our knowledge of Central West attention was drawn to the magnitude of this Africa must be obtained.

Academy. river, first reported by Bowdich in 1817, by Du Chaillu's journeys in the coast regions north of the Gaboon and south of the Ogowai, in the yeurs 1856-59. The French, who have long had settlements in its neighbourhood, have at vari

THE STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF Coxous times made efforts to navigate its waters, as

- At the meeting of the Linnean Socieyet without much success, though there do not ty on February 1st an important paper was appear to be any great barriers in the way of a

read by Mr. Bentham, the president of the socidetermined explorer. Their first trial in 1862, ety, on this subject, to which he has recently under Lieut. Serval in the steamer Pionnier, given much attention. The order Compositæ or was made in July, the season when the river is Synantheræ is remarkable not only from its lowest, * and soon the journey had to be contin- enormous size, but also from its extremely nate ued in boats, but at a distance by river of about ural and well-marked characters, there not

be 100 miles from the coast, on the rumour of an whether a plant should be referred to this order

ing a single instance in which it is donbtful attack by the natives, further progress was

All the essential characters of the anabandoned. Neglecting the experience of the former attempt, a second, under Lieut. Albigot dræcium, pistil, structure of fruit, structure of and Dr. Touchard, also in the Pionnier, was seed, and inflorescence, are absolutely constant undertaken at the same season in 1864, but, throughout the ten thousand species comprised waiting till October, the expedition reached the within it. This very fact, however, renders its mouth of a large tributary from the southward, subdivision into tribes and genera a matter of damed the Ngunië, at a distance of about 50 extreme difficulty, the systematist being commiles beyond the turning point of the first trial. pelled to adopt characters as generic which in A third voyage in 1867 under Lieut. Aymes did other orders would hardly be considered as spenot reach farther than this confluence, beyond cific. The parts of the plant from which the which the main river is named the 'Okanda. best distinguishing churacters are derived were Overland from the Gaboon in 1864, Lieut. Gen- treated at length by the author under the foloyer, after an ascent of the coast range named lowing heads : -- 1. Sexual differences in the by the Portuguese the Serra do Crystal, reached florets contained in the capitulum; these are the Okanda above the confluence of the Ngunië, sometimes constant in large genera or subtribes, and returned to the Gaboon by one of the tribo sometimes variable in closely allied species. 2 utary streams of that estuary. Retraversing

Di- and tri-morphisın; very rare in Compositio the country south of the Ogowai, visited by him except as connected with sexual differences. in 1858, Du Chaillu come upon and traced the 3. Differences in the pistil; these depend on Ngunië

down towards the Ogowai for a consid- variations in the style where it is not used for erable distance in 1864, previous to bis longest its primary purposes in connection with the ferjourney inland to Ashango. In 1866 a journey

tilization of the ovules. 4. Differences in the was made by an En lishman named Walker fruit and its pappus. 5. Differences in the anfrom the Gaboon to the Ogowai, during which dræ; these depend on the minute appendages he followed up the tributary Ngunië to the point or tails which have apparently no functional at which Du Chaillu had turned, and afterwards office. 6. Differences in the corolla; numerous navigated the Okanda by boat in its course from and important. 7. Differences in the calyx; north-east to a point 50 miles above the conflu- these are not important. 8. Differences in the ence, the farthest yet reached by any European. ultimate inflorescence and bracts; not of essenHere in July, the time of lowest water, at a dis- tial importance. 9. Differences in foliage; there tance of more than 200 miles by river from the is no type of foliage in Composite which may coast, the first hindrance in the form of rapids not be found in several other orders, although was encountered. The river breaks into several the leaves are never compound with articulate channels of from 100 to 300 yards in width, leaflets; the opposition or alternation of the and has a very tortuous course. From one of

leaves is sometimes of tribal importance, some

times not. 10. Geographical distribution; on Corresponding to the rainy season under the this portion of the subject a further paper is equator, the gowai has a considerable rise in April promised at a future meeting.

Academy.

and a lesser in October.

No. 1454. - April 20, 1872.

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CONTENTS. 1. VOLTAIRE,

Blackwood's Magazine, 2. Off The SKELLIGS. By Jean Ingelow. Part VI.. Saint Pauls, 3. A VOYAGE TO THE SUN,

Cornhill Magazine, 4. AMERICAN JUDGES. By James Bryce,

Macmillan's Magazine, 5. MICHAEL FARADAY,

Golden Hours, 6. Tue MAID OF SKER. Part XV.,

Blackwood's Magazine, 7. M. JANVIER DE LA MOTTE,

Spectator, 8. MAZZINI,

Spectator, . 9. TaPPy's Chick's,

Spectator, . 10. The USES OF TATTOOING.

Saturday Review,

POETRY. GIUSEPPE MAZZINI,

Novalis. By Geo. MacDonald,

131 146 151 163 172 173 184 186 187 191

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NUMBERS OF THE LIVING AGE WANTED. The publishers are in want of Nos. 1179 and 1180 (dated respectively Jan. 5th and Jan. 12th, 1867) of The Living AQE. To subscribers, or others, who will do us the favor to send us either or both of those numbers, we will return an equivalent, either in our publications or in cash, until our wants are supplied.

PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY.

LIT TELL & GAY, BOSTON.

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. FOR Eight Dollars, remitted directly to the Publishers. the LIVING Age will be punctually for. warded for a yeat, free of postage. But we do not prepay postage on less than a year, nor when we have to pay commission for forwarding the money; nor when we club THE LIVING AGE with another periodical. An extra copy of THE LIVING AGE is sent gratis to any one getting up a club of Five New Subscribers.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & GAY.

GIUSEPPE MAZZINI.

And having thus topp'd highest reach of hope, BORN AT GENOA, 1806: DIED AT Pisa, MARCH Suddenly to be hurled down to despair; 10, 1872

To feel young right weak with old wrong to “Let no man be called happy ere his death.”

cope, So ran the wisdom of the antique world.

See alien arms Italian overbear; How shall we rate him who draws dying breath On work unfinished, high hopes backward Worse still — the bearer of those arms to see hurled ?

Still red with blood of Rome's Republic slain

Hailed as the Saviours of Italy, Such the first thought of most a thought that And crowned with honours Saviours scarce give

attain. To one whose course has closed on weary days, Where Pisa scarcely can be said to live,

To see the Austrian yield each guarded hold, And sleepy-seeming Arno seaward strays.

And sadly, from across the salt sea-stream, But not more shallow they that laugh to scorn

Watch Italy's rent robe, fold after fold, The thought that this blow stream to flood Grow strangely to a garment without seam,

could leap, That they that wasted deem this life outworn Yet raise no voice to bid the foe depart : Not reckoning what men sow but what they Yet lift no hand for the rent robe's repair; reap.

With strangers' bitter bread to stay his heart; Enough, that no Italian can doom

Watch the work doing, nor be called to share; A life as poorly lived, or lived in vain, Than which none ever better earned a tomb Though feeling faith, soul, spirit still the same Within the Holy Field* by Pisa's fane.

As screened from quenching gust and choking

air The greater still his right to such a grave, The spark that now, grown to a lusty flame,

That Death of honour owes bim large arrear, From Northern Alp to Southern Isle burns To whom Life, taking much, so little gave

fair. In payment from the land he held most dear,

And when Italian gronnd once more he prest But exile, poverty, and long farewell

With feet urged by home-sickness o'er the To Genoa's blue sky and sunny sea

foam, And sunny bearts, in northern cold to dwell,

Italy had a gaoler for her guest,
Hated and hunted by the powers that be.

Could find a prison for him — not a home!
Slowly to gather strength but to be foiled;
To burl young lives on desperate emprize,

Open at length his prison doors he found :
Only to fail in fight, or, treason-coiled,

Go forth; the score is cleared, even for thee.To waste in ling'ring count of prison sighs;

VICTOR EMANUEL in Rome sits crowned,

And so Mazzini is forgiven - is free.
To keep the sparks of hope and faith alight
In failing hearts, and not let fail his own :

O mockery of human lots and lives !
To read “ ITALIA UNA " still writ bright,

Was this the stroke that stabbed him to the Through mists of blood, and clouds of tem

beart? pest blown;

Nay, who can say what shocks such faith surTo learn faith can turn false, and friendship

vives, cold;

What strength such bitter tonics can impart? To be called dreamer, Quixote, coward, fool: Nay, lest such pillory-pelt friends' trust out- None, e'en for this, saw wavering of his trust, hold,

Nune, e'en for this, saw doubting of his way: Branded as tyranny's decoy and tool :

Stern only to himself, true, noble, just,

“God and the People !” still be made his And — bitterer than the bitterest of these

stay. griets — At length to see hope to fruition grown,

To seal that pact, glorious, if less fulfilled And echo, chief among the nation's chiefs,

In tbeir lives whom he trusted thin his own, Italy's shout o'er Austria overtbrown; His seed of faith, by fact's worst frost un-killed, And standing high-crown'd in the Capitol,

Though for no visible harvest, still was sown. Chief triunvir of a regenerate Rome, To mark the glow of the old conquering soul Was sown, and seeming, though but seeming, Come back from long trance 'neath St. Peter's dead dome;

Has quickened, and will quicken still, and

swell, Campo Santo, the ancient and famous burial: Till, haply, when the fields laugh, harvest-red, place of l’i-a, filled with earth from Jerusalem, and

Men shall own his the seed that yields so well! decorated by the greatest painters and sculptors of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.

Punch.

ac

66

a

From Blackwood's Magazine.

learning and some eloquence, is not hisVOLTAIRE.

torical but critical, and demands an Mr. Merley's book * upon the great quaintance at once with the man and his French philosopher, just published, will works which we fear only scholars possess. no doubt bring the name and character of Approaching the subject from no scholarly Voltaire freshly before many readers, who point of view, and without any desire to have only the vague general knowledge of enter into the miserable maze of clever him which readers are apt to have of a argument by which Voltaire “se sentit writer whose works have fallen into that appelé à détruire les préjugés de toutes oblivion of greatness which is scarcely less espèces,” we shall endeavonr to throw a complete than the oblivion of littleness, little light upon the character and position and whose personal mould is no longer at of this remarkable personage, for a real tractive to, or representative of, the

and searching examination of his work

age. His is one of the names which“

“ every

and influence in history would require an body" knows ; ard everybody knows amount of space and labour which we cansomething about him. Certain facts in not pretend to give. Mr. Morley makes his history, certain things he has produced, very high claims for his hero : “When the are part of the general foundation of knowl-right sense of historical proportion is more edge which comes to us, we do not well , fully developed in men’s minds,” he says, know how, from the fathers and grand

the name of Voltaire will stand for as fathers to whom the quaint and old-fash- inuch as the names of the great classic joned di tance of last century bore

movements in the European advance, like personal intere t. We know something of the Revival of learning or the ReformaVoltaire's tragedies, something of Candide tion.” This is making more than a man and Dr. Pangloss, something of his his- of the great representative figure of the tories, and a great deal about his connec

seventeenth century. We should have tion with the Great Frederic, and the mis- thought that to place him on an equality erable quarrels and spite of that philo- with Luther would have been distinction sophic circle. We know too that he holds enough, but Mr. Morley seems to require a place in French literature of very high more than this. And indeed, Luther does importance, and even in something more not occupy anywhere the same living posithan French literature. In France herself, tion which the name of Voltaire occupies spiritual and moral, there is still a kind of in men's mouth's, at least on the other galvanic life in the strange figure, half side of the Channel. It is a difficult posibuffoon, hålf philosopher, which probably tion for an individual with so many impertakes its chief value from the fact that fections on his head. His system was not in itself it was the most perfectly repre- a lofty one, whatever its success may have sentative figure of his age.

been, and in his own person he was very Voltaire died nearly a hundred years ago, far from blameless. It is not an apostolic but still Voltairism is spoken of as if it figure, nor a celestial work, which can be were a fit antagonist of Christianity on presented to us, even by the warmest of the other side of the Channel, and his in- partisans, but still it is one which has fluence represents at once to his enemies filled a large place in the eyes of the world and his friends a power immensely greater and whic'ı in many ways is extremely cuthan any name of his century – nay, than rious. Everybody whose opinion has been all the names of his century put together worth recording for the last hundred years – have left among ourselves. No inquiry has given some deliverance on this subject; could be more curious and interesting than and, as Mr. Morley tells us, these judgthe question how this all came about. ments have been about as diverse as there The reader, however, will not be able to have been lips to utter them. He is himmake this out from “ Voltaire, by John self very deeply impressed with the imporMorley,” which, though a work of much tance of Voltaire's work. Yet he does not

disguise, but rather, if we may say so, # Voltaire. By John Morley. London, 1872. takes a kind of serious pleasure in record.

The man

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