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from Sydney to Panama on his way to, in Paris, but none were sent for except England. At Panama he dallied awhile; Chatillon who at once pronounced him to then he went to New York, where there be an impostor. was another delay, and at last he started Returning to London, the Claimant befor England. Here again, however, he gan to get up his case. If he had been preferred the tedious route by the Thames under the impression that on his identifito the Victoria Docks at Poplar. He ar- cation by the Dowager he would at once rives on the afternoon of Christmas Day, step into the enjoyment of a handsome and almost immediately he hurries off to fortune, he discovered his mistake. He Wapping. Muffled up in a large pea-coat, must make good his claim at law, and with a wrapper round the lower part of it was necessary to collect evidence. W: his face and a peaked cap overshadowing have seen what blunders he committed the upper part, he enters the “ Globe" about the family affairs in Australia, bepublic-house, makes his way to the bar- fore he met Bogle. At Wagga-Wagga he parlour like an old acquaintance, and over had given Gibbs directions to prepare a a glass of sherry questions the landlady will disposing of the Tichborne property, about the Ortons. He tries to see one of not one item of which was stated corArthur Orton's married sisters that night, rectly. The Dowager's Christian names but she is out; and early next morning, were wrongly given, and the names both without waiting for breakfast, he is off of persons and places had nothing whatagain to the neighbourhood of Wapping. ever to do with the Tichbornes, but oddly He picks up all the information he can get enough were associated with Arthur Orabout the Ortons, and sends a letter ton's career. When in London he wrote under an assumed name to one of the mar- to Mr. Henry Seymour as “ My Dear Unried sisters. Afterwards he sent them cle,” spelling the name “Seymore.” Mr. photographs of himself and of his wife and Seymour was, in fact, Roger's uncle, but child as portraits of Arthur Orton and his the relationship was never alluded to befamily, and he also supplied the sisters and tween them, the Dowager, Roger's mother a brother with money. The Dowager was and Mr. Seymour's half-sister, having been impatiently expecting him in Paris, but he an illegitimate child. Some of his relawas in no hurry to go to her. He avoided tions having with great difficulty obtained all Roger's relatives, and went to Grave- interviews with him, he took his uncle send to be out of their way. Next we Nangle's butler, a yonng man, for his unhave a glimpse of him, under the name of cle, who is an elderly gentleman; mistook Taylor, hidden in his big muffler and his uncle, who is an elderly gentleman; peaked cap, driving round Tichborne Park mistook his cousin Kate for another cousin, and studying a catalogue of pictures in calling Kate Lucy, and Lucy Kate. On the house, with Bogle in attendance. many points, however, he showed an intiBogle refreshes his recollection of the mate knowledge of thc Tichborne affairs, house by a visit to it. It was necessary to and as the time went ou he began to talk have an attorney, and, passing by all the more freely about them. It happens that legal advisers in any way connected with there is a great stock of information about the Tichborne family, he took one who was the family which is easily accessible. It is introduced to him by a gentleman whom an old family with a history, and there is he is said to have met in a billiard-room at a great deal about it, in County Histories, London Bridge. At last he felt equal to Baronetcies, and similar works. There is confronting the Dowager. He reached Roger's will at Doctor's Commons. There Paris, accompanied by the attorney and have been administrations and various the “ mutual friend," at nine o'clock at suits in Chancery, and the documents are night, but deferred his visit to his mother open to inspection on payment of a till next day. But next day he was so small fee. It is certain that Roger kept a overcome with emotion that he had to send diary, and was very particular abont prefor her to come to him. He then, it is al serving accounts and letters; and the leged, went to bed, where he anxiously Dowager herself was a mine of informaawaited her. It is obvious that bed-cur- tion. Bogle also knew, as a servant knows, tains, blankets, and the dingy light of a the private history of the family in our Parisian bedrooın are not favourable to own day. Rous, the landlord of the the distinct recognition of a doubtful face. “Swan at Alresford, had been a clerk to We do not know exactly what took place Dunn and Hopkins, the attorneys to the at the interview, but the result was that late baronet; and the Claimant quickly the Dowager agreed to recognize him. established a good understanding with There were many old friends of Roger's Rous, although it afterwards broke (lown.
With his scraps of information picked up so on. He has names, dates and incidents from the Chancery papers and from talk at his finger's ends. At first he begins with Rous and Bogle, Hopkins was next with the privates. Carter spends a day angled for and hooked. Then there was at Sandhurst, standing beer to his former Baigent, who at first, declared the Claim- comrades, gossiping with them about old ant to be an impostor, and who suddenly days, and preparing them for a meeting discovered that he was the real man. The with the Claimant. Separate interviews adhesion of Miss Braine, who had been were arranged; the Claimant received Miss Doughty's governess, and of Moore, each man as an old friend, went through Roger's servant in South America, were the familiar stories, hobbled about the not obtained till 1868. On the 12th of room to show that he was in-kneed, and March the Dowager, who had been for made the most of his assumed French acsome time restless and disturbed, died cent. Next there was an expedition to suddenly. This was so far a loss to the Colchester, with similar proceedings, and Claimant that it deprived him of the pe- after that visits to various barracks in the cuniary help which he had obtained from North of England. Carter was an active the old lady, but on the other hand it ren- missionary; there was plenty of beer flowdered it impossible that his chief witness ing, and an occasional distribution of halfshould turn against him; and when the crowns. One man brought over another, Dowager died, she knew nothing of the and the Claimant collected not only witWagga-Wagga will and other remarkable nesses, but information. When he found circumstances in the Claimant's career. he had got a good hold on the privates, he
Tichborne Park was in 1866, as now, tackled the officers, and won over four or let to Colonel Lushington, and it was in five, who had no idea how the twigs had every way a good haul when the Colonel been limed for them. The interviews were was landed. The Colonel, who had never always pre-arranged. seen Roger, was mainly influenced by the As the ball rolled, it gathered bulk. Claimant's recognition of the Dowager's The affidavits of the witnesses who were picture, and of a stuffed cock pheasant first secured proved a fruitful nest-egg. alleged to have been sent home by Roger They were cleverly concocted and then from South America, and by his intimation circulated among people whom it was dethat the backs of some miniatures would sired to catch. They were drawn up so as prove to be gold if scratched. The Claim- to fasten upon Roger several of the Claimant had, however, seen the Dowager, and ant's peculiarities of expression or feature, bad studied a catalogue of the pictures; and, being unconsciously accepted as evi. the pheasant had not been sent home from dence of what Roger was like, facilitated America, but was an English bird; and the recognition of the Claimant, who the miniatures had been framed by Bai- was found of course to be very like himgent who appears to bave mentioned it. self. Then there were little “test” inciTowards the end of February an inport- dents ingeniously contrived. When the ant auxiliary arrived —this was Carter, an Claimant went to Burton Constable, Sir old trooper of the Carabineers, who was Talbot Constable the first day could not always in attendance on the Claimant. recognize him. The next day the ClaimA few weeks later Carter is reinforced by ant fired off one or two stories, possibly another old soldier who had been Roger's acquired in the interval from servants or regimental servant - McCann. Previously others, about having played in private the Claimant had either shirked or blun- theatricals at Burton, and handed the dered about military matters, and Baigent wine round when a servant was tipsy, and bad never even heard him make an allu- about an old hedge being cut down; and sion of any kind to his connexion with the Sir Talbot gave in. Mr. Biddulph, a second army. But now he plunged boldly into cousin of Roger's, is the only member of Roger's military history, and converted the family, with the exception of the military witnesses by his wonderful knowl- Dowager, who has recognized him; and edge of minute incidents. There were old | Biddulph has confessed that his opinion stories about a horse that killed a trooper, was influenced by a story about two death’sabout another trooper who got drunk, head pipes, which might have been known about the practical jokes played off on poor to many persons in the Tichborne houseRoger, such as “chucking all the things " hold. Colonel Sawyer similarly succumbed out of his window and sending a don-to the Claimant's recollection of the Carakey clattering into his bedroom, which he bineer's having been landed at Herne Bay took for the devil; about the two dogs from Dublin. This fact had been got from Spring and Piecrust, Mrs. Hay's crow, and the War Office. At a railway station the
Claimant captured Mr. and Mrs. Deane by the Bella has ever turned up. Neither the going up to them and addressing them by captain nor any of the crew of the vessel name. Tley had the instant before been which he said picked them up can be dispointed out to him by one of his insepara-covered. First he said it was the Ospre', ble attendants. Mrs. Sherstone knew him a Scotch schooner, then the Themis, and at once because she has such a faculty for then again he tried back to another recognizing faces. Mrs. Hussey, who Osprey.
The Chili Commission proved danced with Roger once at a servants' ball that, whereas Tichborne was not known, when she was fourteen years old, was con- Arthur Orton was known to the people fident as to his looks twenty years after- whom the Claimant had mentioned as luis
friends at Melipilla. 'The Chili CommisA great body of evidence was thus col-sion taken in connexion with the Australected by the end of 1867. There was a lian Commission and other evidence would sort of grand rehearsal in the examina- seem to point to the Claimant as being tion before Mr. Roupell at the Law Insti- Arthur Orton, but who he is is of no practute; and then the Claimant had four tical importance if he is not Roger. years more to get up more facts, and to As to Roger's appearance at the time he study his part, as the actors say. It is left England there is a substantial agree true he recollected a great deal of loose ment in the different portraits.
His odds and ends of information when in the friends generally describe him as a slig'it, witness-box, but, considering the time he dark, pale man, with a soft melancholy had had for preparation, there was noth-eye, with thin, straight, very dark brown, ing surprising in this. Indeed, the most almost black, hair, and with large and remarkable feature in the whole affair is rather bony hands. His mother adds that he did not attempt to learn more; to some flattering but fanciful touches, that get up a little French, for example, a few he was tall and had blue eyes. General facts about Paris and Stonyburst, some Custance's picture is in another style : notion of cavalry drill, and so His “ A little, wretched, unwholesome-looking memory, like his French accent, was capri- young man, about 5 ft. 6 in., or at most cious — sometimes very strong, at other 5 ft. 7 in., very pale, thin, and dirty-looktimes a blank. He had a distinct recollec- ing, and apparently not likely to grow." tion of his pipes, of the number on a The General's picture is perhaps too harsh, trooper's horse, of the stag's head and but we suspect it is nearer the truth_than mauve stripes on his shirts and handker- the more complimentary likeness. Roger chiefs; but he could remember scarcely was rather a weak, insignificant youth. anything about his life at Paris, or at When he first joined the regiment he was Stonyhurst, and only such incidents in his so under-sized and odd-looking, and talked military career as were the common gossip so curiously in his French way, that the of the barrack-yard. He confounded a Colonel thought he must have come to see troop and a squadron, and did not know the cook, and directed an orderly to conthe difference beween close and open or- duct him to the kitchen. He had to exder, or what telling off and proving meant, plain that he had come to see the Colonel and he thought the Carabineers were al and not the cook. It is possible that there thousand strong. He had never heard of really was a stronger resemblance in exLord Fitzroy Somerset. Roger had some pression, if not in feature, between Roger knowledge of Latin, and the Claimant and the Claimant than the counsel for the thought Cæsar was in Greek. He was defence were willing to adinit. But the sure he learned Hebrew at Stonyhurst, I physical evidence against the Claimant where no Hebrew was taught. Roger was was overwhelming. It is possible that a fond of music and could play the horn ; man might increase in bulk, so that, having the Claimant, when shown some music, been once slender as Roger, he should beand asked why the horn was written in coine gross and ponderous as the Claimant; such a key and the pianoforte in three but the latter is an inch or more taller flats, said it was because the horn could/than Roger, who was twenty-four when he not get down to the flats. The Claimant left England — an age at which men cease pronounced the Dowager's name Felicite. to grow in height. His head is larger; The letters of Roger and the Claimant in Roger's helmet, which was too loose for handwriting, composition, and grammar i him, and had to be padded with a newspaare as different as letters can be. His per, was a painfully tight fit for the Claimstory of the shipwreck of the Bella, and apt. Roger's hair was straight and lank; his escape with eight others in a boat, was the Claimant's is curly. Roger's ears ad. absurd and contradictory. No survivor of hered to the side of his head; the Claim
ant's ears are dependent and free, with trine is that we may, – if we will act 80large lobes. Apart from the disputed berly and on sufficient knowledge, — adopt scars on the Claiinant's left foot, he has no a policy of physiological intervention even marks of having been bled at all; but in regard to some of those natural organic Roger was frequently bled on account of growths of our own bodies which are usuasthma. Roger's arm was elaborately tat- ally assumed to be amongst the absolute tooed, first by a sailor who pricked out the data of our life. Sir William Gull rejects emblems of Faith, Hope, and Charity, and with some scorn what we may call the afterwards by Lord Bellew, a schoolfellow, physiological quietism of those who simply who added å cable and “R. C. T.” On watch and wait upon Nature, and proclaim neither of the Claimants arms are there themselves non-interventionists with reany tattoo marks, though there is a mark gard to her processes. And indeed all exat the wrist which it has been suggested cept the very small school who regard vacmight be a tattoo of “ A. O.” burned out. cination as a culpable intervention in the It will occur to every one that if the Court physiology of the body - nay, all who could have insisted upon beginning with a would not condemn an operation for cataphysical examination of the Claimant there ract, or the extraction of a diseased tooth, would at once have been an end of the or the amputation of a mortifying limb as case, and that three instead of one hundred an audacious “flying in the face of Nature,” and three days would then have been suffi- must admit that there is a just limit to cient to dispose of it. As it was the jury the quietist policy somewhere. But Sir could come to no other conclusion than William Gull goes further; he quotes with that the claim had broken down, while the approbation a saying of Professor HaughJudge had also no alternative but to com- ton's with regard to the theory that the mit Thomas Castro to Newgate.
most painful of the effects of cholera are " an effort of Nature to cure the disease,” “ I will tell you what Nature wants; she wants to put the man in his coffin; and
that is what she succeeds in doing, for the From The Spectator.
most part;" and he maintains that medical SIR W. GULL ON PHYSIOLOGICAL and surgical science is bound to assume INTERVENTION.
that Nature wants to do some things which Sir WILLIAM Gull, in a remarkable we must check her in doing, if we are to address read on the 26th January before make the best of the world, and wants not the Clinical Society,* threw out a sugges- her to do. Even this doctrine, however,
to do other things which we may compel tion of which any layman is competent to appreciate the very wide possible bearings in the abstract would hardly be questioned He began by avowing for himself, and by ordinary physiologists; but Sir William claiming (we know not on what grounds)
Gull gives it a rather unexpected applicafor the whole Clinical Society, an optimist tion, — namely, in relation to positive orview of Nature, a belief in the steady prog- gans which may, on adequate investigation, ress of Creation from better to better in appear to be the superfluous monuments or the past, and a profound faith that that relicts of a lower state of being. He reprogress would never be terminated in the marks that organs which exist in the emfuture,-(a faith which, of course, rejects þryo, and which usnally fade away as the the physical possibility of an astronomical body grows into its perfect human form, catastrophe), — but he maintained that do sometimes, from some physiological ecfrom the point at which the human mind centricity of the individual, develop themcomes into active being, that law of prog- selves as fully as they are developed in ress can be secured only by the active co- other animal species, and that where this operation of that mind, and that that co- is the case, disease, if it comes at all
, is esoperation implies not merely a careful pecially likely to concentrate itself on this study and use of Nature, but perfect readi- deformity, as we should call it, – that is, ness, wherever we have the adequate on the eccentrically developed organ which means and knowledge, to override Nature, in most other men is rudimentary only, if to make her something different from what traceable in them at all. “ Those parts she would be without our interference, whose functions are indefinite,” he says, something better than she would be if we are apt to be “the foci of pathology,” that did not meddle with her. In fact his doc- is, we suppose, the seats of disease. He
instances the case of a particular duct • And published in the Lancet of 3rd and 10th which is usually undeveloped in man, and February
can be of very little if any use to the
- one which Sir William, ing of the external organization, if he Gull supposes to be a vestige of the ovipa- could thereby relieve the body of what is rous tribes, and which, when eccentric- in excess of its wants, and, therefore, probally developed, led to the death of a man, ably at least, a superfluous drain upon its otherwise healthy, in whom this superfluity strength. Of course, Sir William Gull had matured. Such superfluous and ec- would be the first to insist on the greatest centrically developed organs he thinks the scientific caution in inaugurating such a surgery of the future may very likely policy; but suppose that such caution had make a practice of reinoving at once in the been observed, and that a study of the young,
when they can be got at without lower animals had triumphantly shown danger to the patient, - and he is inclined that particular organs are as needless to to augur great advantages from this deci- men as long hair, and a much more comsive surgical intervention to remove dan- mon cause of disease, and that they could gerous superfluities. Nay, if we under- be easily removed without danger or any stand Sir William Gull rightly, he would go known bad consequences, — would there further, and be at least disposed to expect be any sort of consideration not derivable that if there be, as he apparently thinks from physiological grounds forbidding there are, in the body of men, not only such a policy of surgical “ intervention”? eccentrically, but uniformly developed or- Would it be possible to argue with any gans for which men in their present state plausibility, for instance, that reverence have no use, and which Sir William Gull for the body, as a divine work, should forwould regard as “relicts of our ancestral bid us from this pruning away anything relations,"
," " which may be superfluous and that Nature, and of course God through even injurious to us,” these organs might Nature, insists on giving? be removed in infancy with very great
We cannot think so. For in the first prospects of advantage to the body from place, if there were any such moral veto their loss. We suppose,
for here we are on the dealings of cautious human reason left to conjecture, that Sir William Gull with the body, it would be wrong to cut may refer to such organs, should further and shave the hair, nor is it easy to see investigation find no use for them, as the any real distinction, except a physiological uvula, which so often causes relaxed sore- distinction, between the one intervention throat by its inflammation, — the spleen, and the other. If the protection of the we suppose, even if it were discovered to whole is secured by the sacrifice of a part, be useless to the human body, would be we always and rightly consider the whole, far too closely wrapped up in the body to and not the part; and all we really want be thus easily got rid of, but it is clear is convincing evidence that we are pruning that he contemplates the possibility of such away nothing serviceable to man, — that its real pruning of the body by the surgery of loss is serviceable to him. But then it may the future as would relieve it of some of be said that the best moralists, – Bishop the more accessible of those cumbrous Butler at the head of them, — have always physiological heirlooms which he believes started from the assumption that, in the to be derived from ancestors with different intellectual and moral nature of man at wants from ours." For the surgeons," he least, nothing is superfluous, nothing radisays, “ as I have hinted, a new prospect is cally injurious, – but that evil consists opening. Should advancing knowledge only in the ill-regulation of appetites, passhow that we have parts, or organs, of sions, affections, and capacities, all of which doubtful use, and especially if these equiv. have their appropriate purpose in the menocal parts are liable to disease, what a tal economy of man, though all are capable land of promise for operations !”. That is, of being exaggerated into dangerous exSir William Gull thinks it very likelv that cess or repressed into dangerous deficiency. even of our normal organs some are mere Yet if now we are to assume that specific excrescences on the human body under its organs, uniformly developed in the human present conditions, and if so, are specially body, are absolutely superfluous and even liable to disease, and that surgical inter- injurious, will not the inference be almost vention may prove to be of the greatest inevitable that there is no longer any use in ridding us of them in infancy. As ground to assume that, even in the human almost all physicians support the system mind, each specific principle must have, for of vaccination, which undoubtedly replaces us at least, a divine purpose, the complete the natural state of the organization by suppression of which would be a moral one that is artificially proof again at a par- mutilation? “Revenge," says Lord Bacon, ticular disease ; so Sir William Gull would " is a kind of wild justice,” and Butler has not hesitate to interfere even in the mould- I attempted in one of his very ablest ser