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PAOK 1. Casting the Tea over in Boston Harbor... 60. The Quakeress's Counsel..

153 2. Boston in 1770–74 ...

3 61. Franklin showing his Money .......... 3. Faneuil Hall........................

62. Franklin and the Governor of New York.. 154 4. Portrait of Governor Hutchinson .....

63. Collins flung overboard.........

154 5. Portrait of the Earl of Dartmouth..... 64. Reading on the Banks of the River ...... 155 6. House of John Hancock..............

65. Franklin's Courtship ........ 7. Province House ..........

66. Franklin takes Leave of Miss Read ... 8. The Old South Church, Boston .......

67. Franklin delivers his Letter. ......... 9. Portrait of David Kinnison ...........

68. Franklin at the Book-store........... 10. Portrait of George R. T. Hewes ......... 69. Franklin carrying Type Forms ....... 11. Pouring Tea down the Throat of America 70. The Widow Lady of Duke-street.. ..... 12. Route of the Arctic Expedition (Map).... 71. The Recluse Lodger ...... ...... 157 13. Vessels beating to Windward of Iceberg.. 12 72. Franklin looking out of the Window ..... 14. Perilous Situation of the Advance and 73. The Copper-plate Press ..........

158 Rescue ............................ 13 | 74. Franklin's First Job....... 15. Discovery Ships near the Devil's Thumb 14 75. The Junto Club .........

160 16. The Advance leading the Prince Albert.. 15 76. Meredith on a Spree ............. 17. The Advance stranded at Cape Riley.... 16 77. Grief of Miss Read 18. Anvil-Block, and Guide-Board .......... 1778. Franklin with the Wheelbarrow...... 19. Three Graves at Beechy ................

17 79. The Library ............. 20. The Adtance and Rescue at Barlow's Inlet 18 80. Industry of Mrs. Franklin ............ 21. The Advance in Barrow's Straits ........

19 | 81. The China Bowl and Silver Spoon ..... 22. The Advance and Rescue drifting .......

82. The Gardener at work ......... 23. The Advance and Rescue in the Winter.. 83. Grinding the Ax ....... 24. The Advance in Davis's Straits ......... 84. The Widow carrying on Business . ...... 25. The Advance among Hummocks ........ 85. Franklin playing Chess.. 26. Stern of the Rescue in the Ice ........

86. Franklin takes Charge of his Nephew.... 27. The Passage of the Tagliamento ..

87. Portrait of Whitefield ....... 28. The Gorge of Neumarkt.......

88. The Expedition to Egypt. .............. 29. The Venetian Envoys ..........

27 89. Napoleon embarking for Egypt ..... 30. The Conference dissolved ........ 30 90. Napoleon looking at the distant Alps. .. 31. The Court at Milan........

91. The Disembarkation in Egypt. .......... 32. The Triumphal Journey ....

92. The March through the Desert ..........

. 175 33. The Delivery of the Treaty...

93. The Battle of the Pyramids............. 34. Portrait of Kossuth .......

94. The Egyptian Ruins . ......... 35. Better Luck next Time.....

95. Mr. Potts makes his Toilet .......... 36. Doing One a Special Favor .........

96. Mr. Potts suffers-Inexpressibly ....... 37. Of Point Judith. .........

97. Mr. Potts is discomposed ......... 38. Singular Phenomenon.......

98. Mr. Potts in the wrong Apartment ...... 39. A Slight Mistake .........

99. Mr. Potts enchanted ....... 40. Costumes for December ..............

143 | 100. Mr. Potts assumes a striking Attitude.. 11. Parisian, Frileuse, and Camara Cloaks. 101. Mr. Potts makes a Sensation ...... 41. Child's Costume......

102. Mr. Potts tears himself away ...,

284 43. Portrait of Franklin ..................

103. Mr. Potts receives a Lecture....

284 44. The Franklin Smithy ..........

104. Arrant Extortion. ........ 45. Franklin at Ten Years of Age.....

105. Mr. Booby in the New Costume... 285 46. Building the Pier at the Mill-pond ....... 106. A Bloomer in Leap Year ....

286 47. Franklin reading in his Chamber ...... 107. The Strong-minded Bloomer ........ .. 286 48. The Franklin Family .......

108. Winter Costumes ................ 19. Franklin studying in the Printing-office 109. Walking Dress ........

.. 288 50. Franklin's First Literary Essay ....... 148 | 110. Hood and Head-dress ....

.. 288 51. Franklin ill-used by his Brother .......... 149 111. Preparing the Regimental Colors ... 52. Franklin plans to escape ............... 149 | 112. Franklin on Military Duty..............

.. 290 53. The Sloop at Sea ......

149 113. Franklin's Colloquy with the Quaker ... 291 54. Franklin traveling through the Storm

150 114. The Indian Pow-wow ............... 29) 55. The old Woman's Hospitality..... 150 115. The Female Street-sweeper ......... 292 56. Franklin with his Penny Rolls ... 150 | 116. The Horse and Packages for Camp ... 57. Franklin gives the Bread to a poor Woman 151 117. The precipitous Flight ............. .. 293 58. Franklin asleep in the Meeting-house ... 152 118. March to Gnadenhütten ................ 59 Franklin with Bradford and Keimer...... 152 | 119. Franklin's military Escort .............

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PAGP 120. Portrait of Buffon ...........

296 176. The Snow-shoes ........ 121. Franklin and the new Governor ..... 296 | 177. The Funeral ..........

583 122. Sign of St. George and the Dragon .. 297 178. The Boys and the Boat ....

585 123. The Ship in Peril of the Rocks ..... 297 179. The Evasion.......................

587 124. Franklin writing to his Wife........ 298 180. Raising the Hasp ......

691 125. The Old Man from the Desert ...... 298 181. The Corn-barn ...........

591 126. Portrait of Mrs. Franklin...........

182. Napoleon's Return from Egypt .......... 595 127. Franklin on his Tour of Inspection ..

183. Napoleon and the Atheists............ 596 128. Bees swarming .............

| 184. Napoleon's Landing at Frejus........... 129. Franklin's Departure from Chester ...... 301 | 185. Napoleon's Reconciliation with Josephine 602 130. Reception of the Satin ............... 186. Napoleon on the Way to St. Cloud ...... 608 131. Franklin transformed by his new Dress .. | 187. Napoleon in the Council of Five Hundred 609 132. Franklin repulsed from Lord Hillsborough's 303 | 188. The Little Old Lady ... 133. The Boston Riot .......... 304 189. Miss Jellyby .....................

667 134. Portrait of Lord Chatham .............. 304 190. Going to Cover .......................

711 135. Portrait of Lord Camden ......... 304 | 191. Revolutionary Inquiries ............ 136. Franklin at Chess with the Lady ...... 305 | 192. Early Publication of a Paper in Paris 137. Drafting the Declaration of Independence 306 193. Scene from the President's Progress.. 138. Old Age .............................

307 | 194. Touching Sympathy ........ 139. Feeling toward Franklin in Paris ...... 308 195. Sound Advice.........

716 140. Portrait of Lafayette........... 309 | 196. Effects of a Strike...........

717 141. Franklin's Amusement in Age ..... 309 | 197. Perfect Identification....

.. 718 142. Napoleon's Escape from the Red Sea. 310 198. Calling the Police ......

... 718 143. The Dromedary Regiment ....

312 | 199. Fashions for April ...... 144. The Plague Hospital at Acre ..

317 200. Dress Toilet .... 145. The Bomb-shell exploding ........

320 201. Child's Fancy Costume 146. Arrival of the Courier.

202. The Drag Ride ........

722 147. Napoleon and Kleber 328 203. The Well............

. 724 148. The Return from Egypt .... 3291 204. The Conflagration

.. 726 149. A Horrible Business .

205. The barred Window

.. 727 150. Mrs. Baker's Pet ..

206. Antonio's Picture.

728 151. Costumes for February

207. The Court Room ................

729 152. Evening Dress ...

208. The Arrest ....

.. 732 153. Full Dress for Home... 432 209. The Governor.

735 154. The Rabbit House. .... 433 210. The Consuls and the Gold....

... 737 155. The Pursuit ..

437 211. Napoleon in the Temple......... 739 156. The Raft.

439 212. Napoleon's Entrance into the Tuileries 742 157. Up the Ladder

441 213. Napoleon and the Vendeean Chief. ..... 746 158. The Yard at Mr. Randon's .

442 214. Napoleon and the Duchess of Guiche ... 750 159. Plan of Mr. Randon's House

215. Napoleon and Bourrienne.............. 751 160. The Great Room .........

216. Unavailing Intercession of Josephine ... 753 161. Inundation at St. Petersburg ...

449 / 217. The Lord Chancellor copies from Memory 814 162. Russian Ice Mountains. ........

452 218. Coavinses ...... 163. Punishment for Drunkenness ... 454 219. Butcher-Boys of the Upper Ten.

857 164. Russian Isvoshtshiks......... 455 220. The Inquiring Omnibus Driver

857 165. The Easter Kiss-agreeable ....... 456 221, Flunky's Idea of Beauty ........

058 166. The Easter Kiss--as matter of Duty. 456 222. A Competent Adviser ..

859 167. The Easter Kiss—under Difficulties. 456 223. Regard for the Truth.......... 168. The Easter Kiss-disagreeable.

456 | 224, Awful Effect of Eye-glasses ..... 860 169. France is tranquil... 573 | 225. Rather Severe..........

860 170. The President's Road to Ruin .... 574 | 226. Portrait of a Gentleman ...

861 171. New Parisian Street-sweeping Machin 574 | 227. The Peer on the Press ......

861 172. Costumes for March ....

575 228. Interior of a French Court of Justice .. 862 173. Young Lady's Toilet......

576 229. Fashions for May ......... 174. Morning Toilet ............ 576 230. Visiting Dress......

864 175. Ellen Asleep........

578 | 231. Home Toilet ...

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NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE.

No. XIX.—DECEMBER, 1851.—Vol. IV.

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CASTING TEA OVERBOARD IN BOSTON HARBOR.
THE BOSTON TEA PARTY + political changes in empires which so prominent-

ly mark the course of human history, have had a BY BENSON J. LOSSING.

higher incentive to resistance than the maintenD EVOLUTIONS which dismember and over- ' ance of creature comforts. Abridgment of perN turn empires, disrupt political systems, and sonal liberty in the exercise of natural rights, change not only the forms of civil government, excessive taxation, and extortion of public officers, but frequently the entire character of society, are whereby individual competence and consequent often incited by causes so remote, and apparently ease have not been attainable, these have geninconsiderable and inadequate, that the super- erally been the chief counts in the indictment, ficial observer would never detect them, or would when the people have arisen in their might and laugh incredulously if presented to his consider arraigned their rulers at the bar of the world's ation as things of moment. Yet, like the little judgment. spring of a watch, coiled unseen within the dark The American Revolution, which succeeded recess of its chamber, the influences of such re- local rebellions in the various provinces, was an mote causes operating upon certain combinations, exception to a general rule. History furnishes give motion, power, and value to latent energies, no parallel example of a people free, prosperous, and form the primum mobile of the whole ma- and happy, rising from the couch of ease to gird chinery of wonderful events which produce rev- on the panoply of war, with a certainty of enolutions.

countering perhaps years of privation and disAs a general rule, revolutions in states are the tress, to combat the intangible principle of desresults of isolated rebellions; and rebellions have potism. The taxes of which the English colotheir birth in desires to cast off evils inflicted by nies in America complained, and which were the actual oppressions. These evils generally consist ostensible cause of dissatisfaction, were almost of the interferences of rulers with the physical nominal, and only in the smallest degree affected well-being of the governed ; and very few of the the general prosperity of the people. But the

method employed in levying those slight taxes, The Engravings which illustrate this article (except

and the prerogatives assumed by the king and the frontispiece) are from Lossing's Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution, now in course of publication by Harper

his ministers, plainly revealed the principles of and Brothers.

tyranny, and were the causes which produced Vol. IV.-No. 19.-A

the quarrel. In these assumptions the kernel of sessed too many proofs of his friendship to doubt despotism was very apparent, and the sagacious his constancy, they would now have placed him Americans, accustomed to vigorous and independ in the category of the enemies of America. They ent thought, and a free interchange of opinions, plainly perceived that no actual concession bad foresaw the speedy springing of that germ into been made, and that the passage of the Repeal the bulk and vigor of an umbrageous tree, that Bill was only a truce in the systematic endeavors would overshadow the land and bear the bitter of ministers to hold absolute coutrol over the fruit of tyrannous misrule. Foreseeing this, they Americans. The loud acclamations of joy and res lved neither to water it kindly, nor generous- the glad expressions of loyalty to the king, ly dig about its roots and open them to the genial which rung throughoui 'merica in the spring influences of the blessed sun and the dews; but, and early summer of 1766, died away into low on the contrary, to eradicate it. Tyranny had whispers before autumn, and as wir ter apno abiding-place in America when the quarrel proached, and other schemes for taxation, such with the imperial government began, and the as a new clause in the mutiny act developed, War of the Revolution, in its inception and pro- were evolved from the ministerial laboratory, gress, was eminently a war of principle.

| loud murmurings went over the sea from every How little could the wisest political seer have | English colony in the New World. perceived of an elemental cause of a revolution Much good was anticipated by the exercise of in America, and the dismemberment of the British the enlightened policy of the Rockingham minEmpire, in two pounds and two ounces of tea, istry, under whose auspices the Stamp Act had which, a little less than two centuries ago, the been repealed, when it was suddenly dissolved, East India Company sent as a present to Charles and William Pitt, who was now elevated to the the Second of England! Little did the “merrie peerage, became prime minister. Had not physimonarch” think, while sitting with Nell Gwynn, cal infirmities borne heavily upon Lord Chatham, the Earl of Rochester, and a few other favorites, all would have been well; but while he was torin his private parlor at Whitehall, and that new tured by gout, and lay swathed in flannels at his beverage gave pleasure to his sated taste, that country-seat at Hayes, weaker heads controlled events conrected with the use of the herb would the affairs of state. Charles Townshend, Pitt's shake the throne of England, albeit a Guelph, a Chancellor of the Exchequer, a vain, truckling wiser and more virtuous monarch than any Stuart, statesman, coalesced with Grenville, the father should sit thereon. Yet it was even so; and tea, of the Stamp Act, in the production of another within a hundred years after that viceregal cor- scheme for deriving a revenue from America. poration made its gift to royalty, became one of Too honest to be governed by expediency, Grenche causes which led to rebellion and revolu- ville had already proposed levying a direct tax tion, resulting in the independence of the Anglo- upon the Americans of two millions of dollars American colonies, and the founding of our per annum, allowing them to raise that sum in Republic.

their own way. Townshend, had the sagacity When the first exuberant feelings of joy, which to perceive that such a measure would meet filled the hearts of the Americans when intelli- with no favor; but in May, 1767, he attempted gence of the repeal of the Stamp Act reached to accomplish the same result by introducing a them, had subsided, and sober judgment ana- | bill providing for the imposition of a duty upon lyzed the Declaratory act of William Pitt which glass, paper, painters' colors, and tea imported accompanied the Repeal Bill, they perceived from Great Britain into America. This was small cause for congratulation. They knew Pitt only another form of taxation, and judicious men to be a friend-an earnest and sincere friend of in Parliament viewed the proposition with deep the colonists. He had labored shoulder to shoul- concern. Burke and others denounced it in the der with Barrè, Conway, Burke, and others, to Commons; and Shelburne in the House of Lords effect the repeal, and had recently declared bold- warned ministers to have a care how they proly in the House of Commons, “I rejoice that ceeded in the matter, for he clearly foresaw inAmerica has resisted. Three millions of people, surrection, perhaps a revolution as a consequence. so dead to all the feelings of liberty as voluntari- But the voice of prudence, uttering words of ly to submit to be slaves, would have been fit in- prophecy, was disregarded ; Townshend's bill struments to make slaves of the rest." Yet he was passed, and became a law at the close of saw hesitation; he saw pride standing in the June, by receiving the royal signature. Other place of righteousness, and he allowed expediency acts, equally obnoxious to the Americans, soon to usurp the place of principle, in order to accom- became laws by the sanction of the king, and the plish a great good. He introduced the Declar- principles of despotism, concealed behind the atory Act, which was a sort of salvo to the na- honest-featured Declaratory Act, were displayed tional honor, that a majority of votes might be in all their deformity. secured for the Repeal Bill. That act affirmed During the summer and autumn, John Dickthat Parliament possessed the power to bind the enson sent forth his powerful Letters of a Penncolonies in all cases whatsoever; clearly implying sylvania Farmer. Written in a simple manner, the right to impose taxes to any extent, and in they were easily understood. They laid bare the any manner that ministers might think proper. evident designs of the ministry ; proved the unThat temporizing measure was unworthy of the constitutionality of the late acts of Parliament, great statesman, and had not the colonists pos- and taught the people the necessity of united

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BOSTON IN 1770-74. resistance to the slow but certain approaches of assemblies spoke out freely, and for the crime oppression.

of being thus independent, royal governors disBoston, “the ringleader in rebellion," soon solved them. Delegates returned to their contook the initiative step in revolutionary move- stituents, each an eloquent crusader against opments, and during 1768, tumults occurred, which pression; and in every village and hamlet men caused Governor Bernard to call for troops to awe congregated to consult upon the public good, and the people. General Thomas Gage, then com- to determine upon a remedy for the monster evil mander-in-chief of the British forces in America, i now sitting like an incubus upon the peace and ordered two regiments from Halifax. Borne by prosperity of the land. a fleet which blockaded the harbor in September, Asa countervailing measure, merchants in the ther landed upon Long Wharf, in Boston, on various coast towns entered into an agreement to šunday morning, and while the people were de- cease importing from Great Britain, every thing sirous of worshiping quietly in their meeting- but a few articles of common necessity (and eshouses, these soldiers marched to the Common pecially those things enumerated in the impost with charged muskets, fixed bayonets, drums bill), from the first of January, 1769, to the first beating, and colors flying, with all the pomp and of January, 1770, unless the obnoxious act should insolence of victorious troops entering a van be sooner repealed. The people every where secquished city. It was a great blunder, and Gov- onded this movement by earnest co-operation, and ernor Bernard soon perceived it.

Provincial legislatures commended the scheme. A convention of delegates from every town An agreement, presented in the Virginia House but one in Massachusetts was in session, when of Burgesses by Washington, was signed by every the fleet arrived in Nantasket roads. They were member; and in all the colonies the people ennot alarmed by the approach of cannon and bay- tered at once upon a course of self-denial. For onets, but deliberated coolly, and denounced more than a year this powerful engine of retaliafirmly the current measures of government. tion waged war upon British commerce in a conGuided by their advice, the select-men of Boston stitutional way, before ministers would listen to refused to furnish quarters for the troops, and petitions and remonstrances ; and it was not unthey were obliged to encamp on the open Com- til virtual rebellion in the British capital, born mon, where insults were daily bandied between of commercial distress, menaced the ministry, the military hirelings and the people. The in- that the expostulations of the Americans were sabitants of Boston, and of the whole province noticed, except with sneers. felt insalted--ay, degraded—and every feeling In America meetings were frequently held, and of patriotism and manhood rebelled. The alter- men thus encouraged each other by mutual connative was plain before them-submission or the ference. Nor did men, alone, preach and pracbayonet !

tice self-denial; American women, the wives and Great indignation prevailed from the Penob- daughters of patriots, cast their influence into the seot to the St. Mary's, and the cause of Boston scale of patriotism, and by cheering voices and became the common cause of all the colonists. noble examples, became efficient co-workers. They resented the insult as if offered to them. And when, in Boston, cupidity overcame patriotselves; and hatred of royal rule became a fixed ism, and the defection of a few merchants who emotion in the hearts of thousands. Legislative loved gold more than liberty, aroused the friends

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