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door closed against the new-comers; and “ Keep ture, in sociology. Look at the forty Royal them out !" is their vociferous cry.
Academicians setting their backs up against Here is a batch of learned men debating the every new-comer in art, and combining with one good of their order. They are considering how accord to “ Keep him out.” That is the monotheir profession may be advanced. What is the poly of art; and people at large call it a humbug : gist of their decisions ?-the enactment of laws but they are not more tolerant or wise when their against all intruders upon their comfort and quiet. own craft comes to be dealt with. Each in his They make their calling a snug monopoly, and turn is found ready to combine with somebody contrive matters so that as few as possible are else, to “keep out" all intruders on their special admitted to share the good things of their class preserves. The “Flaming Tinman,” in Laven" Keep them out!" is the cry of all the learned gro, pummels and puts to flight the poor tinker professions.
who intrudes upon his beat; the costers combine “Keep them out !” cry the barristers, when to keep out freshmen from theirs; English nav. the attorneys claim to be admitted to plead before vies band together to drive Irish navvies off their certain courts. “Keep them out !" cry the at-contracts; and Irish tenants pick off, from betorneys, when ordinary illegal men claim to argue hind a hedge, the intruders upon their holdings. a case before the county court. “Keep her out!" | Even the searchers of the sewers maintain a kind cry both barristers and attorneys, when Mrs. Cob- of monopoly of their unholy calling, and will bett claims to be heard in her imprisoned hus- recognize no man as a brother who has not been band's cause. “What! a woman plead in the duly initiated in the mysteries of the search. courts! If such a thing be allowed, who knows The sewer-searcher is as exclusive in his way where such license is to end?” And she is kept as the leader of fashion at Almacks. “Keep out accordingly.
him out !" is, in short, the watchword of all class"Keep them out !" cry the apothecaries, whenes, of all ranks, of all callings, of all crafts, of all a surgeon from beyond the Tweed or the Irish interests. We used to “keep out” the foreign Channel claims to prescribe and dispense medi-corn-grower, but though he may now come in, cine to English subjects. “Keep them out !" there is exclusiveness and monopoly in ten thoucry the doctors, when the Homeopathists offer sand other forms, which no legislation can ever the public their millionth-grain doses. “Keep touch. them out !" cry physicians and surgeons and apothecaries of all ranks, when it is proposed to
STORY OF REMBRANDT. throw open the profession to the female sex. LAT a short distance from Leyden may still be
But you find the same cry among the working A seen a flour-mill with a quaint old dwellingclasses of every grade. Mechanics and trades- house attached, which bears, on a brick in a men insist on all applicants for admission to their corner of the wide chimney, the date of 1550. calling serving long apprenticeships. If the ap- Here, in 1606, was born Paul Rembrandt. At prenticeships are not served, then “Keep them an early age he manifested a stubborn, independout !" is the word. Shoulder to shoulder they ent will, which his father tried in vain to subdue. exclude the applicants for leave to toil. “Knob- He caused his son to work in the mill, intending sticks” are pelted. They must join the union, that he should succeed him in its management; must be free of the craft-must conform to the but the boy showed so decided a distaste for the rules-subscribe to the funds-pay the footings, employment, that his father resolved to make him and so on; otherwise they are kept out with a a priest, and sent him to study at Leyden. Every vengeance.
one knows, however, that few lads of fifteen, enIn the circles of fashion the same cry is fre-dowed with great muscular vigor and abundance quent. A new man appears in society. “Who of animal spirits, will take naturally and without is he?” “Only So-and-so!" He is a retired compulsion to the study of Latin grammar. Remgrocer, or as Cobbett called Sadler, “a linen- brandt certainly did not; and his obstinacy prov draper ;” and the exclusive class immediately ing an overmatch for his teacher's patience, he club together for the purpose of “Keeping him was sent back to the mill, when his father beat out." He is “cut.” Even the new man of high- him so severely, that next morning he ran off to sounding title is accounted as nothing among Leyden, without in the least knowing how he the old families who boast of their “blue blood.” should live there. Fortunately he sought refuge Wealth goes a great way, but still that does not in the house of an honest artist, Van Zwaanencompensate for the accident of birth and connec- bers, who was acquainted with his father. tions among these classes.
“Tell me, Paul,” asked his friend, “what do Every class has its own standard. The money you mean to do with yourself, if you will not be classes have theirs too. Even tradesmen and either a priest or a miller? They are both hontheir wives go in sets, and there is always some orable professions : one gives food to the soul, class outside their own set, which they contrive the other prepares it for the body." to “keep out.” The aristocratic contagion thus “Very likely,” replied the boy ; "but I don't extends from the highest to the verge of the low- fancy either; for in order to be a priest, one est class of society in England. Is not monopo- must learn Latin ; and to be a miller, one must ly the rule among us, whenever we can find an bear to be beaten. How do you earn your opportunity of establishing it ? Monopoly or ex- bread ?" clusivism in art, in theology, in trade, in litera- “You know very well I am a painter"
"Then I will be one, too, Herr Zwaanenberg; | took this painting to the Hague, and sold it for and if you will.go to-morrow and tell my father 100 florins. In order to return with more speed, 90, you will do me a great service."
he took his place in the public coach. When the The good-natured artist willingly undertook passengers stopped to dine, Rembrandt, fearing the mission, and acquainted the old miller with to lose his treasure, remained in the carriage. his son's resolution.
The careless stable-boy who brought the horses "I want to know one thing," said Master their corn forgot to unharness them, and as soon Rembrandt, “will he be able to gain a livelihood as they had finished eating, excited probably by by painting ?"
Rembrandt, who cared not for his fellow-pas"Certainly, and perhaps make a fortune." sengers, the animals started off for Leyden, and "Then if you will teach him, I consent.” quietly halled at their accustomed inn. Our
Thus Paul became the pupil of Van Zwaanen- painter then got out, and repaired with his money berg, and made rapid progress in the elementary to the mill. parts of his profession. Impatient to produce Great was his father's joy. At length these some finished work, he did not give himself time silly daubs, which had so often excited his angry to acquire purity of style, but astonished his mas contempt, seemed likely to be transmuted into ter by his precocious skill in grouping figures, and gold, and the old man's imagination took a rapproducing marvelous effects of light and shade. | turous flight. “Neither he nor his old horse," The first lessons which he took in perspective he said, “need now work any longer; they might having wearied him, he thought of a shorter me- both enjoy quiet during the remainder of their thod, and invented perspective for himself. lives. Paul would paint pictures, and support
One of his first rude sketches happened to fall the whole household in affluence.” into the hands of a citizen of Leyden who under Such was the old man's castle in the air; his stood painting. Despite of its evident defects, clever, selfish son soon demolished it. “This the germs of rare talent which it evinced struck sum of money,” he said, “is only a lucky windthe burgomaster; and sending for the young ar- fall. If you indeed wish it to become the foundatist, he offered to give him a recommendation to tion of my fortune, give me one hundred florins a celebrated painter living at Amsterdam, under besides, and let me return to Amsterdam : there whom he would have far more opportunity of I must work and study hard." improvement than with his present instructor. It would be difficult to describe old Rembrandt's
Rembrandt accepted the offer, and during the disappointment. Slowly, reluctantly, and one following year toiled incessantly. Meantime his by one, he drew forth the 100 forins from his finances were dreadfully straitened; for his father, strong-box. Paul took them, and with small finding that the expected profits were very tardy, show of gratitude, returned to Amsterdam. In refused to give money to support his son, as he a short time his fame became established as the said, in idleness. Paul, however, was not dis- greatest and most original of living artists. He couraged. Although far from possessing in had a host of imitators, but all failed miserably amjable or estimable disposition, he held a firm in their attempts at reproducing his marvelous and just opinion of his own powers, and resolved effects of light and shade. Yet Rembrandt prized to make these subservient first to fortune and the gold which flowed in to him far more than the then to fame. Thus while some of his compan- glory. While mingling the colors which were to jons, having finished their preliminary studies, flash out on his canvas in real living light, he repaired to Florence, to Bologna, or to Rome, thought but of his dingy coffers. Paal, determined, as he said, not to lose his own When in possession of a yearly income equal style by becoming an imitator of even the might-to £2000 sterling, he would not permit the agent jest masters, betook himself to his paternal mill. who collected his rents to bring them in from the Ai first his return resembled that of the Prodigal country to Amsterdam, lest he should be obliged Son. His father believed that he had come to to invite him to dinner. He preferred setting out resume his miller's work; and bitter was his dis on a fine day, and going himself to the agent's appointment at finding his son resolved not to house. In this way he saved two dinners—the renounce painting.
one which he got, and the one he avoided giving. With a very bad grace he allowed Paul to dis- “So that's well managed !” he used to say. place the flour-sacks in an upper loft, in order to This sordid disposition often exposed him to make a sort of studio, lighted by only one narrow practical jokes from his pupils; but he possessed window in the roof. There Paul painted his first a quiet temper, and was not easily annoyed. finished picture. It was a portrait of the mill. One day a rich citizen came in, and asked him There, on the canvas, was seen the old miller, the price of a certain picture. lighted by a lantern which he carried in his | “Two hundred florins,” said Rembrandt. hand, giving directions to his men, occupied in “Agreed,” said his visitor. "I will pay you ranging sacks in the dark recesses of the grana- to-morrow, when I send for the picture." ry. One ray falls on the fresh, comely counte- About an hour afterward a letter was handed Aance of his mother, who has her foot on the to the painter. Its contents were as follows: last step of a wooden staircase.* Rembrandt “Master REMBRANDT-During your absence • This picture is believed to be no longer in existence.
| a few days since, I saw in your studio a picture I have found its description in the work of the historian
representing an old woman churning butter. I Decamps.
was enchanted with it; and if you will let me purchase it for 300 florins, I pray you to bring A bright idea struck Rembrandt. He returned it to my house, and be my guest for the day." home, went to bed, desired his wife and his son
The letter was signed with some fictitious Titus to scatter straw before the door, and give name, and bore the address of a village several out, first, that he was dangerously ill, and then leagues distant from Amsterdam.
dead—while the simulated fever was to be of so Tempted by the additional 100 florins, and dreadfully infectious a nature that none of the caring little for breaking his engagement, Rem- neighbors were to be admitted near the sickbrandt set out early next morning with his pic- room. These instructions were followed to the ture. He walked for four hours without find- letter; and the disconsolate widow proclaimed ing his obliging correspondent, and at length, that, in order to procure money for her husband's worn out with fatigue, he returned home. He interment, she must sell all his works, any propfound the citizen in his studio, waiting for the erty that he left not being available on so short picture. As Rembrandt, however, did not de- a notice. spair of finding the man of the 300 florins, and The unworthy trick succeeded. The sale, inas a falsehood troubled but little his blunted con- cluding every trivial scrap of painting or engravscience, he said, “Alas! an accident has hap-ing, realized an enormous sum, and Rembrandt pened to the picture; the canvas was injured, was in ecstasy The honest burgomaster, how. and I felt so vexed that I threw it into the fire. ever, was nearly frightened into a fit of apoplery Two hundred florins gone! However, it will be at seeing the man whose death he had sincerely my loss, not yours, for I will paint another pre- mourned standing alive and well at the door of cisely similar, and it shall be ready for you by his studio. Meinherr Six obliged him to promise this time to-morrow."
that he would in future abstain from such abom“I am sorry," replied the amateur, “but it inable deceptions. One day he was employed in was the picture you have burned which I wished painting in a group the likenesses of the whole to have ; and as that is gone, I shall not trouble family of a rich citizen. He had nearly finished you to paint another."
| it, when intelligence was brought him of the So he departed, and Rembrandt shortly after death of a tame ape which he greatly loved. The ward received a second letter to the following creature had fallen off the roof of the house into effect: “MASTER REMBRANDT-You have broken the street. Without interrupting his work, Remyour engagement, told a falsehood, wearied your brandt burst into loud lamentations, and after self to death, and lost the sale of your picture some time announced that the piece was finishall by listening to the dictates of avarice. Leted. The whole family advanced to look at it, and this lesson be a warning to you in future.” what was their horror to see introduced between
“So," said the painter, looking round at his the heads of the eldest son and daughter an expupils, “one of you must have played me this act likeness of the dear departed ape. With one pretty trick. Well, well, I forgive it. You young voice they all exclaimed against this singular relvarlets do not know the value of a florin as I ative which it had pleased the painter to intro know it."
duce among them, and insisted on his effacing it. Sometimes the students nailed small copper “What !” exclaimed Rembrandt, “efface the coins on the floor, for the mischievous pleasure finest figure in the picture? No, indeed ; I preof seeing their master, who suffered much from fer keeping the piece for myself.” Which he rheumatism in the back, stoop with pain and did, and carried off the painting. difficulty, and try in vain to pick them up.
Of Rembrandt's style it may be said that he Rembrandt married an ignorant peasant who painted with light, for frequently an object was had served him as cook, thinking this a more indicated merely by the projection of a shadow economical alliance than one with a person of on a wall. Often a luminous spot suggested, refined mind and habits. He and his wife rather than defined, a hand or a head. Yet there usually dined on brown-bread, salt herrings, and is nothing vague in his paintings: the mind seizes small-beer. He occasionally took portraits at a the design immediately. His studio was a cirhigh price, and in this way became acquainted cular room, lighted by several narrow slits, so with the Burgomaster Six, a man of enlarged contrived that rays of sunshine entered through mind and unblemished character, who yet con- only one at a time, and thus produced strange tinued faithfully attached to the avaricious paint-effects of light and shade. The room was filled er. His friendship was sometimes put to a se- with old-world furniture, which made it resemble vere test by such occurrences as the following : an antiquary's museum. There were heaped up
Rembrandt remarked one day that the price in the most picturesque confusion curious old furof his engravings had fallen.
niture, antique armor, gorgeously-tinted stuffs ; “You are insatiable," said the burgomaster. and these Rembrandt arranged in different forms “Perhaps so. I can not help thirsting for gold." | and positions, so as to vary the effects of light “ You are a miser."
and color. This he called “making his models “ True ; and I shall be one all my life.” sit to him." And in this close adherence to real
“ 'Tis really a pity,” remarked his friend, ity consisted the great secret of his art. It is " that you will not be able after death to act as strange that his favorite among all his pupils was your own treasurer, for whenever that event oc- the one whose style least resembled his owncurs, all your works will rise to treble their pres-Gerard Douw-he who aimed at the most excesent value"
sive minuteness of delineation, who stopped key.
holes lest a particle of dust should fall on his the amphibia. An extraordinary narrative appallet, who gloried in representing the effects peared lately in the 'Kendal Mercury,' of a snake of fresh scouring on the side of a kettle.
crossing Connistone Lake, which is at least half Reinbrandt died in 1674, at the age of sixty- | a mile wide. It was not the sea-serpent, but our eight. He passed all his life at Amsterdam. poor little hagworm, that was engaged in this Some of his biographers have told erroneously bold navigation. It was, however, unfortunately that he once visited Italy : they were deceived fallen in with by a piratical boatman, and put to by the word Venetiis placed at the bottom of death. Without disputing the truth of the narseveral of his engravings. He wrote it there ration, or settling the question how far the viper with the intention of deluding his countrymen is amphibious, the remark is obvious, that the into the belief that he was absent, and about to poor snake was taken at a disadvantage ; for, if settle in Italy - an impression which would it had been equally at home on the water as on materially raise the price of his productions. land, why did it not save itself by diving as an eel Strange and sad it is to see so much genius or a frog would have done under like circumunited with so much meanness—the head of fine stances ? Again, why is not the name of the boatgold with the feet of clay.
man given ? Why should he be defrauded of his
| fair fame? It is to be wished that newspaper THE VIPER.
editors, in general, were more careful to authenAT a recent monthly meeting of the Kendal ticate their many marvelous tales in natural A Natural History Society, a letter was read history. It would be a great satisfaction to from Mr. W. Pearson, on the natural history of the skeptical naturalist. One may easily credit Crossthwaite, from which we give the following that a viper will occasionally take the water, withextract :-"On the afternoon of 230 July last,” out going the length of a full belief in the Consays Mr. Pearson, “the servant girl called me nistone voyage. into the pantry in a great flurry. She said a hag- “One day last spring, when angling, I met with worm was trying to get in at the window. And one of these snakes, coiled up, within a few feet there it was, sure enough, raising itself straight of the Winster stream, and when disturbed he up from the window-sill; first trying one pane, fled toward the water, though I did not see him and then another; strangely puzzled, no doubt, enter it. It is curious the variety of situations that what seemed so clear an opening should in which they are to be met with ; in the lowest offer any obstruction. The glass manufacture parts of the valleys, and on the tops of our highwas evidently a mystery to it. The window be- est hills ; sometimes close to our houses, as I ing low, it had crawled over a heap of sand lying have mentioned ; in the plain field, and in the before it. It had probably smelt something tempt- roughest wood-hence their name, hagworm; on ing in the pantry, with which it wished to make the roadside, or on the ling moor, where they nearer acquaintance. It was a beautiful creature. sometimes bite the sportsman's dog, though I Its small head, prominent dark eyes, and pretty never heard of any fatal consequences. In crossmottled skin, might have pleaded strongly for ing a turnpike road on a sunny day, they are often mercy ; but, notwithstanding my general habit tempted to linger, such is their love of warmth, of sparing these reptiles when I meet with them and bask on the heated stones and dust, where in my walks, it was approaching too much in the they are sure to be killed by the first passenger. guise of a housebreaker to be pardoned, so I gave They are never spared. Their sinuous tracks orders for its instant execution. Moreover, there across the dusty roads in dry weather may be often is little doubt that it was the same individual who observed. On riding out one day this sunimer, a had, in times past, come rather too near us to be hagworm crossed the road just before me. It pleasant. The year before, I had noticed a viper exhibited a beautiful specimen of serpentine mowithin a yard or two of our kitchen-door, with tion, and wriggled along with surprising celerity. his head and about half a foot of his body thrust It was a warm day; and the movements of all out from a hole in the wall right behind the these reptiles are wonderfully quickened by a kitchen grate. The genial climate had most genial atmosphere. likely attracted him. Be this as it may, before I “The ringed, or harmless common snake, if could procure a switch to chastise him for his found at all in our district, is, I think, very scarce, impudence, he very prudently withdrew into his for I have never seen one It is said by Latreille hole, only protruding a part of his head and eyes, and other naturalists to be fond of milk, and that with which to make observations. For some days it will sometimes enter farmers' dairies to enjoy after this, I never entered the house by the back- its favorite beverage. Does our viper, or hagdoor without thinking of our new neighbor; and worm, also possess this refined propensity? It once or twice I had a glimpse of him in his old seems probable enough, if one may judge from quarters, but he very warily never exposed more our pantry adventure. I am here reminded of a of his precious person than his head and eyes, so pretty little story which I heard in my youth, and that, if it had not been for his unfortunate expe- which is well known to our rural population. dition to the pantry, he might still have been a “A cottage child had been in the habit for some living hagworm. You are aware that this spe- time of taking its porridge every morning into the cies of snake has at least three names in England orchard, to eat there, instead of in the house
-the viper, adder, and hagworm. The last is Its mother was curious to know why it did this. our own local term. Some authors class it with | At length it was watched, and found seated under an apple-tree in company with a huge serpent, its | faction; for I am very anxious indeed to earn head dipt in the porringer sharing the child's my own living." breakfast. But taking up a greater part of the “And who is to give you a character?" dish than was consistent with fair play, or quite “Mr. Grindlay will; he has known me all my agreeable to good manners, the child was beating life.” its head with the spoon, saying—Take at thy During the conversation of which the above is own side, Grayface; take at thy own side, Gray- an abridgement, I found that my feelings were face'—the snake submitting to this rather un- veering round to a more favorable quarter for courteous treatment with the most praiseworthy the candidate. Young as he was, I thought I patience. Indeed, this reverence for innocence, could discern that he had suffered, and that he felt by savage beast or venomous reptile, is a was anxious to diminish, or repair, his ill fortunes beautiful feature of many of those old romantic by industry and good conduct. There was a motales, from the most simple to be found in rustic ment, too, in which I fancied I saw the clew to life, to the grand allegorical fiction of Spenser's his sorrows. It was when I said, “ You are not Fairy Queen,' of
married, I presume ?” Heavenly Una with her milk-white lamb,
"No," said he. And the brave Lion slain in her defense.'
“Because,” I added, “my house is not large, “But may there not be some truth, after all, in and visitors below are inconvenient." this tale of the serpent and child ? Remember “I have nobody in the world belonging to me the fact that serpents have a strange propensity but one sister. And the only friend I have is to come near our houses, and are not unfre- Mr Grindlay,” he replied, with some eagerness, quently found there, as was exemplified this last as if to put a period to further inquiries in thai summer in our own locality by two instances : direction, while he visibly changed color. Feelthe one, that of the pantry burglar; the other, by ing sure there was some painful family history a large hagworm being caught lying in wait, and behind, I said no more, but that I would see Mr killed close to the farm-house below. Then their Grindlay, if he would call on the following day. acknowledged predilection for a milk diet : it is | “By-the-by,” I rejoined, as the young man said that, when tamed, they eat it greedily. Giv- was leaving the room, "we said nothing about ing due weight, therefore, to these two circum- wages; what do you expect ?” stances, is it not probable enough that there is a “Whatever you are accustomed to give," he substratum of truth in this story, and that it is answered. not a mere invention trumped up to please the “Very well ; I'll speak to Mr Grindlay about nursery ?”
It was the situation he was anxious about, ESTHER HAMMOND'S WEDDING-DAY. I clearly : not wages. A FEW years ago, having made known to On the following morning Mr. Grindlay came. A those whom it might concern that I wanted “You are well acquainted with this young a footman, there came, among others, to offer man?” I said. himself for the situation, a young man, named “I have known him since he was that high," George Hammond. He had a slight figure, and he answered, placing his hand on the table : a pale, thin, handsome face, but a remarkably sad “and you can't have a better lad; that I'll enexpression. Although he inspired me with in-gage." terest, I felt, before I began to question him, that "He is honest and sober !" I should hardly like to have that melancholy coun- | “You may trust him with untold gold ; and tenance always under my eye.
as for wine or spirits, such a thing never passes “Where have you lived ?" I asked.
his lips." “I have never been exactly in a situation,” he “But he has been under your guidance, Mr. answered
• Grindlay,” I answered; "he is young; do you " Then,” said I, interrupting him, “I fear you think he will be able to stand alone ?" will not suit me."
“I've no fear of him ; none whatever," he re“I meant to say," he continued, turning paler plied. “To say the truth, he had an awful than before, as if pained by my ready denial-"I lesson before his eyes in regard to excessive meant to say that although I have never been in drinking. Such a lesson as he'll never forget." a situation, yet I know the duties of a servant ,! “Indeed!” said I ; "his father ?" for I have been for several months under Lord Mr. Grindlay shook his head. I made no furGorton's house-steward, Mr. Grindlay, and he ther inquiry then ; but agreed to engage George has taught me every thing.”
Hammond. “ Did Lord Gorton pay you wages ?"
At first, he was so anxious to please, and so “No; but he allowed me to wait at table, and nervous lest he should not please, that he tumI acted just as if I had been paid wages." bled up-stairs in his hurry to answer the bell,
“Mr. Grindlay is a friend of yours, then ?" and very nearly broke my best decanters. His
“Yes ; he has been very kind, and has taken hand so shook with agitation when I had friends a great deal of pains with me.”
to dinner, lest he should be found deficient, that “And you think you are fit to undertake such I momentarily expected to see him drop the plates a place as mine ?"
and glasses on the floor. However, he got through "I think I am, and I should try to give satis- this ordeal without any serious accident; and by