the rationale of the vast trade we carry on in / teemed physician, and also professor of anatomy eggs. In our youthful days, when, as yet, plum- at the University in Genoa, his native city. His puddingism was with us in its early, empirical mother is still living, an excellent and dignified state, we used to consider “egg-merchant” a lady, as proud of her Giuseppe, as Madame Leterm of ridicule, resembling the term “timber- titia was of her Napoleon. merchant," as applied to a vender of matches. When young, Mazzini was remarkably handBut we now look with respect upon an egg-mer- some, and will be deemed so now in his mature chant, as an individual who manages an import- years, by all who, in the expression of his counant part of the trade of this country with France tenance, his dark intelligent eye, and expansive and Belgium ; not to mention its internal traffic intellectual forehead, can overlook the deep, we in the same commodity. It strikes us, however, may say premature furrows, traced in that forethat on this subject the Frenchman and Belgian head by the never resting labors of a mind of inare wiser in their generation than ourselves. We domitable activity, the constantly renewing anxicould produce our own eggs easily enough if we eties of a generous heart for the welfare of the would take the trouble; but rather than do this we human race; and above all for that oppressed hire them to do it for us, at an expense of several portion of it which claimed his earliest sympascores of thousands sterling in the year. They, thies, as his compatriots, his brothers, alike in of course, are very much obliged to us, though a the wrongs they labored under, and their determlittle amused no doubt at the eccentricity of John ined resolution to combat with them in every Bull; and with the utmost alacrity supply us shape, and to win in the eontest, either a gloriannually with about 90,000,000 eggs. John eats ous victory, or an honorable death. The youth his foreign pudding, however,he is partial to of Mazzini was spent in witnessing the struggles foreign things—with great gravity, and only un- of his country for liberty. The fruitlessness of bends into a smile when he sees his few chick- all these struggles, the conviction they carried ens hopping about the farm-yard, the amusement with them in their repeated defeats, that there of his children, or the little perquisite, perhaps, was something radically wrong in their organizaof his wife. He occasionally eats a newly-laid tion, or in the manner in which they were carried egg, the date of its birth being carefully reg- out, only excited ardent desires in him to trace the istered upon the shell; thinks it a very clever evil to its root, and point out the remedy accordthing in him to provide his own luxuries; and is ingly : his genius naturally bent toward studies, decidedly of opinion that an English egg is worth “High passions and high actions best describing," two of the mounseers'. His neglect of this branch concentrated all its energies upon the situation of rural economy, however, does not prevent his of Italy, and on the means of rescuing her from wondering sometimes how these fellows contrive the despotism that preyed upon her very vitals, to make the two ends of the year meet, when he and rendered even the choicest gifts of nature, himself finds it so difficult a matter to get plums with which she is so abundantly endowed, not to his pudding.

merely nugatory, but an absolute disadvantage What becomes of the rind? We have shown and a curse. what becomes of the rind. We have shown what The revolution in France of July, 1830, comapparently inconsiderable matters swell up the municated an electric flame throughout Italy, commerce of a great country. A plum-pudding which in the ensuing year kindled insurrections is no joke. It assembles within itself the con- | in Modena, Parma, and other departments: the tributions of the whole world, and gives a fillip light of victory hovered over them for a moment, to industry among the most distant tribes and na- but for a moment only. Aid had been hoped for tions. But it is important likewise in other re- from the Citizen King, but in his very outset spects. Morally and socially considered, its in- Louis Philippe evinced the political caution which fluence is immense. At this season of the year, marked his reign. Austria, reassured by the conmore especially, it is a bond of family union, and viction she felt of his determination to remain a symbol of friendly hospitality. We would not neuter in the struggles of others for the same give a straw for that man, woman, or child, in freedom which had placed himself upon a throne, the frank, cordial circles of Old English life, who again advanced upon the cities she had evacudoes not hail its appearance on the table with a ated; the insurgents disappointed, bewildered, smile and a word of welcome. Look at its round, paralyzed, offered no further resistance, and brown, honest, unctuous face, dotted with al-again all was wrapped in the gloom of despotism. monds and fragrant peel, surmounted with a Then came its invariable attendant denunciations, sprig of holly, and radiant amid the flames of imprisonments, exile, to all who were suspected burning brandy! Who is for plum-pudding? of a love of liberty, whether it had impelled them We are, to be sure. What a rich perfume as it to deeds, or only influenced their words. breaks on the plate! And this fragrant peel, so 1 Mazzini, though a very young man at this distinguishable amid the exhalations! ha! De | period, was already known in Italy as an author. laeioucious !—that's what becomes of the rind! He had published a weekly literary Gazette, at

Genoa, in 1828, called the " Indicatore Genovese," MAZZINI, THE ITALIAN LIBERAL. but this journal being strangled, ere the year was NIUSEPPE MAZZINI is descended from a out, under the double supervision of a civil and U highly honorable family, and of talented and an ecclesiastical censorship, he began another at respectable parentage; his father was an es- Leghorn under the title of the “ Indicatorc Li

rornese," which in a few months succumbed under the net of foreign diplomacy; and who, while the same fate. He then beguiled his forced in- they flattered themselves they were endeavoring iactivity with furnishing an admirable essay on to rescue their country from slavery, were in fact European literature, and other contributions, to still themselves the slaves of high-sounding names, the “* Antologia di Firenze," but the review was and veered round with all the changing views of made the subject of a prosecution, soon after its those who bore them. commencement, at the instigation of the Austrian Anxious to enlist in his cause the finest talents government, and was finally suppressed. Under of the day, Mazzini invited many persons of acthese circumstances it was not likely that Mazzini knowledged reputation and ability to contribute would escape the fate of his party. He was put to his journal; among them the venerable and under arrest, along with many others, though it justly celebrated Sismondi, author of the “ Hisshould seem that the strongest accusation which tory of the Italian Republics," and many other could be brought against him was that he indulged works of importance. Sismondi willingly comin habits of thinking; for when his father went plied, for he loved the high-minded character of to the governor of the city to inquire what offense the young Italian, and was glad to share in his his son had committed, that could authorize his literary labors, in order that he might be able ocarrest, the worthy functionary, who appears him-casionally to rein in, with a gentle yet judicious self to have belonged to the Dogberry faction, hand, the too impetuous spirit which, in fearlessly could only allege that the young man was "in endeavoring to overleap every obstacle that stood the habit of walking every evening in the fields before it, overlooked the destruction that might and gardens of the suburbs, alone, and wrapped await an error of calculation : he therefore imin meditation;" wisely adding, as his own com- mediately replied, “If by my name, my example, ment on the matter, “What on earth can he I can be useful to that Italy which I love as if it have at his age to think about? we do not like were my own country, which I shall never cease so much thinking on the part of young people, to serve, to the very utmost of my ability, and for without knowing the subject of their thoughts." which I shall never cease to hope, then most

Mazzini and his companions were tried at willingly do I promise you my co-operation." Turin by a commission of Senators, embodied for The generous ardor of the Genevese Economiste the purpose; they were all acquitted for want was not more pleasing to behold than the filial of any evidence against them, of evil acts or in- deference of the young republican; for Sismondi tentions: nevertheless Mazzini, notwithstanding spared neither remonstrance nor advice, where this virtual acknowledgment of his innocence, he thought the interests of his young colleague, was treated with the severity due only to con- or of the sacred cause in which he was embarked, sicted guilt, and detained five months in solitary likely to be endangered by his precipitancy. But imprisonment, in the fortress of Savona; a tyran- neither arguments nor advice had any power over nical act of injustice, not likely to turn the cur- the fixed idea in Mazzini's mind that Italian librent of his thoughts, or to cure him of his medi-erty was to spring forth from the Italian people, tative propensities. At length his prison doors and that Italy, formerly free in her numerous were reluctantly opened to him-he was free to republics, would, after five hundred years of depart, but not to remain in Italy; accordingly slavery, become free again in one, alone and inhe took refuge in France, along with a crowd of divisible. Meanwhile his journal extended its exiles under similar circumstances, and it was circulation and its influence : supplied through there, in June 1831, that the fruits of his long. the channel of an active correspondence with nursed musings burst forth, in his address to abundant information of all that was going on Charles Albert of Savoy, “A Carlo Alberto di in the peninsula, he astonished and excited the Savoia un Italiano,” on the accession of that public more and more every day, by the facts he prince to the throne of Sardinia. This address laid before them; he unvailed the cruelties of the has been justly termed by Mariotti, “a flash of tribunals in Romagna, of the government in Modivine eloquence, such as never before shone over dena, of the police in Naples; he brought forth Italy. His companions in misfortune gathered the unhappy prisoners from their cells, and porin adoration, and bent before his powerful genius. trayed them in every varied attitude of their sufEre the year had elapsed, he became the heart ferings, with a vividness that thrilled the comand soul of the Italian movement. He was the passionate with horror, and worked the ardent up ruler of a state of his own creation—the king of to rage. It would be difficult for us in our own Young Italy."

present state of press and post, to imagine the Eager to turn his popularity, alike with his possibility of our counties remaining days and abilities, to the best account for his country, weeks in ignorance of what was passing among Mazzini now established himself at Marseilles, each other. Yet so it was in the Italian provinces : as the editor of a journal to which he gave the under the lynx-eyed vigilance of government ofname of “ La Giovine Italia," as the expression ficials and spies, the public journals contained of his favorite theory of intrusting the great little more than details of church ceremonies, or cause of Italian liberty to the young, the ardent, the local affairs of petty municipalities : pamphlets the hopeful; and moreover the unpledged and were unknown, and news of a political kind travtherefore unfettered; rather than to those who, eled slowly and uncertainly from mouth to mouth, grown old under a timid, temporizing policy, en- always in dread of some listening ear being ready deavored in vain to disentangle themselves from to catch the words as they floated in the air.


Hence the transactions in Romagna and Naples | terror through the peninsula, and instantly stop were long unknown to upper Italy; the excite- ped the propagandism of the journal; still hurment therefore that the appearance of Mazzini's dreds of emigrants, fea ful of being compromised, journal must have occasioned, revealing as it did poured in from Italy, and the police redoubled facts upon facts calculated to inspire even the its vigilance in watching over their proceedings, most indifferent with a thirst for vengeance, may But a step backward was what Mazzini neret easily be imagined, but the modes by which it could take ; he looked his dangers full in the found circulation under every obstacle are more face, and tempted fate, not only for himself, but, difficult to comprehend. It is scarcely necessary unhappily, for his colleagues also. The saffer. to say how strictly it was prohibited throughout ings of his party seemed to call upon him for Italy; the possession of it was denounced as a vengeance, and he sought it by joining himself crime, to be punished with three years of the to a Polish committce, and projecting the attempt galleys, besides the possessor being subjected for upon Savoy, in 1833. the remainder of his days to the suspicion of be. It is a singular fact in the moral history of ing connected with revolutionary factions. The man, that in the course of his life he almost insmugglers, albeit accustomed to danger and little variably falls into some error, or commits some susceptible of fear, refused to have any thing to fault, which he has either condemned, or suffered do with it; nevertheless its distribution was ef- from, in others. This appears to have been nofected far and wide; copies were dispatched from toriously the case in this ill-planned, ill-organized, Marseilles, by merchant vessels, in parcels di- ill-conducted expedition. It was planned in a rected to persons at places fixed upon for the secret society, whereas Mazzini had always ad purpose of receiving them; they thus reached vocated open appeals to the people; he had althe Committees of “Young Italy" in each city, ways inculcated distrust of heads of parties, and and were by them transmitted to the subscribers, he intrusted the command of the troops to Genthat is to say, to every one conjoined to the cause; eral Romarino, a Pole. He had insisted upon thus the Society itself remained in the shade, the necessity of whole provinces rising en masse, while the journal, passed from hand to hand, was if a revolution was to be eflected, and he s97 every where eagerly perused. In many places it General Romarino set out from Geneva, to carry was left, in the obscurity of evening, upon the Savoy, with a handful of men. Mazzini himself, thresholds of the shops, and at the doors of the with his utmost efforts, scarcely got together five theatres, cafés, and other frequented places. hundred followers, of whom not one half were Never was a periodical paper edited with such Italians; and it was with difficulty that they, marvelous activity, or circulated with such un- tracked every where by the police, succeeded in shaken courage. The leaders risked their heads rallying at the small village of Annemasse, to in its service, and not one ci them hesitated so to the amount of two hundred; when lo! Romardo. In the same manner has the clandestine ino, who had always shown himself wavering press at Rome, since the reinstatement of the and undecided, turned his back upon them, even priestly government, fearlessly pursued its task before they had cast eyes upon the enemy-and of exposing the cruelties, injustice, and mean- thus in one single day did Mazzini see vanish at ness of that government in its every act—and once, the hopes and toils of two years of incesthe cardinals have not unfrequently had to go to sant labor and anxiety. In vain he plied his per breakfast, with what appetite they might, after still more vigorously, and called around him finding on their tables a sheet, of which the ink “ Young Switzerland,” “ Young Poland," had not had time to dry, wherein their unworthy “Young France," and even “Young Europe" leeds were set forth and commented upon, in the at large ; few responded to his ardent voice: the accents of all others strangest to "ears polite" Moderates, taking advantage of his disconfiture, --that is to say, of truth.

and appealing to the selfish prudence of all parThe effect of "La Giovine Italia” upon the ties, under the plausible argument of trusting in public mind became more and more developed moral force, turned, for the time, the tide of popevery day. Genoa and Alexandria were the first ular opinion, and Mazzini, banished from France, to show its influence. Turin, Chamberry, and proscribed in Switzerland, and sentenced to death Lombardy followed. Central Italy, crushed for in Italy, sought an asylum in England, where he the moment, remained passive ; but the flag of betook himself to the literary pursuits which had republicanism was unsurled, it only waited the formed the delight of his younger years, and to moment to lift it up, and that moment came, the benevolent endeavor of improving the moral every way, too soon. The government of Charles state of the humbler classes of his countrymen Albert was the first to take hostile measures whom he found scattered about in London; paragainst Young Italy. It saw that the influence ticularly of the poor organ boys, whom, sold by of the party was beginning to spread in the venal parents to sordid masters, or lured from army; and it immediately pointed its cannons their beautiful native scenes by fallacious repre. against Genoa ; three persons were executed in sentations, he beheld lost in ignorance, enslaved that city, three at Chamberry, and six at Alex. in vice, and suffering under every species of ill. andria; while Austria stocked her favorite fort- treatment and destitution. His founding an ross of Speilberg with such as were objects of evening school for these unfortunate outcasts suspicion, but against whom no charge could be was a mortal offense in the eyes of the Roman substantiated. These rigorous measures struck | Catholic priests of every denomination—for a

layman to presume to instruct the ignorant, and “Twenty years," he says, in the preliminary to hold out a hand to the helpless, was, in their note to his pamphlet recently published, entitled, eyes, an unpardonable crime; and they strove “The Charge of Terrorism in Rome, during the to vilify all his acts by connecting them with Government of the Republic, refuted by Facts covert designs of exciting anarchy and rebellion, and Documents”—“Twenty years, attended with even in the land that had afforded him a refuge. the usual amount of cares, woes, and deceptions, Nevertheless, the blameless tenor of his domestic have rolled around me since my first step in the life, the magnanimity with which he bore his career. But my soul is as calm, my hands are disappointments and his trials, and the respect as pure, my faith is as unshaken, and bright with in which he was held both for his talents and his hope for my awakened country, as in my young private character, which no calumny has ever years. With these gifts one may well endure yet been able to impugn, would have insured him with a smile such little annoyances as may arise as undisturbed a tranquillity as his anxiety for from such writers as Mr. Cochrane, and Mr. Machis country, ever throbbing in his breast, could farlane." We should think so! have permitted him, had he not suddenly been The first publication of Mazzini's that attracted brought forth to public notice, by the English notice after his return to England, was his “Letgovernment committing a flagrant act of injustice ter to Messrs. De Tocqueville and De Falloux, toward him, which the more it endeavored to ex- Ministers of France." It excited universal inplain and vindicate, the more odium it brought terest. The simple truth of its statements, which upon itself—we allude to the opening of Maz- no sophistry of the parties to whom it was adzini's letters at the General Post-Office in 1844, dressed could deny, the justice of its reproaches, by order of Lord Aberdeen and the Right Hon- the manly sentiments it set forth, gained it the orable Sir James Graham, at the instigation of sympathy of all persons of candor and liberal Austrian jealousies and fears. The disgraceful views, and added a deeper tinge of shame on the disclosures that were brought forward on that conduct, if not on the cheek, of the President, occasion, will be fresh in the memory of many by whose command the unjust, inconsistent, and of our readers.

we may add barbarous attack upon Republicas. The stirring events of Italy in 1847, naturally Rome was made by Republican France. turned all the thoughts and hopes of Mazzini | From the moment that Mazzini set his foot again to his country, and to the heightening, by again upon English ground, as a refugee himself, his presence, the effect of his doctrines, so long, he turned his thoughts toward the sufferings of so ardently preached. But we must be brief; his fellow-refugees, who still gathered around we shall, therefore, pass over intervening steps, him with unshaken devotedness and admiration and behold him in Rome-Rome proclaimed a By his exertions a committee was formed for republic, Rome, at that moment, promising to “ The Italian Refugee Fund." A touching adrealize all the most glorious visions of his youth, dress was inserted by it in the leading journals, all the most thoughtfully-revolved theories of his wherein, after briefly setting forth the claims of matured powers. He was elected on the 3d of the Italian refugees upon the compassion of the March, 1849, a deputy in the National Assembly, public, it proceeded: “It is not the only sorrow by 8982 votes, being nearly one thousand ahead of the Italian exiles that a noble cause is, for the of seven other candidates elected at the same time being, lost. Proscribed and driven from time, consequently at the top of the poll. On their watch over the beautiful country of their the 31st of the same month, the dissolution of birth and their affections, they seek a refuge here the Executive Committee was decreed by the in England, almost the only free land where they Constituent Assembly, and the government of may set foot. Hunted by their and the world's the republic appointed to be intrusted to a Tri- enemies, forlorn and penniless, reduced to indi. umvirate, “with unlimited powers." The cit-gence, bereft of almost all that makes life dear, izens chosen for this important office were Carlo and bringing nothing from the wreck beyond the Armellini, Giuseppe Mazzini, and Aurelio Saffi. Mediterranean Sea, but hope in the eternal might How wisely, temperately, and benevolently they of the principles they have upheld, the Committee acquitted themselves of the task assigned them, appeals in their behalf to Englishmen, for present under the most complicated and trying circum- help, that they may not die of want, where they stances that ever legislators had to struggle with, have found a home.” is known to all. The contrast of their conduct Mazzini's next care was, to found a "Society with that of the Cardinal Triumvirate that suc-of the Friends of Italy," the objects of which are, ceeded them, will live in the page of impartial by public meetings, lectures, and the press, to history, to the honor of the representatives of the promote a correct appreciation of the Italian People, the disgrace of the representatives of the question, and to aid the cause of the political and Church.

religious liberty of the Italian people. It is needless to say that on the entrance of Of Mazzini's private character we believe there the French into Rome, Mazzini, with his illus- is, among those who know him, but one opinion, trious colleagues, and many other distinguished that he is the soul of honor, candid and compas. patriots, prepared to quit it. Again he found an sionate in his nature, and of almost woman's asylum in England, and again he betook himself tenderness in his friendships and attachments to the furtherance of the cause to which all his “I have had the honor," says Thomas Carlyle, faculties are devoted, to the emancipation of Italy. "to know Mr. Mazzini for a series of vears, and whatever I may think of his practical insight and trate the power of civilized man to subdue his skill in worldly affairs, I can with great freedom savage fellow. For ages have a few thousand testify to all men, that he, if I have ever seen Spanish merchants been enabled to hold one-third one such, is a man of genius and virtue ; a man of the native inhabitants in direct and absolute of sterling virtue, humanity, and nobleness of slavery; while more than another third has acmind; one of those rare men, numerable, unfor- knowledged their sway by the payment of tribute. tunately, but as units in this world, who are | The remaining fraction consists of wild tribes, worthy to be called Martyr souls." Equally who, too remote from the seat of commerce and honorable to him is the testimony of M. Lesseps, power to make them an object of conquest, still the French Envoy to the Roman Republic, in the retain their barbarian independence. Memoir of his Mission: “I fear the less making But it has ever been the policy of Spain to shut known here the opinion I had of Mazzini, with up her colonies from the intrusion of foreign enwhom I was already in open strife, namely, that terprise-the policy of all nations who retrograde, during the whole series of our negotiations, I or are hastening toward decay. This is the true had but to congratulate myself on his loyalty, reason why so little has been written about the and the moderation of his character, which have Philippines and their inhabitants, many of whose earned for him all my esteem. ... Now that he customs are both strange and interesting. Perhas fallen from power, and that he seeks, doubt-haps not the least singular of these is that which less, an asylum in a foreign land, I ought to forms the subject of our sketch-Comer el Buyo render homage to the nobleness of his sentiments, (Chewing the Buyo). to his conviction of his principles, to his high The buyo is a thing composed of three ingredicapacity, and to his courage.”

ents—the leaf of the buyo-palm, a sea-shell which The man who can win, from the depths of dis- | is a species of periwinkle, and a root similar in appointment and adversity, such a tribute from properties to the betel of India. It is prepared one politically opposed to him, must have some- thus: the leaves of the palm, from which it has thing very extraordinary in himself—and such a its name, are collected at a certain season, cut man is Mazzini. The faults alleged against him into parallelograms, and spread upon a board or are his enthusiasm, which leads him into rash table with the inner cuticle removed. Upon this and precipitant measures, and his indomitable the powdered root and the shell, also pulverized, will; or, we would rather call it, his unconquer-are spread in a somewhat thick layer. The shell able tenacity of purpose, which is deaf to argu- of itself is a strong alkali, and forms a chief inment, and spurns control; but it is only his polit-gredient in the mixture. After having been exical character that is liable to these charges.posed for some time to the sun, the buyo-leaf is His virtues are all his own. When he was in rolled inwardly, so as to inclose the other suboffice at Rome he gave the whole of the salary stances, and is thus formed into a regular cartridge, allotted to him to the hospitals, stating that his somewhat resembling a cheroot. Thus prepared, own private income, though moderate, was suffi- the buyo is ready for use—that is, to be eaten. cient for his wants; and never does distress, in In order that it may be carried conveniently in

any shape that he may have the power to allevi- the pocket, it is packed in small cases formed out • ate, appeal to him in vain. Had he not concen- of the leaves of another species of the palm-tree.

trated all his abilities, all his energies upon the Each of these cases contains a dozen cartridges one grand object of his life, the independence of of the buyo. his country, he would have been as eminent in Buyo-eating is a habit which must be cultivated the field of literature, as he is in that of politics. before it becomes agreeable. To the stranger, He writes with equal facility and elegance in the the taste of the buyo is about as pleasant as French and English languages as in his own, tobacco to him who chews it for the first time; a'! his beautiful memoir of Ugo Foscolo, his and although it is not followed by the terrible essay upon Art in Italy, in his review of Grossi's sickness that accompanies the latter operation, it “Marco Visconti," and many other admirable is sure to excoriate the tongue of the rash tyro, contributions to periodical literature, sufficiently and leave his mouth and throat almost skinless. prove that if the peculiar aspect of the times in Having once undergone this fearful matriculation, which he has lived had not impelled him into he feels ever afterward a craving to return to the public life, he would have found abundant re- indulgence, and the appetite is soon confirmed. source in more retired pursuits, for his own en- In Manilla every one smokes, every one chews joyment, and the benefit of society.

buyo-man, woman, and child, Indian or Spaniard,

Strangers who arrive there, though repudiating CHEWING THE BUYO.

the habit for awhile, soon take to it, and become A SKETCH OF THE PHILIPPINES.

the most confirmed buyo-eaters in the place. W ITH a population of 3,000,000—part of Two acquaintances meet upon the paseo, and stop

W which has been for centuries the colony of to exchange their salutations. One pulls out his a European power-and producing many of the cigarrero, and says: “Quiere a fumar ?" (" Will tropical products of commerce, the Philippine you smoke ?") The other draws forth the everIsles remain almost as much a terra incognita as ready buyo-case, and with equal politeness offen China or Japan!

la roll of the buyos. The commodities are exThese islands offer a striking illustration of the changed, each helping himself to a cartridge and adage, that "knowledge is power." They illus- a cigarrito. A fint and steel are speedily pro

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