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difficulty avoided capture. In the midst of the ter- | reason, it was impossible for the army to leave rible scene of tum'alt and death, the Commodore those shores and return to France. Thus the succeeded in getting on board a boat, and was victorious French, in the midst of all their trirowed to his ships. More than twelve thousand umphs, found that they had built up for themcorpses of the turbaned Turks were floating in selves prison walls from which, though they the bay of Aboukir, beneath whose crimsoned could repel their enemies, there was no escape. waves, but a few months before, almost an equal | The sovereignty of Egypt alone was too petty number of the French had sunk in death. Such an affair to satisfy the boundless ambition of Na. utter destruction of an army is perhaps unex-poleon. Destiny, he thought, deciding against ampled in the annals of war. If God frowned an Empire in the East, was only guiding him Cpon France in the naval battle of Aboukir, He back to an Empire in the West. as signally frowned upon her foes in this ter- For ten months Napoleon had now received no rific conflict on the land.
certain intelligence respecting Europe. Sir SydThe cloudless sun descended peacefully, in ney Smith, either in the exercise of the spirit of the evening, beneath the blue waves of the Medi- gentlemanly courtesy, or enjoying a malicious terranean. Napoleon stood at the door of his tent, pleasure in communicating to his victor tidings calmly contemplating the scene, from whence all of disaster upon disaster falling upon France, his foes had thus suddenly and utterly vanished. sent to him a file of newspapers full of the most Just then Kleber arrived, with his division of two humiliating intelligence. The hostile fleet, leav, thousand men, for whom Napoleon had not waiting its whole army of eighteen thousand men, ed. The distinguished soldier, who had long buried in the sands, or beneath the waves, weighed been an ardent admirer of Napoleon, was over- anchor and disappeared. whelmed with amazement in contemplating the Napoleon spent the whole night, with intense magnitude of the victory. In his enthusiasm he interest, examining those papers. He learned threw his arms around the neck of his adored that France was in a state of indescribable con chieftain, exclaiming, “Let me embrace you, my fusion; that the imbecile government of the DiGeneral, you are great as the universe."
rectory, resorting to the most absurd measures, Egypt was now quiet. Not a foe remained to was despised and disregarded ; that plots and be encountered. No immediate attack, from any counter-plots, conspiracies and assassinations quarter, was to be feared. Nothing remained to filled the land. He learned, to his astonishment, be done but to carry on the routine of the ad- that France was again involved in war with ministration of the infant colony. These duties | monarchical Europe; that the Austrians had inrequired no especial genius, and could be very saded Italy anew, and driven the French over the creditably performed by any respectable governor. Alps; and that the banded armies of the Euro
It was, however, but a barren victory which pean kings were crowding upon the frontiers of Napoleon had obtained, at such an enormous ex- the distracted republic. "Ah!” he exclaimed to penditure of suffering and of life. It was in vain Bourrienne, "my forebodings have not deceived for the isolated army, cut off, by the destruction me. The fools have lost Italy. All the fruit of of its fleet, from all intercourse with Europe, to our victories has disappeared. I must leave think of the invasion of India. The French | Egypt. We must return to France immediatetroops had exactly “caught the Tartar." Egypt ly, and, if possible, repair these disasters, and was of no possible avail as a colony, with the save France from destruction." Mediterranean crowded with hostile English, and It was a signal peculiarity in the mind of NaRussian, and Turkish cruisers. For the same I poleon that his decisions appeared to be instinct.
ive rather than deliberative. With the rapidity | diately spread, and before the light of morning of the lightning's flash his mind contemplated all dawned, the low and sandy outline of the Egypthe considerations upon each side of a question, tian shore had disappeared beneath the horizon and instantaneously came to the result. These of the sea. judgments, apparently so hasty, combined all the wisdom which others obtain by the slow and GREAT OBJECTS ATTAINED BY LITTLE painful process of weeks of deliberation and un
THINGS. certainty. Thus in the midst of the innumerable M HERE is nothing, however small, in nature combinations of the field of battle, he never suf-| 1 that has not its appropriate use-nothing, fered from a moment of perplexity; he never however insignificant it may appear to us, that hesitated between this plan and that plan, but has not some important mission to fulfill. The instantaneously, and without the slightest mis- living dust that swarms in clusters about our givings, decided upon that very course, to which cheese—the mildew casting its emerald tint over the most slow and mature deliberation would our preserves the lichen and the moss wearing have guided him. This instinctive promptness away the words of grief and honor engraved upon of correct decision was one great secret of his the tombs of our forefathers, have each their apmighty power. It pertained alike to every sub-propriate work, and are all important in the great ject with which the human mind could be con- economy of nature. The little moss which so versant. The promptness of his decision was effectually aroused the emotions of Mungo Park only equaled by the energy of his execution. He when far away from his friends and kin, and when therefore accomplished in hours that which would his spirits were almost failing, may teach a moral have engrossed the energies of other minds for lesson to us all, and serve to inspire us with some days.
of that perseverance and energy to travel though Thus, in the present case, he decided, upon life, that it did Mungo Park in his journey through the moment, to return to France. The details the African desert. By the steady and longof his return, as to the disposition to be made of continued efforts of this fragile little plant, high the army, the manner in which he would attempt mountains have been leveled, which no human to evade the British cruisers, and the individuals power could have brought from their towering he would take with him, were all immediately heights. Adamantine rocks have been reduced settled in his mind. He called Bourrienne, Ber- to pebbles ; cliffs have mouldered in heaps upon thier, and Gantheaume before him, and informed the shore ; and castles and strongholds raised by them of his decision, enjoining upon them the the hand of man have proved weak and powermost perfect secrecy, lest intelligence of his less under the ravages of this tiny agent, and preparations should be communicated to the al | become scenes of ruin and desolation—the habi. lied fleet. He ordered Gantheaume ime ediately tations of the owl and the bat. Yet who, to look to get ready for sea two frigates from the har. upon the lichen, would think it could do all this? bor of Alexandria, and two small vessels, with -80 modest that we might almost take it for a provisions for four hundred men for two months. part of the ground upon which we tread. Can Napoleon then returned with the army to Cairo. this, we exclaim, be a leveler of mountains and He arrived there on the 10th of August, and mausoleums? Contemplate its unobtrusive, humagain, as a resistless conqueror, entered the city. ble course ; endowed by nature with an organiHe prevented any suspicion of his projected de- zation capable of vegetating in the most unpropiparture, from arising among the soldiers, by tious circumstances-requiring indeed little more planning an expedition to explore Upper Egypt. than the mere moisture of the atmosphere to sus
One morning he announced his intention of tain it, the lichen sends forth its small filamentous going down the Nile, to spend a few days in ex- roots and clings to the hard, dry rock with a most amining the Delta. He took with him a small determined pertinacity. These little fibres, which ratinue, and striking across the desert, proceeded can scarcely be discerned with the naked eye, find with the utmost celerity to Alexandria, where their way into the minute crevices of the stone; they arrived on the 22d of August. Concealed now, firmly attached, the rain-drops lodge upon by the shades of the evening of the same day, he their fronds or membranaceous scales on the surleft the town, with eight selected companions, face, and filtering to their roots, moisten the space and escorted by a few of his faithful guards. which they occupy, and the little plant is then Silently and rapidly they rode to a solitary part enabled to work itself further into the rock ; the of the bay, the party wondering what this move-dimensions of the aperture become enlarged, and ment could mean. Here they discovered, dimly the water runs in in greater quantities. This in the distance, two frigates riding at anchor, work, carried on by a legion ten thousand strong, and some fishing-boats near the shore, apparently soon pierces the stony cliff with innumerable fiswaiting to receive them. Then Napoleon an- sures, which being filled with rain, the frost causes nounced to his companions that their destination it to split, and large pieces roll down to the lev. was France. The joy of the company was in- els beneath, reduced to sand, or to become soil conceivable. The horses were left upon the for the growth of a more exalted vegetation.beach, to find their way back to Alexandria. This, of course, is a work of time of generaThe victorious fugitives crowded into the boats, tions, perhaps, measured by the span of human and were rowed out, in the dim and silent life ; but, undaunted, the mission of the humble night, to the frigates. The sails were imme-lichen goes on and prospers. Is not this a lesson worth learning from the book of nature ? | at length commanded the world. The little rill Does it not contain much that we might profit near the source of one of the great American by, and set us an example that we should do well rivers is an interesting object to the traveler, who to imitate?“ Persevere, and despise not little is apprised as he steps across it, or walks a few things," is the lesson we draw from it ourselves, miles along its bank, that this is the stream which and the poorest and humblest reader of this page runs so far, and gradually swells into so immense will be able to accomplish great things, if he will a flood." By the accidental mixing of a little take the precept to himself, engrave it upon his nitre and potash, gunpowder was discovered. In heart, or hold it constantly before him ; depend ancient times, before the days of Pliny, some upon it, you will gain more inspiration from these merchants traveling across a sandy desert, could words than from half the wise sayings of the phi- find no rock at hand on which to kindle a fire to losophers of old.
prepare their food; as a substitute, they took a But nature is full of examples to stimulate us block of alkali from among their heaps of merto perseverance, and beautiful illustrations of chandise, and lit a fire thereon. The merchants how much can be achieved by little things-tri- stared with surprise when they saw the huge fles unheeded by the multitude. The worms that block melting beneath the heat, and running we tread in the dust beneath our feet, are the down in a glistening stream as it mingled with choicest friends of the husbandman. A tract of the sand, and still more so, when they discovered land rendered barren by the incrustation of stones into what a hard and shining substance it had upon its surface, becomes by their labors a rich been transformed. From this, says Pliny, origi. and fertile plain; they loosen and throw up in nated the making of glass. The sunbeams daznutritious mealy hillocks the hardest and most zling on a crystal prism unfolded the whole theunprofitable soil—the stones disappear, and where ory of colors. A few rude types carved from a all was sterility and worthlessness, is soon rich wooden block have been the means of revolutionwith a luxurious vegetation. We may call to izing nations, overthrowing dynasties, and rootmind, too, the worm upon the mulberry-tree, and ing out the most hardened despotisms—of drivits miles of fine-spun glistening silk; we may ing away a multitude of imps of superstition, watch the process of its transformation till the which for ages had been the terror of the learned, choice fabric which its patient industry had pro- and of spreading the light of truth and knowledge duced is dyed by an infusion gained from another from the frontiers of civilization to the coasts of little insect (the Cochineal), and then, endowed darkness and barbarism. “We must destroy the with the glory of tint and softness of texture, it Press, exclaimed the furious Wolsey, “or the is cut into robes to deck the beauty of our Eng-Press will destroy us." The battle was fought, lish wives and daughters. Yet, those ignorant the Press was triumphant, and Popery banished of their usefulness would despise these little la- from the shores of Britain. The swinging of a borers, as they do others equally valuable. The lamp suspended from a ceiling led Galileo to bee and the ant, again, are instances which we search into the laws of oscillation of the pendumay all observe-but how few will spare five lum; and by the fall of an apple the great Newminutes to contemplate them. Yet, where is the ton was led to unfold what had hitherto been man, sluggard though he be, who would not shake deemed one of the secrets of the Deity-a mys. off his slothfulness on observing the patient in- tery over which God had thrown a vail, which it dustry and frugal economy of the little ant? or would be presumption for man to lift or dare to where is the drunkard and spendthrift who could pry beneath. Had Newton disregarded little watch the bee, so busy in garnering up a rich things, and failed to profit by gentle hints, we store for the coming winter-laboring while the should perhaps have thought so still, and our sun shone, to sustain them when the frost and minds would not have been so filled with the glorain, and the flowerless plants shut out all means ry of Him who made the heavens ; but with these of gaining their daily bread; and not put his great truths revealed to our understandings, we shoulder to the wheel, and think of old age, and exclaim from our hearts, "Manifold, O God! are the clouds that are gathering in the heavens? | thy works ; in wisdom hast thou made them all." The worth of all the delicious sweets we have When the heart of the woolspinner of Genoa derived from the industry of the little bee, is was sickening with “hope deferred," and his nothing, when compared with the value of this men, who had long been straining their eyes in moral which they teach us.
vain to catch a glimpse of land, were about to If we turn from the book of Nature and open burst into open mutiny, and were shouting fearthe annals of discovery and science, many in- fully to their leader to steer the vessel back again, stances of the importance of little things will start Columbus picked up a piece of wood which he up and crowd around us-of events which appear found floating upon the waters. The shore must in the lowest degree insignificant, being the cause be nigh, he thought, from whence this branch has of vast and stupendous discoveries. “The small-wafted, and the inference inspired the fainting est thing becomes respectable,” says Foster, hearts of his crew to persevere and gain the “when regarded as the commencement of what hoped for land; had it not been for this trifling has advanced or is advancing into magnificence. occurrence, Columbus would perhaps have reThe first rude settlement of Romulus would have turned to Spain an unsuccessful adventurer. But been an insignificent circumstance, and might such trifles have often befriended genius. Acci. justly have sunk into oblivion, if Rome had not dentally observing a red-hot iron become elon
gated by passing between iron cylinders, sug- whose carts carried away the dust from our habgested the improvements effected by Arkwright itations; he was promised a portion with his in the spinning machinery. A piece of thread bride, and on his nuptial day was referred to a and a few small beads were means sufficient in large heap of dust and offal as the promised dow. the hands of Ferguson, to ascertain the situation ry. He little thought, as he received it with some of the stars in the heavens. The discovery of reluctance, that it would put two thousand pounds Galvani was made by a trifling occurrence; a into his pocket. knife happened to be brought in contact with a To achieve independence, then, you must prac dead frog which was lying upon the board of the tise an habitual frugality, and while enjoying the chemist's laboratory, the muscles of the reptile present, look forward to old age, and think now were observed to be severely convulsed-experi- and then of the possibility of a rainy day. Do ments soon unfolded the whole theory of Galvan- not fancy, because you can only save an occaism. The history of the gas-light is curious, and sional penny now, that you will never become illustrates our subject. Dr. Clayton distilled the possessor of pounds. Small things increase some coal in a retort, and confining the vapor in by union. Recollect, too, the precepts and life a bladder, amused his friends by burning it as it of Franklin, and a thousand others who rose to issued from a pin-hole ; little did the worthy doc- wealth and honor by looking after little things : tor think to what purposes the principle of that be resolute, persevere, and prosper. Do not wait experiment was capable of being applied. It for the, assistance of others in your progress was left for Murdoch to suggest its adoption as a through life; you will grow hungry, depend upon means of illuminating our streets and adding to it, if you look to the charity or kindness of friends the splendor of our shops. Had Clayton not for your daily bread. It is far more noble to gird made known his humble experiment, we probably up your loins, and meet the difficulties and troubshould still be depending on the mercy of a jovial les of human life with a dauntless courage. The watchman for a light to guide us through the wheel of fortune turns as swiftly as that of a dark thoroughfares of the city, or to the dim mill, and the rich friend who has the power, you glimmer of an oil lamp to display the luxury of think, to help you to-day, may become poor to our merchandise.
| morrow-many such instances of the mutability These facts, which we have gleaned from the of fortune must occur to every reader. If he be fields of nature and from the annals of science, rich, let him take the inference to himself. Ii may be useful to us all. If God has instilled the he has plenty, let him save a little, lest the wheel instinct of frugality into the ant, and told us, in should turn against him ; and if he be poor and his written word, to go learn her ways and be penniless, let him draw from such cases consolawise, think you he will be displeased to observe tion and hope. the same habits of economy in us, or deny us the You are desirous of promotion in your worldly favor of his countenance, because we use with position-you are ambitious of rising from indicare the talents he has intrusted to our keeping, gence to affluence !-resist, then, every temptaor the wealth he has placed within our reach? tion that may allure you to indolence or every Let not instances of the abuse of this feeling, fascination that may lead to prodigality. Think which spendthrifts in derision will be sure to not that the path to wealth or knowledge is all point out to you, deter you from saving, in times sunshine and honey ; look for it only by long of plenty, a little for a time of need. Avarice is years of vigorous and well-directed activity ; let always despicable - the crime of the miser is no opportunity pass for self-improvement. Keep greater than that of the spendthrift; both are your mind a total stranger to the ennui of the extremes, both abuse the legitimate purposes of slothful. The dove, recollect, did not return to wealth. It is equally revolting to read of two Noah with the olive-branch till the second time avaricious souls, whose coffers could have dis- of her going forth ; why, then, should you degorged ten times ten thousand guineas, growing spond at the failure of a first attempt ? Perseangry over a penny, or fretting at the loss of a far- vere, and above all, despise not little things ; for, thing rushlight; but it is a sight quite as sad and you see, they sometimes lead to great matters in painful to observe the spendthrift squandering the end. in the mire the last shilling of an ample fortune, and reducing his wife and children to beggary for
THE SUBLIME PORTE. ever. Save, then, a little, although the thought-9 TN offering a few remarks upon the government less and the gay may sneer. Throw nothing 1 of Turkey, which, by common accord, is away, for there is nothing that is purely worth- known in Europe and the United States as “ The less; the refuse from your table is worth its Sublime Porte," it is not intended to quote hisprice, and if you are not wanting it yourself, re-story, but rather to speak of it only in reference member there are hundreds of your kind, your to the present period. It is nevertheless necesbrethren by the laws of God, who are groaning sary to state that the Turks themselves call the under a poverty which it would help to mitigate, Turkish Empire Mémáliki-Othmanieh, or the and pale with a hunger which it might help to “Ottoman States” (kingdoms), in consequence satisfy. Where can you find your prescriptive of their having been founded by Othman, the right to squander that which would fill the belly great ancestor of the present reigning sovereign, of a hungry brother? A gentleman, some years Abd-ul-Mejid. They are no better pleased with ago, married the daughter of a public contractor, the name of Turk than the people of the United
States are, generally, with that of Yankee : it bears | midst of the capital. At Constantinople the with it a meaning signifying a gross and rude Ottoman government is also called the “Sublime man-something indeed very much like our own Government,” Devleti Alich, a word closely bordefinition of it, when we say any one is "no bet-dering on that of superiority and pre-eminence ter than a Turk;" and they greatly prefer being claimed by the “Heavenly Government” of the known as Ottomans. They call their language empire of China. The Sultan, in speaking of the “Ottoman tongue"-Othmanli dilec—though his government, calls it “My Sublime Porte." some do speak of it as the Turkish.
The Grand Vegir being an officer of the highest As regards the title, “The Sublime Porte,” rank in the empire—a Pacha, of course, in fine, this has a different origin. In the earlier days the Pacha-his official residence is known in of Ottornan rule, the reigning sovereign, as is still Constantinople as that of the Pacha, Pacha Ka the case in some parts of the East, held courts pousce, i.e. the “ Gate of the Pacha." The chief of justice and levees at the entrance of his resi- entrance to the "seraglio" of the former Sultans, dence. The palace of the Sultan is always sur-erected on the tongue of land where once stood rounded by a high wall, and not unfrequently de | the republican city of Byzantium, called the fended by lofty towers and bastions. The chief“ Imperial Gate," or the Babi Humayoon, is supentrance is an elevated portal, with some preten-posed by some to have given rise to the title of sions to magnificence and showy architecture. “The Sublime Porte;" but this is not correct. It is guarded by soldiers or door-keepers well It may have once been used as a court of justice, armed; it may also contain some apartments for certainly as a place where justice was wont to certain officers, or even for the Sultan himself; be executed, for not unfrequently criminals were its covering or roof, projecting beyond the walls, decapitated there; and among others, the head offers an agreeable shade, and in its external of the brave but unfortunate Aali Pacha, of alcoves are sofas more or less rich or gaudy. Yanina in Albania, the friend of Lord Byron, Numerous loiterers are usually found lingering was exposed there for some days previous to its about the portal, applicants for justice; and interment beyond the walls of the city. there, in former times, when the Ottomans were The title of porte, or door, is used in Constanndeed Turks, scenes of injustice and cruelty tinople to designate other departments of the were not unfrequently witnessed by the passer-by government. The bureau of the Minister of War
This lofty portal generally bears a distinct is called the Seraskier Kapousee, or the Gate of title. At Constantinople it has even grown into the Serasker (head of the army); and those of one which has given a name to the whole govern- the Ministers of Commerce and Police are called, ment of the Sultan. I am not aware, however, the one Tijaret Kapousec, and the other Zabtich that the custom here alluded to was ever in force Kapousce. These, however are sufficient, withn that capital, though it certainly was in other out mentioning any other facts, to explain the parts of the empire of Othman. It is not im-origin and nature of the title of the Ottoman probable that it was usual with all the Sultans, government, known as “The Sublime Porte." who, at the head of their armies, seldom had any The Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is known permanent fixed residence worthy of the name of by his subjects under the title of Sultan, which palace. Mahomet the Second, who conquered word signifies a ruler; and generally as Shevketlu Constantinople from the degenerate Greeks, may, Padischah Efendimiz, "His Majesty the Emperor for some time after his entrance into the city of our Lord;" and all foreign governments now Constantine--stili called in all the official docu- recognize him as an Emperor, and call him by ments, such as “ Firmans,” or “Royal Orders,” the title of “ Imperial Majesty.” The definition Kostantinieh-have held his courts of justice and of the word Padischah is supposed to be “ Father transacted business at the elevated portal of his of Kings," and originally was Peder Schah, the temporary residence. The term “Sublime Porte," first part of it (Peder) being the origin of our in Turkish, is Deri Alieh, or the elevated and Saxon word Fader, or father. In his own tongue lofty door; the Saxon word door being derived he is called Khan, in Persian Shah, and in Arabic from the Persian der, or dor, in common use in Sultan, all meaning, in extensu, the same, viz. the Ottoman language, which is a strange mix- King, Sovereign, or Prince. He reigns over one ture of Tartar, Persian, and Arabic. The French, of the most extensive empires of the world, all or rather the Franks, in their earlier intercourse possessed or acquired by inheritance from his with Turkey, translated the title literally “La ancestors, who obtained it by conquest. Sublime Porte," and this in English has been Until the reign of the late Sultan, Mahmoud called, with similar inaccuracy, “The Sublime the Second, the Ottoman sovereigns had their Porte.”
residence in the “Seraglio" before alluded to, in Long since, the Ottoman Sultans have ceased the city of Constantinople. Its high walls were administering justice before their palaces, or in-not, however, sufficiently strong to protect them deed any where else, in person. The office is against the violence of the Janizaries, and after delegated to a deputy, who presides over the their destruction the remembrance of the scenes whole Ottoman government, with the title of of their cruelty induced the late and present SulGrand Vezir, or in Turkish, Véziri Azam, the tan to forsake it for the safer and more agreeable Chief Vezir, whose official residence or place of banks of the Bosphorus. The extensive and very business, once no doubt at the portal of his picturesque buildings of the Seraglio are now sovereign, is now in a splendid edifice in the left to decay; they offer only the spectacle of
Vol. IV --No 21.-Y