« VorigeDoorgaan »
tion received from the State authorities. Nothing of her institutions, and he had longed to secure for definite was accomplished at the Convention. his own country some of the rights which had made The Indians have again proved to be troublesome on England so glorious and so happy a country. He the southern frontier. Great fears were entertained spoke warmly in praise of the industry of Birming. for the safety of a company of twenty-three U, S, ham, and passed to a consideration of the character troops on the Gila River. An expedition of about condition, and hopes of Hungary. Henceforth, he 125 men sailed from San Francisco for the Sandwich said, monarchical institutions were impossible there. Íslands, on the last of October: its object is not The treacheries of the House of Hapsburgh, had alienstated, though significant hints are thrown out that ated the hearts of Hungarians from royalty, and henceIt is political. It was to be followed by another soon. forih republicanism must form the basis of their politi
From Santa Fé we have news of fresh excite- cal institutions. The contest in Europe was not now ments growing out of alleged discoveries of gold on for any single nation, or for any isolated interest ;the Gila. Numerous parties had been formed and it was a contest between despotism and freedom, foi were going thither for the purpose of digging. The the dominion of the world. He called upon the peoIndians in the neighborhood were comparatively ple of England to prevent Russia from interfering quiet. Several battles, between the different tribes against the struggling people of Hungary. bad occurred in the southern part of the territory. | In London, M. Kossuth received addresses from
In Utah, among the Mormons, a spirit of resist-numerous deputations, to all which he replied with ance to the Government of the United States has great felicity-aiming steadily at his great object of been developed, and the Governor of the Territory, receiving sympathy and aid for Hungary_denounc. Brigham Young-one of the leading Mormons—has ing alike Radicalism, Socialism, and despotism, asgiven indications of hostility, which will probably serting the political rights and advocating the civil lead to his removal. We have not as yet received freedom of the people, and impressing upon the pubany definite details of the proceedings there. lic mind the fact that the struggle is at hand, which GREAT BRITAIN. .
must decide which of the two great principles, des. Public attention in England has been mainly oc- potism or freedom, shall dominate in Europe for cupied with the movements and speeches of M. many years to come. He attended the Polish and Kossuth. On the 10th of November he visited Hungarian ball in London on the 13th, and on the Birmingham, where he was received by an immense 15th went to Southampton to embark for the United crowd of people, who evinced the utmost enthusiasm States. He was met by the Mayor and Corporation on his behalf. Without making any address at that and entertained at a farewell banquet. He there time, he left for Manchester on the 11th, where he made a speech of an hour's length, in which he exwas also received with the greatest conceivable eclat. pressed his belief that England was the country He made an address to the people in the Town Hall / which would have after all to decide the destinies mainly upon the commercial and political aspects of of Europe. France was republican, and Russia the cause to which he was devoted. He felt that must know, let it please her or not, that she must the great contest of the age is between absolutism, accept the necessity of fighting France on the field the power of the few, and the rights and well-being of Republicanism against Absolutism; but Russia of the many. The decisive struggle is close at hand, must also learn that she would have to meet England a the signs of the times, visible on every side, suf and the force of her public opinion in opposition to ficiently indicate. It was folly to say that the na- despotism. He would not say that England would tions of Europe are contented, and that it is only a do so by going to war; but that she would exercise few ambitious and unprincipled individuals who are an influence of this kind by declaring her opinion disturbing the existing tranquillity. The people of against any interference in the domestic affairs of Europe would embrace the first opportunity to strike nations from foreign powers. Freedom and inde asother blow for their rights. And the cause of pendence were brit local self-government as opposed to Hungary, in this connection, was the cause of Eu- centralization. He wished them to remember this, Tope, because Hungary from her local position must then they would see that the cause of Hungary was al ways form the only effectual bulwark against the their cause too. His last request was, do not forget despotisin of Russia. England and the United poor Hungary. On whatever question they met, let States, he urged, were both deeply interested as free Englishmen, in their addresses to the House of nations, and as guardians of the law of nations, to Commons, in their petitions, and in their public res prevent Russia from again interfering to crush Hun olutions, remember the cause of Hungary as involv rary. He appealed to the people of Manchester upon ing their own interests. In the course of his speech this subject, mainly upon the ground, in addition to he begged of them not to forget to agitate against political considerations, that their trade would be secret diplomacy. It had been said that diplomacy greatly extended and all their interests benefited by should be kept secret, just as a merchant would keep the establishment of freedom in Europe. He closed his negotiations secret, till they were finished; but by urging the aid of the people, in urging their gov | what merchant would allow business to be transacted ernment to act in the matter, and in contributions of in his counting-house the nature of which he did not money.
know? In this case the people were the masters, On the next day, Wednesday, M. Kossuth re- and they should not allow any business to be con tumed to Birmingham, where he made two addresses, ducted with the details of which they were not fully the first at a dejeuner at the house of Mr. Henry, in acquainted. The entertainment being over, M. Kos which he took occasion to disavow, in the most ex. suth, Madame Kossuth, M. Pulzsky, and Madame plicit terms, all or any participation in the views and Pulzsky, and suite, proceeded on board the American parposes of Socialists or Communists. The other steamer Humboldt, which quickly started forth on was at the Musical Fund Hall, where a banquet had her voyage across the Atlantic. Of his arrival and . been prepared. He there commenced with a sketch of | reception there we have already given an account. the Hungarian struggle, and especially of the circum
FRANCE. stances attending her declaration of independence. The political intelligence from France is of de He said he had from his earliest youth been familiar cided interest and importance. The Assembly has with British history, and filled with the free spirit met-the President has demanded the restoration or
universal suffrage, and the Assembly has refused to versal suffrage has again upraised the social edifice, grant it. The appeal, of course, is to the people in when it has substituted a right for a revolutionary the Presidential election of next May. What will act, ought its base to be any longer narrowed ? be the result is, of course, matter of conjecture ; but When new powers shall come to preside over the whatever it inay be, it will exert a prodigious influ destinies of the country, is it not to compromise their ence upon the politics of Europe.
stability in advance to leave a pretext for discussing The Assembly met on the 4th of November, six their origin or doubting their legitimacy? No doubt hundred and thirty-three members being present. on the subject can be entertained; and without for On the next day the message of the President was a moment departing from the policy of order which sent in and read. It opens by proclaiming the con- I have always pursued, I have seen myself, to my tinued preservation of peace, but utters warnings deep regret, obliged to separate myself from a Minagainst being deceived by this apparent tranquillity. istry which possessed my full confidence and esteem, A vast demagogical conspiracy, the President says, to choose another, composed also of honorable men, has been organized in France and in Europe; se- known for their conservative opinions, but who are cret societies have been formed extending their ram- willing to admit the necessity of re-establishing uniifications to the smallest communes; and all the versal suffrage on the largest possible base. In conmost insensate and turbulent spirits, without being sequence, there will be presented to you a bill to agreed on men or on things, have given themselves restore that principle in all its plenitude, in presery. rendezvous for 1852. He relies on the patriotism of ing such parts of the law of May 31 as free universal the Assembly to save France from these perils. The suffrage from its impure elements, and render its best means of doing this is by satisfying legitimate application more moral and more regular." The law wants, a
and in putting down, on their first appearance, I of May 31, he says. was originally nacead ne all attacks on religion, morality, and society.-The ure of public safety, and of course now that the ne Message then proceeds, under different heads, to give cessity for it has passed away, the law itself should a statement of the condition of the country. With be repealed. Its operation, moreover, has gone fur the exception of the departments of Ardice, Cher, ther than could have been foreseen. It has disfran Nievre, and Lyons, the ordinary measures have been chised three millions of electors, two-thirds of whom sufficient to preserve order. The receipts of taxes are peaceable inhabitants of the country. This im have been quite satisfactory. The progress of ex- mense exclusion has been made the basis and pretext portations continues unabated. Public roads and of the anarchical party, which covers its detestable public buildings have received the attention of the designs with the appearance of right torn from it, government. Special care has also been given to and requiring to be reconquered. The law also prethe encouragement of agriculture. The superiority sents grave inconveniences, especially in its appliof French manufactures has been abundantly shown cation to the election of a President. The constituat the Great Exhibition in London. The number of tion requires that two millions of votes should be common schools is 34,939; of girls' schools 10,542. given for the candidate before he is declared elected,
- The number of the land forces on the 1st of Octo- and if no one receives that number then the Assember was 387,519 men and 84,306 horses. If circum- bly shall elect. The law changes the proportion of stances permit, this will be reduced to 377,130 men votes from that originally established by the Consti and 83,435 horses. Out of 1145 tribes in Algeria, tution. The restoration of universal suffrage is urged, 1100 have recognized the rule of France. Various finally, on the ground that it will give an additional important naval works have been constructed. The chance of securing the revision of the Constitution, relations of France to foreign powers are eminently - The President says he is aware that this proposi. satisfactory. Her situation at Rome continues un- tion is inspired by his own personal interests, but he changed, and the Pape still shows constant solicitude says his conduct for the last three years ought to be for the happiness of France and the welfare of her sufficient to put aside such an allegation. The good soldiers. Important measures are in progress at of his country will always be the motive of his conRome, and active exertions are making for the for- duct. He concludes by saying, that, "to restore mation of an army, which will render possible the universal suffrage is to deprive civil war of its flag, withdrawal of the troops from the States of the and the opposition of their last argument, it is to Church. A proof has been given of the friendly dis- afford to France an opportunity of giving herselt position of France toward Spain, by offering her the institutions which will insure her repose ; it will be aid of the French naval forces to oppose the auda. I to bestow on the powers to come that moral repose cious attempt against the island of Cuba.--In spite which exists only when resting on a consecrated of all these satisfactory results, the President says principle and an incontestable authority.” Immedi a general feeling of uneasiness is daily increasing. ately after the reading of the Message, the Ministe“Every where employment is falling off, wretched- read tho project of a law propoping the abrogation of ness is increasing, and anti-social hopes gain cour- the law of May 31, 1850, and re-establishing the age in proportion as the public powers, now weak- electoral law of March 15, 1849, by which all citiened, are approaching their termination.” The Gov. zens 21 years old, and having resided six months in err.ment, in such a state of things, onght to seek the commune, are declared electors. The Minister, out proper means of conjuring away the peril, and on presenting this law, demanded urgency for its of assuring the best chances of safety. Resolutions consideration. A warm debate followed, and the must be adopted, which emanate from a decisive act urgency was rejected by a large majority. The bili of sovereign authority. “Well, then," proceeds the was then referred to a committee, which reported or President, “I have asked myself whether, in pres- Tuesday of the succeeding week. The report was ence of the madness of passions, the confusion of very explicit against universal suffrage, and closed by doctrines, the division of parties, when every thing advising that the bill be rejected at once, without is leaguing together to deprive justice, morality, and passing even to second reading. The matter wag authority of their last prestige-whether, I say, we then postponed until the following Thursday. On ought to allow the only principle to be shaken which, that day, after an animated debate, in which, by in the midst of the general chaos, Providence has agreement, the Republicans were represented by M. est upsta ading as our rallying point? When uni- / Michel de Bourges, the motion was carried by a vote of 355 to 348-a majority of seven against the gov. come what may. A Government which relies for ernment. During the debate M. de Bourges asked, support on the entire mass of the nation, which has "is it not probable that the disfranchised electors no other motive of action than the public good, and will present themselves at the hustings in May, 1852, which is animated by that ardent faith which is a and with the Message of the President in their hands, sure guide even through a space in which there is no declare their determination to vote?” This has been path traced, that Government, I say, will know how regarded as a hint to the electors to go forward and to fulfill its mission, for it has in it that right which claim their right to vote.-Another question of very comes from the people, and that force which comes great interest and importance, grew out of a demand from God.” This speech created a profound sensaof the Quæstors that the troops of the city should be tion, and elicited general discussion.—The Constitu. put under their orders for the protection of the As- tionnel created a universal excitement by an article sembly; the question whether the project should be proclaiming the existence of a Monarchical conspir. brought under consideration or not, came up on the acy, and menacing that section of the Assembly with 10th of November. The project as presented by the instant seizure and imprisonment upon the first move Quæstors, M. Baze, Gen. Leflo, and one other, de- ment toward the accomplishment of their plans. The fined the right in such a manner as to make the editor, A. Granier de Cassagnac, was denounced in power of the Assembly over the troops direct-with- very violent terms by M. Creton, an Orleanist depuout the intervention of the War Office or of the ty, who was challenged therefor. He refused, how. Executive. The question was discussed with great ever, to take any notice of it, when he was posted as warmth, and for part of the time amidst the greatest a coward by Cassagnac. confusion and clamor. The rote was finally taken, ERNEST, King of Hanover, died at his palace in and the proposition of the Quæstors was rejected, Herrenhausen,, on the 18th of November, at the age 408 to 300.- A large number of officers of the army of 80, and after a reign of thirteen years. He was recently presented themselves at the Elyssée and the fifth and last surviving son of George III., and were received by the President in a speech that was born at Kew, England, on the 5th of June, 1771. created great excitement. He said he was sure In 1790 he entered the army, and served in the Eu. he could depend upon their support, because he ropean wars which followed. In 1799 he was created should demand nothing that did not accord with | Duke of Cumberland, Earl of Armagh, and Duke of his right, recognized by the Constitution, with mili- Teviotdale, with a Parliamentary grant of £12,000 tary honor, and with the interest of the country; be- per annum. He continued to live in England until cause he had placed at their head officers who had the death of William IV., when he became King of nis confidence, and who merited theirs; and because Hanover. His reign has not been marked by any he should not do as other governments had done, ask great events. He was always an ultra champion of them to march on and he would follow; but he would privileged classes, and made himself very prominent say, “I march, follow me.” The speech created in England as the enemy of Catholic emancipation, great commotion throughout all political parties.- and reform measures of all sorts. General uneasiness is felt as to the result of the In SwitzERLAND, the recent election has resulted political struggle in France. The votes upon the in the return of nearly all the members of the present propositions mentioned above were not party votes, Federal Assembly, especially in the German Can. out seemed to be the result of ever changing alliances tons. The radicals have a decided majority-contraand combinations. The hostility which burst out ry to the expectations that had been very generally against the President upon the first publication of entertained. The new Assembly was to meet on his Message, had in some degree subsided, or rather the 1st of December in order to elect the federal it had been directed against M. Thiers. It is uni-government. versally felt that, whether peacefully solved or not, The character of the justice administered in Aug. the election in May can not fail to have a most im. tria is strongly illustrated by a notification in a Venportant influence upon European politics.
ice gazette. Count Agostino Guerrieri, of Verona, On the 25th of November, the President made a lately of the Austrian Hussars, was convicted of havbrief but significant speech, on distributing to the ing received an anonymous letter from revolutionary inanufacturers the prizes they had won by the articles parties, and of not giving it up to the authorities; exhibited at the World's Exhibition. After express the verdict against him was that he was guilty of ing his satisfaction at the proofs of French genius high treason, and for this he was sentenced to ten and skill which had been afforded at the Exhibition, years' imprisonment in a fortress. Baron Lutti was he proceeded to speak of the check upon industry convicted of having advised him to burn the letter, which the continued machinations of evil men in and for that offense he was sentenced to imprisonFrance coad not fail to create. On the one hand ment for two years. France was disturbed by demagogical ideas, and on From Southern and EASTERN EUROPE there is the other by monarchist hallucinations. The former no news of special interest. In Austria financial disseminate every where error and falsehood. Dis necessities are creating general anxiety. The credit quietude goes before them, and deception follows of the country does not prove sufficient to effect hem, while the resources employed in repressing needed loans. General dissatisfaction, moreover, still 'em are so much loss to the most pressing amelior- prevails in Hungary, and many of the Hungarian
jons and to the relief of misery. The schemes of regiments evince a disposition to take sides with monarchists impede all progress, all serious labor, their country rather than their employers.--In ITALY for in place of an advance the country is forced to the country is apparently quiet, but a very thorough have recourse to a struggie The efforts of both, and effective organization has been effected for a however, will be in vain." .Ind the President ex-new revolutionary movement, whenever a proper borted the manufacturers to continue their labors. opportunity shall be presented.—The peace of Eu
Undertake them without fear, fo, they will prevent rope is generally supposed to depend upon the French the want of occupation during the winter. Do not election in May next; but it is not easy to see bv kread the future ; tranquillity will be maintained, what result general peace can be preserved.
MHE YEAR comes round with such perfect uni. I repeating phenomena for a divisor, and the whole
I formity that we find it hard to realize how there number of carefully ascertained days for a dividend, could ever have been any great difficulty in settling the error in each case would be diminished in an in. either its true boundaries or its internal divisions. verse ratio ; so that we should not wonder that the Any body, it seems to us, could make an almanac, number of three hundred and sixty-five days wan as far as the calendar is concerned. Such might be fixed upon at quite an early period. the first thought, even of persons who could not just. Such estimates, too, were aided by collateral obly be charged with a lack of general intelligence. servations of the stars. Let any one look out upon But let them think again, and they will rather find the heavens some clear night at the commencement cause to wonder at the immense amount of observa- of the year, and he can not help being struck with tion involved in the process of gathering, age after the position as well as the brilliancy of certain conage, the elements of a computation apparently so stellations. Over head are the Pleiades, the lone simple,
Aldebaran, Perseus, and Capella. Coming up the Had the seasons been so strikingly marked that eastern sky are Orion, Gemini, Sirius, the Lesser the transition from one to the other had been instan- Dog. Descending in the westem are Andromeda, taneous, or had the lesser sections of time been so Pegasus, Capricornus, the Southern Fish. While contrived, in the Divine wisdom, as to be exact di- low down toward the setting horizon are the Harp, visors of the greater, there would have been no diffi. the Eagle, and the Swan. Two weeks later, at the culty whatever in the problem. But the Author of same time in the evening, he will find them all farthel nature has not made it so easy for us. Twelve moons westward. In a month the change will be still mon fall short of the year; thirteen exceed it. Any month marked. After three months, those that before went ly division, therefore, founded on the revolutions of just rising are on the meridian, and those that were the satellite, must require, after the lapse of a few then on the meridian are now setting. In six months, years, an addition, or a subtraction, of a certain an entirely new host of stars will adorn the firmament, period, to make the seasons come round again in | and at the end of a year, all the same phenomena will harmony.
be found to have come round again. Our minuteness The first men, unquestionably, soon learned to of detail may seem like trifling in an age so scientific note the general revolution by the return of the same as this; but it is astonishing how much our science seasons. The earliest agricultural operations would is the science of books, and how little, after all, esnecessitate similar estimates, and thus a general no.pecially in astronomy, there is of personal acquainttion of the year would be arrived at without an exact ance with the objects whose laws we know so well knowledge of the precise number of days contained in theory. How many understand thoroughly the Hence, in all languages, some such idea has entered doctrine of transits and parallaxes, and even the into the name. The year is that which comes, and more difficult laws of celestial influences, as laid comes again. In Greek (if our readers will pardon a down in scientific treatises, and yet, to save their little display of learning which we have picked up lives, could not tell us what stars are now overhead, for the occasion) it is (ĚTL "ETOE Črepos) another or what planets are now visible in our nightly bear and yet another. In the Hebrew it is repetition. In ens. They have read of Jupiter, they know the di. our own, and the northern tongues generally, the mensions of Jupiter, and have even calculated the word in all its forms (year, gear, jahr, jaar, &c.) ever movements of Jupiter, it may be, but Jupiter himseli denotes a course (currus) or circle.
they never saw. They would be surprised, perhaps, Another mode was by rude astronomical observa- to discover, by actual sight, how much, in respect to tions, which must have been resorted to in the very position and appearance, our wintry constellations earliest periods. For a good portion of the year, the differ from those that are visible in summer, although sun was seen to come regularly north. Then he re- night after night, for years and years, the brilliant mained apparently stationary; and then, slowly turn- phenomena have been passing over their heads, and ing, made his retreat again to the southern limit, there silently, yet most eloquently, inviting their obserra. to perform the same movement—and so on without tion. This should not be so. The names and loca. interruption or variation. Hence the word tropic, tions of the stars should ever be a part of astronomisignifying the turning, and of which St. James makes cal instruction. We should learn them, if only for so sublime and beautiful a use when he tells us their classical reminiscences—for the sublime pleas(James i. 17) that the Unchangeable Spiritual Sun, ure of having such a theme for contemplation in our or “Father of Lights," has no parallar,* and no evening walks. How easy, in this way, to fill the “shadow of turning," or tropical shadow, as it should heavens with life, when we are led to regard them be rendered, referring to the mode of determining no longer as an unmeaning collection of glittering the period of turning by the shortest shadow cast by points, or what is scarcely better, a mere diagram a perpendicular object. Still all this was merely an for the illustration of scientific abstractions, but stored approximation to the length of the year, but with er. with remembrances of the older days of our worldrors which only repeated observations could correct, the old religion, the old mythology, the old philosophy By taking, however, a large number of these sell. I pictured on the sky-the old heroes, and heroines,
and heroic events, transferred to the stars, and still # The word parallax, or “parallage," here must refer shining in immortal splendor above us. to the sun's declination north and south of the equator. B
But to return from our digression-any one may
o roturn from our disression We have no reason for supposing that the ideas connected
see how such an observation of the stars furnished a , with the terın in modern astronomical science were at all known to the Apostle. It may, however, be taken gener
second mode of ascertaining the length of the year. ally, for any deviation from one unchangeable position,
The men of the olden time were driven to this earnand, in such a sense, preserve all the beauty and subligest watching of the heavens by an interest, of which ity of the metaphor
| in these days of almanacs, and clocks, and compasses
we can form but an inadequate conception. The | arrangement (which was probably the same with, or period of the year was named after the principal star derived from, that of the Patriarchical times) as being that rose just before, or set just after the sun. For much more easy and correct than the division of the example, when Sirius rose and set with or near the Greeks. “The Egyptians," he says, “divide the time of the sun, it was called the “dog days”-the year into twelve months of thirty days each; and only one of these old sidereal measures of time that then, by adding five days to each year, they have a has come down to us. Another season was under uniform revolution of time; whereas the Greeks, for the sway of Orion. It was called the “stormy con- the sake of adjusting the seasons accurately, add stellation," and at its beliacal rising, or when, as He- every third year an intercalary month" (Herod. ii. 4). Biod expresses it,
By this, however, they seem only to have made “con The gentle Pleiads, shunning his fierce pursuit, fusion worse confounded." The great difficulty of Sank late in the Ocean wave
the Greeks arose from the attempt to do what the then was the ship to be drawn up into the well-secured wiser Egyptians and Hebrews seem to have aban bartor, and the sailor for a season to shun the dan- doned-namely, to divide the year solely by lunar gerous deep. In the same way the periods of differ months. By arbitrary intercalations, it is true, they ent agricultural operations were assigned to different could bring the solar and lunar years to a tolerable constellations—some to Arcturus, others to the humid agreement, but then, their effect was continually to Hyades, and others, again, to the Bull, who “opened change the places of the months relatively to the the year with his golden horns." From the observed seasons. The periods of intercalation were at first fact of simultaneousness arose, also, the notion of every two years, then three, and lastly four, and eight. some secret causative influence between the concur In the two latter they seem to have been governed rent events. Hence those views of astrology, so early by some respect to the quadrennial return of the great and so widely held among mankind, and which as- Olympic games, and the Olympiads corresponding signed to each event its celestial concomitants, and thereto. The computation of the year was afterward to each individual man his natal star. Exploded it brought to a still greater degree of accuracy by what may have been by the modern progress, but there was was called the cycle of Melon, which, by embracing nevertheless at bottom an idea of more value than any a period of nineteen years brought the times of the science, however accurate, that does not give it the new and full moon to fall again, very nearly, on the first and highest place. It was the thought of the same days of each month. absolute unity of nature, and of the unbroken relation With the Romans it was still worse. Nothing of every part of the universe to every other part-in shows how much better they understood fighting other words, the sublime idea which the oldest phi-than astronomy, than the way they managed their losophy strove to express by that grand word, Kosmos. year. Under Romulus it was said to have consisted
The length of the year, as a whole number, was of only ten months. It is not easy to see how this parly known. It was some time, however, before could be adjusted on any mode of computation, and ibe disturbance created by the fraction began to be yet the numerical names, some of which have come distinctly perceired, and still longer before it was down to our own calendar, would seem to present reduced to any thing like satisfactory measurement. some proof of it. The last month in the year is yet in the dirision of the 365 days into monthly periods, called December, or the Tenth. In the days of Numa lay at first the greatest difficulty. The lunar number it consisted of twelve lunar months, with a system was in general employed, not only as the nearest of intercalation something like that of the Greeks. marked divisor, but because the new and full moons The two added months were January and February, were so generally connected with religious festivals which, in numerical order would have been Undecem. whether this arose from convenience of arrangement, ber, and Duodecember, or the Eleventh and Twelfth. er from the idea of some deep religious meaning sym- The year, however, by the clumsiness of these mebolized by the ever dying and reviving phases of this thods, and by the whole matter being left in the hands breterious planet. We can not, however, help being of the Pontifices who seem to have had little science, yrark with the superior accuracy of the Jewish, when and still less honesty, became turned so completely sompared with the confusion and change that prevail. topsy-turvy, that instead of being put at the end, ed in the Greek and Roman calendar.
these two new months were finally arranged at the No reader of the Bible can avoid remarking its ex- beginning. The first was called January from the treme particularity of date. The oldest and, on this great (some say the greatest) Latin deity, Janus, arcoant, the most striking instance is in the narration whose original name was Djanus or Di-annus, The of the tlood: “In the 600th year of Noah, in the second God of the Year (similar to the Greek Kronos or posth, and on the seventeenth day of the month, the Time), and who was most expressively represented une day were the fountains of the great deep broken with two faces, one ever looking back upon the past, up, and the windows of heaven were opened.” And so and the other forward to the coming period. also in respect to its close. There is the same par. In the hands of the Pontifices the Roman year had kicularity, too, in the date of the Passover, of the again been getting more and more out of order, until, Esotus, of the arrival at Sinai, of various events in in the days of Julius Cæsar, the first of January had the wilderness, of the wars and settlement of Canaan, retrograded nearly to the autumnal equinox. This of the building and dedication of the temple, and of very useful despot determined to take the matter in de messages of the later prophets. The first would his own hands, and make a thorough reform; but, as sem to present the most unanswerable proof that the a preliminary, was obliged to have an extraordinary lewish computation had been derived from an ante. year of 445 days, which was called the year of confuGuavian science that must have been of a higher kind sion. Before this, there had been, too, a continual than we are generally disposed to acknowledge. With neglect of the fraction of a day, although its existence all their mathematics, and with some attainments in seems to have been known at a much earlier period. astronomy to which the Jew could make no preten Cæsar arranged the months as they now stand, and swa, the calendar of the Greeks presents the appear- | made provision for the fraction by ordering a day to ance of far more confusion. Herodotus, after saying be added to February every fourth year. This seemed that the Egyptians first found out the year, and divided to answer every purpose, until, after the lapse of more Ginto twelve parts by means of the stars, praises their than fourteen centuries, it was found that the season