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t was evident that government officers had con- mained unimpeached; the “national honor" was certed to resist the demands of the people. Like not compromised, and the Bostonians, having a sea lashed by a storm, that meeting swayed carried their resolutions into effect, were satisfied. with excitement, and eagerly demanded from the The East India Company alone, which was the leaders some indication for immediate action. actual loser, had cause for complaint. Night was fast approaching, and as the twilight It may be asked, Who were the men actively deepened, a call was made for candles. At that engaged in this high-handed measure? Were moment, a person in the gallery, disguised in the they an ignorant rabble, with no higher motives garb of a Mohawk Indian, gave a war-whoop, than the gratification of a mobocratic spirit? By which was answered from without. That sig- no means. While some of them were doubtless nal, like the notes of a trumpet before the battle-governed, in a measure, by such a motive, the charge, fired the assemblage, and as another voice greater portion were young men and lads who in the gallery shouted, “Boston harbor a tea-pot belonged to the respectable part of the commuto-night! Hurrah for Griffin's wharf!" a motion nity, and of the fifty-nine participators whose to adjourn was carried, and the multitude rushed names have been preserved, some of them held to the street. “To Griffin's wharf! to Griffin's honorable stations in after life; some battled wharf!" again shouted several voices, while a nobly in defense of liberty in the Continental dozen men, disguised as Indians, were seen Army of the Revolution which speedily followed, speeding over Fort Hill, in that direction. The and almost all of them, according to traditionary populace followed, and in a few minutes the scene testimony, were entitled to the respect due to of excitement was transferred from the “Old good citizens. Only one, of all that band, as South” to the water side.
far as is knowny is yet among the living, and he No doubt the vigilant patriots had arranged has survived almost a half century beyond the this movement, in anticipation of the refusal of allotted period of human life. When the present the governor to allow the Dartmouth to depart; century dawned, he had almost reached the goal for concert of action marked all the operations at of three score and ten years; and now, at the age the wharf. The number of persons disguised as Indians, was fifteen or twenty, and these, with others who joined them, appeared to recognize Lendall Pitts, a mechanic of Boston, as their leader. Under his directions, about sixty persons boarded the three tea-ships, brought the chests upon deck, broke them open, and cast their contents into the water. The Dartmouth was boarded first; the Eleanor and Beaver were next entered; and within the space of two hours, the contents of three hundred and forty-two chests of tea were cast into the waters of the harbor. During the occurrence very little excitement was manifested among the multitude upon the wharf; and as soon as the work of destruction was completed, the active party marched in perfect order back into the town, preceded by a drum and fife, dispersed to their homes, and Boston, untarnished by actual mob or riot, was never more tranquil than on that bright and frosty December night.
A British squadron was not more than a quarter of a mile from Griffin's wharf, where this event occurred, and British troops were near, yet the whole proceeding was uninterrupted. The newspapers of the day doubtless gave the correct interpretation to this apathy. Something far more serious had been anticipated, if an attempt should be made to land the tea; and
Von the owners of the vessels, as well as the public authorities, civil and military, doubtless of one hundred and fifleen years, David KINNISON, thanked the rioters, in their secret thoughts, for of Chicago, Illinois, holds the eminent position thus extricating them from a serious dilemma. of the last survivor of the Boston Tea Party! They would doubtless have been worsted in an When the writer, in 1848, procured the portrait attempt forcibly to land the tea; now, the vessels and autograph of the aged patriot, he was living were saved from destruction ; no blood was spilt; among strangers and ignorant of the earthly exthe courage of the civil and military officers re- istence of one of all his twenty-two children. A
Jaughter survives, and having been made ac- Britain, was almost vice-regal.. Unawed by the quainted of the existence of her father, by the fleets and armies of the imperial government, and publication of this portrait in the “ Field-Book," by the wealth and power of this corporation, the she hastened to him, and is now smoothing the Bostonians justified their acts by the rules of pillow of the patriarch as he is gradually passing justice and the guarantees of the British constiinto the long and peaceful slumber of the grave. tution; and the next vessel to England, after • The life of another actor was spared, until the event was known there, carried out an hon
est proposition to the East India Company, from the people of Boston, to pay for the tea destr yed. The whole matter rested at once upon its original basis-the right of Great Britain to tax the colonies—and this fair proposition of the Bostonians disarmed ministers of half their weapons of vituperation. The American party in England saw nothing whereof to be ashamed, and the presses, opposed to the ministry, teemed with grave disquisitions, satires, and lampoons, all favorable to the colonists, while art lent its aid in the production of several caricatures similar to the one here given, in which Lord North is represented as pouring tea down the throat of unwilling America, who is held fast by Lord Mansfield (then employed by government in drawing up the various acts so obnoxious to the colonists), while Britannia stands by, weeping at the distress of her daughter. In America, almost every newspaper of the few printed, was filled with ar
guments, epigrams, parables, sonnets, dialogues, GEORGE ROBERT TWELVES HEWES,
and every form of expression favorable to the
resistance made in Boston to the arbitrary acts within ten years, and his portrait, also, is pre- of government; and a voice of approval went served. GEORGE ROBERT Twelves Hewes, forth from pulpits, courts of law, and the pro was supposed to be the latest survivor, until vincial legislatures. the name of David Kinnison was made public. Soon not one of all that party will be among the living
Before closing this article let us advert to the effect produced by the destruction of the tea in Boston Harbor, for to effects alone are causes indebted for importance.
The events of the 16th of December produced a deep sensation throughout the British realm. They struck a sympathetic chord in every colony which afterward rebeled; and even Canada, Halifax, and the West Indies, had no serious voice of censure for the Bostonians. But the ministerial party here, and the public in England, amazed at the audacity of the Americans in opposing royal authority, and in destroying private property, called loudly for punishment; and even Great was the exasperation of the king and the friends of the colonists in Parliament were, his ministers when intelligence of the proceedfor a moment, silent, for they could not fully ings in Boston reached them. According to excuse the lawless act. Another and a power- Burke, the “House of Lords was like a seething ful party was now made a principal in the quar- caldron"—the House of Commons was "as hot rel; the East India Company whose property as Faneuil Hall or the Old South Meeting House had been destroyed, was now directly interested at Boston.” Ministers and their supporters chargin the question of taxation. That huge monop-ed the colonies with open rebellion, while the oly which had controlled the commerce of the opposition denounced, in the strongest language Indies for more than a century and a half, was which common courtesy would allow, the foolish, then almost at the zenith of its power. Already | unjust, and wicked course of government. it had laid the foundation, broad and deep, of In cabinet council, the king and his ministers that British-Indian Empire which now comprises deliberately considered the matter, and the result the whole of Hindostan, from the Himalaya was a determination to use coercive measures Mountains to Cape Comorin, with a population against the colonies. The first of these schemes of more than one hundred and twenty millions, was a bill brought forward in March, 1774, which and its power in the government affairs of Great provided for the closing of the port of Boston,
and the removal of customs, courts of justice, petitioned, remonstrated ; they were uniformly and government offices of every kind from Bos- answered by insult. There seemed no other alton to Salem. This was avowedly a retaliatory ternative but abject submission, or open, arned measure; and the famous Boston Port Bill, resistance. They chose the latter, and thirteen which, more than any other act of the British months after the Boston Port Bill became a law, government, was instrumental in driving the the battle at Lexington and Concord had been colonies to rebellion, became a law within a hun-fought, and Boston was beleaguered by an army dred days after the destruction of the tea. In of patriots. The Battle of Bunker Hill soon the debate upon this bill, the most violent lan- followed; a continental army was organized with guage was used toward the Americans. Lord Washington at its head, and the war of the North justified the measure by asserting that Revolution began. Eight long years it continBoston was “the centre of rebellious commotion ued, when the oppressors, exhausted, gave up the in America; the ring-leader in every riot.” Mr. contest. Peace came, and with it, INDEPENDHerbert declared that the Americans deserved no ENCE; and the Republic of the United States consideration ; that they were “never actuated took its place among the nations of the earth. by decency or reason, and that they always | How conspicuous the feeble Chinese plant chose tarring and feathering as an argument ;" should appear among these important events let while Mr. Van, another ministerial supporter, the voice of history determine. denounced the people of Boston as totally unworthy civilized forbearance-declared that they | THE AMERICAN ARCTIC EXPEDITION. ought to have their town knocked about their THE safe return of the Expedition sent out ears, and destroyed;" and concluded his tirade 1 by Mr. Henry Grinnell, an opulent merchant of abuse by quoting the factious cry of the old of New York city, in search of Sir John FrankRoman orators, “Delenda est Carthago !"-Car-lin and his companions, is an event of much thage must be destroyed.
interest ; and the voyage, though not resulting Edmund Burke, who now commenced his in the discovery of the long-absent mariners, series of splendid orations in favor of America, presents many considerations satisfactory to the denounced the whole scheme as essentially wick- parties immediately concerned, and to the Amered and unjust, because it punished the innocent | ican public in general. with the guilty. “You will thus irrevocably! In the second volume of the Magazine, on alienate the hearts of the colonies from the moth- pages 588 to 597 inclusive, we printed some iner country," he exclaimed. “The bill is unjust, | teresting extracts from the journal of Mr. W. since it bears only upon the city of Boston, while PARKER Snow, of the Prince Albert, a vessel which it is notorious that all America is in flames; that sailed from Aberdeen with a crew of Scotchmen, the cities of Philadelphia, of New York, and all / upon the same errand of mercy. That account the maritime towns of the continent, have ex- | is illustrated by engravings; and in his narrative, hibited the same disobedience. You are con- Mr. Snow makes favorable mention of Mr. Grintending for a matter which the Bostonians will nell's enterprise, and the character of the officers, not give up quietly. They can not, by such crew, and vessels. We now present a more demeans, be made to bow to the authority of min-tailed account of the American Expedition, its isters ; on the contrary, you will find their ob-adventures and results, together with several stinacy confirmed and their fury exasperated graphic illustrations, engraved from drawings The acts of resistance in their city have not been made in the polar seas during the voyage, by confined to the populace alone, but men of the Mr. CHARLES BERRY, a seaman of the Advance, first rank and opulent fortune in the place have the largest of the two vessels. These drawings, openly countenanced them. One city in pro- though made with a pencil in hands covered scription and the rest in rebellion, can never be with thick mittens, while the thermometer india remedial measure for disturbances. Have you cated from 20° to 40° below zero, exhibit much considered whether you have troops and ships artistic skill in correctness of outline and beauty sufficient to reduce the people of the whole of finish. Mr. Berry is a native of Hamburg, American continent to your devotion ?" From Germany, and was properly educated for the denunciation he passed to appeal, and besought duties of the counting-room and the accomplishministers to pause ere they should strike a blow ments of social life. Attracted by the romance of that would forever separate the colonies from | “The sea, the sea, the deep blue sea,” Great Britain. But the pleadings of Burke and he abandoned home for the perilous and exciting others, were in vain, and “deaf to the voice of just-life of a sailor. Although only thirty years of ice and of consanguinity,” this, and other rigor- age, he has been fifteen years upon the ocean. ous measures, were put in operation by ministers. Five years he was in the English service, much
The industry and enterprise of Boston was of the time in the waters near the Arctic Circle ; crushed when, on the first of June, the Port Bill the remainder has been spent in the service of went into operation ; but her voice of wail, as it the United States. He was with the Germanwent over the land, awakened the noblest ex- town in the Gulf, during the war with Mexico, pressions and acts of sympathy, and the blow and accompanied her marines at the siege of inflicted upon her was resented by all the colo- Vera Cruz. He was in the North Carolina when nies. They all felt that forbearance was no Lieutenant De Haven went on board seeking longer a virtue. Ten years they had pleaded, volunteers for the Arctic Expedition. He offer
MAP SHOWING THE ROUTE OF THE EXPEDITION. [The solid black line shows the outward course of the vessels ; the dotted line denotes the drift of the vessels.
their baffled attempt to reach Lancaster Sound a second time, and their return home.] ed his services; they were accepted, and a more | pations, sports, and duties of the voyage. Since skillful and faithful seaman never went aloft. his return he has met an uncle, the commander And it is pleasant to hear with what enthusiasm of a merchant vessel, and, for the first time in he speaks of Commander De Haven, as a skillful fifteen years, he received intelligence from his navigator and kind-hearted man. “He was as family. “My mother is dead,” said he to us. kind to me as a brother," he said, “and I would while the tears gushed involuntarily from his go with him to the ends of the earth, if he want- eyes; “I have no one to go home to now-I ed me.” Although he speaks English somewhat shall stay here.” imperfectly, yet we have listened with great pleas- We shall not attempt to give a detailed narra. ure to his intelligent narrative of the perils, occu- tive of the events of the Expedition ; we shall
PERILOUS SITUATION OF THE ADVANCE AND RESCUE IN MELVILLE BAY, relate only some of the most noteworthy circum-sixteen months. They passed the eastern ex. stances, especially those which the pencil of the tremity of Newfoundland ten days after leavsailor-artist has illustrated. By reference to the ing Sandy Hook, and then sailed east-northeast, small map on the preceding page, the relative directly for Cape Comfort, on the coast of Greenposition of the places named; the track of the land. The weather was generally fine, and only vessels in their outward voyage; their ice-drift of a single accident occurred on the voyage to that more than a thousand miles, and their abortive country of frost and snow. Off the coast of attempt to penetrate the ice of Baffin's Bay a Labrador, they met an iceberg making its way second time, will be more clearly understood. toward the tropics. The night was very dark,
Mr. Grinnell's Expedition consisted of only and as the huge voyager had no “light out" the two small brigs, the Advance of 140 tons; the Advance could not be censured for running foul. Rescue of only 90 tons. The former had been She was punished, however, by the loss of her engaged in the Havana trade; the latter was a jib-boom, as she ran against the iceberg at the new vessel, built for the merchant service. Both rate of seven or eight knots an hour. were strengthened for the Arctic voyage at a The voyagers did not land at Cape Comfort, heavy cost. They were then placed under the but turning northward, sailed along the southdirections of our Navy board, and subject to naval west coast of Greenland, sometimes in an open regulations as if in permanent service. The sea, and sometimes in the midst of broad acres command was given to Lieutenant E. De Haven, of broken ice (particularly in Davis's Straits), as a young naval officer who accompanied the United far as Whale Island. On the way the anniStates Exploring Expedition. The result has versary of our national independence occurred; proved that a better choice could not have been it was observed by the seamen by “splicing the made. His officers consisted of Mr. Murdoch, main-brace”-in other words, they were allowed sailing-master; Dr. E. K. Kane, Surgeon and an extra glass of grog on that day. Naturalist; and Mr. Lovell, midshipman. The From Whale Island, a boat, with two officers Advance had a crew of twelve men when she and four seamen, was sent to Disko Island, a dissailed; two of them complaining of sickness, tance of about 26 miles, to a Danish settlement and expressing a desire to return home, were there, to procure skin clothing and other articles left at the Danish settlement at Disko Island, necessary for use during the rigors of a Polar on the coast of Greenland.
winter. The officers were entertained at the The Expedition left New York on the 23d government house; the seamen were comfortably of May, 1850, and was absent a little inore than lodged with the Esquimaux, sleeping in fur bags