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confirms the opinion that the atmosphere of this planet is very dense, like that of the earth. The whole of the paper, in our opinion, deserves much cominendation. The observations reordei in it are numerous, appear to have been made with great care, and are stated with precision. Several parts are controversial, but these are conducted by Mr. S. with the cool, sls and deliberation becoming a man of science, and with the candour and moderation of a gentleman. VI. Experiments on the Nerves, particularly on their Reprie
duftion; and on the Spinal Marrow of living Animals. By William Cruikshank, Elg. Communicated by the late John Hinter, E/7. F. R. S." Read, June 13, 1776. P. 177
189. One Plate. VII. An experimental Inquiry concerning the Reproduction of
the Nerves. By John Haighton, M. D. Communicated by Maxwell Garth hore, M. Ď. F. R. S. Read, February 26, 1795. P. 190—201. One Plate.
These two articles treat of the same subje&t, and we were for some time at a loss to account for their appearance, next to each other, in the present volume, though they are stated to have been read to the society at the distance of nineteen years.
This circumstance, however, we find explained in a note upon a work on insensible perspiration, since published by Mr. Cruikshank; which, therefore, we insert,
« These experiments 'were made for another purpose, by which I discovered the independence of the heart's motion on its nerves, as well as the re-union after division, and the regeneration after loss of substance in the nerves themselves. I wrote a paper on this subject a long time since, which the late Mr. John Hunter, to whose memory and talents I am always proud to pay my tribute, presented to the Royal Society, but it was not then printed; I think Mr. Hunter gave me for a reason, that it controverted some of Haller's opinions, who was a particular friend of Sir John Pringle, then President of the Royal Society. Another gentleman has lately made experiments on the same subject, and has also presented them to the Royal Society. Upon hearing these read at the Society, Mr. Home, with that intel. ligence of anatomical subjects that diftinguishes his character, and the school he was bred in, remembered my experiments, though made near twenty years ago. The President of the Royal Society, who, fortunately for mankind, prefers the promulgation of science to Haller or any other man, on being made acquainted with this circumstance, has caused the paper on these experiments to be printed in the Philofophical Tranfactions for 1795,"*
Mr. Cruikshank's experiments were made with a view to ascertain what is the real influence of particular nerves upon
the the action of involuntary parts ; and in the course of them it was discovered, that when nerves are divided, or a portion of them is removed, they are regenerated. As this was a new fact, further experiments were then made to confirm it, and a plate exhibiting the regenerated nerve is here annexed. Besides this important discovery, which was thus brought out by accident, a very curious fact is also ascertained. That the action of the heart can, for a certain time, b: kept up by artificial breathing, after the correction between the brain and the body is entirely destroyed.
Dr. Haighton's paper is written expressly to prove that nerves are capable of being icgentiated ; and that the new substance does actually perform the orice of a nerve. His experiments entirely confirm those of the preceding paper; and by keeping the animal nineteen months, the new subitance was allowed a fulier time to render it capable of performing its functions than iu any of Mr. Cruikíhank's experiments. VIII. The Croonian Lecture on Muscular Morion. By Eve. rard Home, Esg. Rerd, November 11, 1790. P. 202—220.
In this lecture Mr. Home takes a comprehensive view of the different structures of muscles. He shows that the membranous bag of the hydatid worm poflefles a niuscular power, no less than the muscles of a fascinated structure with which the larger animals are supplied. He concludes, therefore, that a complex mechanism is not necesary to endow a part with muscular power, but that the common structure is useful for fecondary purposes ; such as increasing the strength of aciion, affording a ready supply of blood, and producing the offeét required with the finallest extent of contractions. This opinion he endeavours to establish by observations on the structure of muscles intended for different purposes, and shows ihat a constant and short contraction is more frequently employed in the human body than one that is exrensive. He thows also that every complication of muscular structure, does actually make the contraction of each fibre produce an increased effect. The straight muscle is employed where the use of it is not intended to be frequent. The half penniform, complete, and complex penniform muscles, are subservient 10 more common and neceflary actions. For respiration, which is a very constant action, the structure of the in'ercostals is cruciform, and in them the effect exceeds the absolute contraction more than in any of those hitherto mentioned. But in the heart, the most incessant in its motion, as well as the most important muscle in the body, the firucture is a double spiral, of a conical
form, in which the effect exceeds the absolute contraction fill more than in the cruciform muscles. These observations are certainly curious in a high degree.
The volume concludes with the meteorological Journal of the Society for the year 1794, on which we ihall make no remarks.
ART. VIII. Varieties of Literature; from Foreign Literary
Journal:, und original MSS. now first published. 2 Vil. Svo 155. Debreti. 1795. THIS is, in many respects, a very agreeable miscellany. The I undertaking is also a novel one, and will probably be repeated, asihe German language is becoming every day more an object of attention in this country, and, as it is well known that the German journals abound in interetting and important mater. This collection is completely a milcellany, as the compiler and translator appears to have had, in general, no object in view, except that of placing before his readers an entertaining varieiy. It would, perhaps, have been as well, if to each paper a specification had been prefixed to inark it as original or translated. But this is done only partialiy. A great part is avowedly taken from Wieland, the most popular living author on the continent, whose works amount io twenty-five quario volumes. We need not go far into these volunies for ine opportunity of meeting with an exerct cqually creditable to the editor's taste, and amusing to every reader, We accordingly, and with much pleasure, insert the following Mezzoranian Tale:
65 THE TWIN-BROTHERS OF MEZZORANIA.
“ A MEZZORANIAN TALE. " Amidst the extensive wilds of Africa lies a territory, the inizbirants whereof are as numerous and even as civilized as the Chineiē. They are called the Mezzoranians.
“ Two twin brothers of this country, which is still so little known to our geographers, were both enamoured of a young lady, who equally favoured them both. The two lovers and the fair.one chanced to meet together at the festival instituted in honour of the fu1). This feftival was folemnized twice in the year, because, as the kingdom: lay between the two tropics, yet somewhat more on this side the inve, i: had two springs and two fummers. At the commencement of every spring season this adoration was paid to the great luminary throughout all ibe nomes or dillriets of the land. It was celebrated in the open air, to deno:e that the sun was the immediate cause of all the produc
tions of nature. They made an offering to it of five small pyramids of frankincense in golden dishes. Five youths and an equal number of virgins are named by the magistrate to place them on the altar, where they remain till the fire had consumed them. Each of these young persons is dressed in the colour of their nome, and wears a diadem on the head.
« One of the two brothers, with the damsel of whom we are speaking, composed the first couple who were to place the incense on the aliar. This done, they falured one another. It was customary for them now to change their places, the youth going over to the side of the virgin, and she coming to his. When the five pair have done in this manner, then follow all the sianders by in the same order, by which means they have an opportunity of seeing each other completely.
" It is here that commonly such as have not hitherto made their choice, determine upon one; and as it depends solely on the deterinination of the dainfel, the young man takes all imaginary pains to win the love of her whom he has selected from the reit. For avoiding every fpecies of misunderstanding and jealousy, the maiden, when the young man pleases her, takes from him a flower not yet fully blown, which he offers to her acceptance, and sticks it in her bosom. But, she has already entered into some engagement, the gives him to understand as much, by thewing him a flower; and, if this be only a bud, then it is a sign that he will make her the first proposal; if it he half-blown, it implies that her love has already made fome progress; but if it be fully blown, the virgin thereby betokens that her choice is made, and that she cannot now retract it. So long, however, as she does not publicly wear this token, it is always free for her to do as fhe pleases.
" If she be free, and the man that offers her the flower is not agreeable to her, the makes him a profound reicrence, and shuts her eyes uill he is rerired. Indeed, at tiines, it happens here, as well as in other places, though but rarely, that the disguises herself to her lover, If a man be already contracted, he Likewile bears a tokea. Such maiders as have yet :net wiih no lover, have it in their choice either to remain virgins, or to infuribe themselves among the widows, which if they do, they can only be married to a widower. But let us return to our lwin brothers.
• The brother, who food at the alter with the young damsel, felt as violent a passion for her as fe did for him. They were so very intent upon the ceremony, that they forgot to give each other the accufiomed figns. On her leaving the altar, the other brother saw her, became enamoured of her, and found opportunity, when the ceremony was orer, for presenting her with a flower, She accepted it at his hands, as being fully persuaded that it was the person who had just before been with her at she aliar. Bui, as she took herself away in fome halte with her companions, the impercepribly dropped the token Me had received. The elder brother accolted her once more, and cffered her a flower. Ah, said she to herself, in an amiable confufion, it is the very same! and took it likewise. The young man, who heard this, iinagined for certain that it meant him : but as the law
allowed them to remain no longer together, they departed their several
*He that at first presented the flower found an opportunity, fome days afterwards, of jeeing his charmer by night at a lattice. This fort of conrersation, the gh strictly prohibited by the laws, was yet connived at. The datorei appeared so kind, that he ventured to offer her the token of a half-blown flower. This she accepted, and in return presented him with a scarf embroidered with hearts interwoven with thorns, giving him to understand thereby, that there were still some obitacles to be surmounted : the allowed him at the fame time to declare himself her lover, without, ho vever, giving him her name, and without even acquainting him with the reason of her filence on that head.
“ Not long afterwards the elder brother met her at the very fame window; but the night was so dark, that he could not distinguish the second flover which she wore in her bofom. The extreme fatilfaction the discovered at his coming, seemed to him indeed somewhat extraordinary ; but he inscribed it to a sympathy which between lovers banishes all reftraint. He began to excuse himself for not having feen ber so long, and assured her, that if he could have his wiil, no night should país but he would come to assure her of the ardour of his inclination. She adniired the vchemence of his passion. The lover received such clear indications of her favourable disposition towards him, that he thought he might easily wave the ceremony of the second token, and accordingly gave her the third, a nearly fullblown flower. She accepted it of him, telling him, however, that she would not immediately wear it; that he must firit go through certain forms, and that the must till see some more proofs of the fidelio of his attachment. Ai the same time, to assure him of the fincerity of her love, she gave him her hand through the lattice, which he killed in the greatest transports. Upon this she made him a present of a fillet, on which were wrought two hearts in her own hair, over which was a wreath of pomegranates, seemingly almost ripe; a joyful token, which gave him to understand that the cime of gathering was ar hand, · “ Thus all three were happy in their error. On all public occa.
fions the two brothers appeared with the signs of their inclinations, and felicitated each other on their success : but, as mysterioutness was not deftitute of charms for them, they cautiously avoided every opportunity of explaining themselves to each other. The return of the grand festival was now at no great distance, when the youngest brother thought it the proper occasion for venturing to give his beloved the third token of his affection. He told her, that he hoped the would now willingly wear the full-blown flower as a testimony of ler consent; at the fame cime presenting her with an artificial carnation, interspersed with little fiames and hearts. She Ituck the carnation in . her bofom, unable to conceal her joy as she received it; at which her lover was fo transported, that he determined to demand her of her parents.
“ His elder brother, who had given her the full-blown fower at the same time, thought that nothing more was wanting to his happi