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at pleasure to read the inscriptions, which were so obliterated as to be illegible without it, was the practice of every curious traveller. A great part of the ornamental and delicate work was by accident, and, too often, by wantonness destroyed. Part was found buried in the rubbish, but the greater part entirely lost. An indulgence also of a bad cuf. toin, which all the children in the parish claimed as a privilege, of playing in the church on Shrove-Tuesday (always a day of riot) contributed not a little to this devastation.
" In 1783, the Rev. William Mounsey, then curate of Bottesford*, not supposing himself equal to any thing more, undertook to clean them from moss, dirt, &c. and fix up such finall articles as could be found. Led on from smaller things to greater, he renewed, in the antient manner, all the carving that had been destroyed, made new things appear old, surmounted every difficulty, and completed the repair. To preserve them as much as possible for the future, he guarded with iron a greater number of monuments than had been defended before, which he was enabled to do without expence, from the excessive mafly weight of the old iron. In this work he employed a confidera. ble part of his leisure time for more than three years; and by this laudable exertion has merited equally of the noble survivors, and of the lovers of our national antiquities.
" The entrance into the vault (the duke's present burial-place) is a curious Gothic door, entirely of cedar, brought hither in 1789, at the expence of the Duchess, in compliance with the wishes of the late duke, who had ordered it in his life-time.
" No monumental inscription is yet placed in memory of either of the four dukes of Rutland, or the great marquis of Granby, who are, all buried at Bottesford with their ancestors.”" P. 103. : In the account of the lordship of Little Dalby, we find the following remarks on its natural history, by Professor Martyn, who was tutor to Mr. Hartopp, of that place.
« This lordship is remarkably hilly, being thrown about in small swellings, in such a manner, that, in the greater part of it, it is difficult to find a piece of flat ground. The largest portion of it is an ancient inclosure; and none of the inhabitants know when it took place. I thought at first to have discovered the date of it, from the age of the trees in the hedge-rows; but none of them, which I had an opportu. nity of examining, are more than about 120 years old; but if the inclosure went no farther back than this, we should have learnt the date of it from tradition. I then searched the parish-register, to find whe. ther any depopulation had taken place fince the time of Elizabeth ; but could find none, and therefore concluded, that the inclosure was at least as early as her reign. That there has been a depopulation, I conclude, not only from the natural consequence of inclofing, but from the foundations of buildings which are discovered in the closes near the church.
* And now vicar of Sproxton and Saltby, in this county. Rev.
" The BRIT. CRIT. VOL. VII. MARCH, 1796.
" The u bole lorship is in pasure, except here and there a small vicce, vhich the landlords permit the tenants to break up occasionally, when it becomes very molly ; but then this is laid down again usually at the end of ihree or four years. There are no woods; but there are some small plantations of oak, afh, and elm, of no very long date. There is abundance of ash in the hedge-rows, and scarcely any other tree. The soil is a firing clay; there is no watte ground in the lordihi! ; but it is not cultivated, in my opinion, to the best ad. vantage. They depend chiefly on their dairies: they breed, how. ever, very fine sheep, famous for the whiteness of their fleeces, wliich weigh from seven to nine pounds : they breed also fine horned cattle; but the lordship, in general, is not good feeding ground.
- This lordihip is remarkable for having first made the best cheese perhaps in the world, commonly known by the name of Stilton-cheele*, from its having been originally bought up, and made known, by Cowper Thornhill, the landlord of the Beli-inn at Suiltonlt began to be made here by Mrs. Orton about the year 1730, in small quantities; for at first it was supposed that it could be made only from the milk of those cows which fed in one close, now called Orton's Close ; but this was afterwards found to be an error. In 1756, it was made only by three persons, and that in small quantities; but it is now made, not only from one, but from alınost every close in this parish, and in many of the neighbouring ones. It is extremely rich, because they mix among the new milk as much cream as it will bear. It requires much care and attendance; and, being in great requelt, it fetches rod. a pound on the spot, and is in the London markets.
's. There is no itone, gravel, or sand, in this lordship, except a little fand stone on the side of Barrow-hills: ic is mostly a strong blue clay, and in some parts of it is a good brick earth. There is only one spring, and that a chaly beate: it lies high, in a close belonging to the vicar, known by the name of the Spring-Close; it runs over a great part of the year, and discharges itself into the valley where the village lies, Nobody ever attempted to fink for a well in this parish, till, in the winter of 1777 and 1778, Edivard Wigley Hartopp, Esq. dug, and fucceeded. He penetrated through a bed of stiff blue clay, and, at the deth of 66 feet, the water guihed in, when, I apprehend, the workmen were coming to the limestone rock, by their having thrown out fome frayments of blue fone. To the depth of 10 feet were frequent nodules of chalk ; at that depih the clay was full of forall fele. nires. At 30 feet deep the clay was found to be full of pečtens and other theils, verv perfect, but extremely tender. Nodules of Luutus Helm nii were interspersed ; aninonites of different species in great guilutities, gryphites, and other shells; and plates of a clear fuliacevus tica, refeinbling Vulcovy glas. I am intorined that ile water did not prove good, and that little or no use is made of this weil.
ri I have not found any natural productions, either animal, vegetable, or fofiil, but what are common in other places. There is neither wood nor walte ground in the parish; and we know, that where man
• See a more particular account at p. 5 of the same volume,
has completely subdued the soil to his own use, he permits nothing to feed or prosper but wliat is serviceable to his private intereit.
“ The air here is dry and healthy ; fogs are not frequent, and clear off early when they happen. The inhabitants are happy, and many of them live to a good old age.
" Their fuel here is pit-coal, which they have chiefly brought from Derbyshire, and some from Lord Middleton's cual-pits near Nottingham. The carriage being heavy, and the roads bad, it used to cost them id. or 16d. per hundred weight; but, fince the navigation has been completed to Loughborough, they get it for iod. or vid. per hundred.
“ No great road leads through the parish ; but the turnpike-road, from Oakham to Melten, passes within a mile by Lefthorp; and they come upon it in going to Melton, at about the same diita..ce before they come to Burton.
- There is not any river that runs through the parish, or comes near ir; and only one inconsiderable brook, which is sometimes dry. This joins another more considerable, that comes from Somerby by Leeft. horp; and both, proceeding jointly by Burton Lazars, fall into the river Eye, between Brentingby and Melton.” P. 160. ? Croxton Abbey, and the priory of Kirkly Beler, are well described ; whence the author passes, through the intermediate parishes, to Melton Mowbray, the principal lordship in the county. Under the article of Stapleford, a capital account is given of the ancestors of the Earl of Harborough, who, we are told, “communicated a splendid pedigree of the Sherrards, and enriched the work with eight fine plaies of the memorials of his ancestors at Stapleford, and of their monuments in the church rebuilt by his munificence." The church and inansionhouse, at this place, are objects highly interesting ; and, in the former, the charitable donations of the family of the Earl of Harborough, do the greatest honour to the former and present poffcffors of the tile. We are glad to learn that the beauties of Castle Donington, and the fine remains at Alhby, are likeJy to form capital embellishments in a future volume. The muniments of the family of Hastings, will doub:less furnish also various interesting particulars. The work is enlivened throughout by many biographical anecdotes, some of which we could extract with pleasure, would it not carry us too far. We may particularly observe, that much new light is thrown on the memoirs of Bishop Sanderson, Sir Charles Sedley, Mr. Peck, Orator Henley, and many others.
Here we may properly conclude, for the present, our account of this valuable work, a work of such magnitude, variety, and extent, as to require no common perseverance : we consequently trust, that the author will receive the reward he so well deserves. One portion of this (and that portion too, if we
know him, as we think we do) he will most highly value, he may expect without fear of disappointment, namely, the approbation, eftcem, and good wishes, of all the friends and promoters of antiquarian learning.
tiquarian good with Pointmeni? highly
Art. X. Elays, historical and critical, on English Church Mufic. By William Mafin, M. A. Precentor of York.
12mo. 264 pp. 35. 60. Robson. 1795. THAT the ambition of composers, and more frequently of
I voluntary players, is found occasionally to counteract instead of promoting the folemn purposes for which music is admitted into divine service, must be acknowledged ; and the taste and judgment of Mr. Mason are very laudably employed in attempting to define the rules of propriety by which these matters should be regulated. There is undoubtedly much of . reason and good sense in the following propositions concerning Church Music, which the author lays down in an early part of his first effay.
“ ist, If ic be adopted only as a preparative to devotion, in order so far to affect the minds of the congregation, as to bring them into a composed, and therefore a proper state for the due performance of that duty, the Music employed ought to be of a kind, which experience has proved to be most efficacious in soothing and tranquilizing the spirits.
"'2d. If it should be thought expedient to accompany, or make a part of the act of devotion itself, and for that purpose have a choir to take the lead in the performance of this service, it is necesary that the Mufic be fuch, as will not perplex or bewilder the general congregation ; but fo fimplified, that the supplications and thanksgivings, then expressed vocally in musical strains, may both be distinctly heard, and clearly understood.
" 3d. If, diverted of a choir, Music shovid be held so useful an accessary to devotion, that all the congregation should audibly, or at least mentally, join in that office, a species of melody so very amply conftruéted, that the generality may casily learn and perform it, ought to be exclusively adoptel.” P. 21.
Of the four essays comprised in this volume, the three first refer respectively io chefe three politions ; the first to initrumenial Church Music only; the fecond to that in Cathedrals, in which the organ accompanies the Choir ; the third to paro. chial Psalınody. The fourth etay is upon a subject occasionally touched in the fororer, namely, the causes of the present imperfect alliance between Music and Poetry. The second of These was originally prefixed to a collection of Anthonis
in 1782, but has since received some additions. The first effay is preraced by an account of Musical Rhythm and Accent, as analogous to those of verse ; which has a general reference to the whole book. Then follow some historical notices of the progress of the organ towards perfection, referable particularly io that eslay. The author considers all the early Music, from the invention of Counterpoint to the middle of the present century, as diftinguished from that now in use, by depending upon harmony and modulation only, without that rhythm and accent which now form the basis of what is called expression. The voluntary, though the time of its introduction cannot be exactly ascertained, having arisen under the reign of Counterpoint, “ we may assure ourselves,” says Mr. Mafon," that it breathed only harmonical strains, and was therefore what I have called fimple Music; for in this term I combine harmony however complex, and modulation however recondite, provided it be devoid of Pathos.” To this explanation it is neceilary to attend, left the meaning of the author should be misapprehended. This kind of Music he does not think would be so agreeable to hearers, in any degree accustomed to Air, as to put them into the state which is to be sought on these folemn occasions; and as the organilt is, on the other hand, but too likely to be seduced by the prevailing taste for brilliant and rapid execution, his conclusion is the wish,
“ That in our established Church extempore playing were as much discountenanced, as extempore praying; and that the Organist was as closely obliged, in this solo and separate part of his office, to keep to set forms, as the officiating Minister; or, as he himself is, when accompanying the Choir in an Anthem, or a parochial Congregation in a Pfalm. Of these musical set forms however he might be indulged with a considerable quantity, and, if he approached in some degree to Rousseau's high character of a Preluder, he might be allowed to discant on certain single grave texts, which Tartini, Geminiani, Corelli, or Handel, would abundantly furnish, and which may be found at least of equal elegance and propriety in the Largo and Adagio Movements of Hadyn or Pleyel.” P. 68.
Mr. Mason is averse to the mixture of stringed and wind instruments, thinking that, “ by Their diffimilarity of tone and temperament, they miserably injure one another.” The Organ, therefore, above all, the finelt of wind instruments, because it can imitate them all, he would always preferve in its own simple dignity. In confirmation of this opinion he adduces authorities and examples, but particularly the following, the striking nature of which in a manner compels us to transcribe it.