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your master before their faces when he is going to give them money.
Duty of the other Servants where there are
Ride forty yards behind your master, but be mounted before him. Observe now and then whether his horse's shoes be right. When you come to an inn at noon, give your horse to the oftler ; bestir yourself to get a convenient room for your master; bring all his things into his room full in his fight ; inquire what is in the house; see it yourself, and tell your master how you like it, Step yourself now and then into the kitchen, to hasten dinner or supper; and observe whether they be cleanly. Taste the ale, and tell your master whether it be good or bad. If he wants wine, go you with the drawer, and chuse a bottle well filled and stopped : if the wine be in hogsheads, defire to taste and smell it ; if it be four, or not clear, or ill. tafted, let your master know it, that he may not be at the charge of wine not fit to be drank. See the falt be dry and powdered, the bread new and clean, the knives sharp. At night observe the same rules ; but first chuse him a warm room, with a lock and key in order : then call immediately for the sheets; see them well aired and at a large fire; feel the blankets, bed, bolster, pillow, whether they be dry, and whether the floor under the bed be damp: Let the chanber be that which hath been last lain in; inquire about it. If the bed itself be damp, let it be brought before a large fire, and air it on both fides. That you may forget nothing in the inn, have a fair list of what you want to take out; and when you put them up, compare them with your list.
You are to step now and then into the stable, to see whether the groom performs his duty.
For packing up your things have a list of linen, &c. In packing, take care that no two hard things be together, and that they be wrapped up in paper or towels. Have a good provision of large coarse paper, and other waste-paper. Remember to put every thing in their proper places in the portmanteau. Stuff the shoes and slippers at the toes with a small lock of hay; fold up the cloaths so as that they may not be rumpled. When your master is in his room at night, put all his things in such a manner as he has them at home. Learn to have some skill in cookery, that at a pinch you may be able to make your master easy.
The groom. Carry with you a ftirrup-leather, an awl, twelve horse-nails, and a horse's fore-shoes, pick, and an hammer for fear of an accident ; and some ends, and packthread, a bottle screw, knife and penknife, needles, pins, thread, filk, worsted, c.; some plaisters and scissars.
Item. The servants to carry their own things. Have a pocket-book, keep all the bills, date the time and place; and indorse the numbers. .
Inquire in every town, if there be any thing worth seeing. Observe the country-seats, and ask who they belong to ; and enter them, and the counties where they are.
Search under your master's bed when he is gone up, left a cat, or something else, may be under it. . When your master's bed is made, and his things ready, lock the chamber-door, and keep the key till he goes to bed ; then keep it in your pocket till morn.
Let the servants of the inn be sure to wake you above an hour before your master is to go, that he may have an hour to prepare himself. .
If the oftler hath been knavish or negligent, do not let him hold your master's horse. Observe the same rule at a gentleman's house. If the groom
bath not taken care of your horses, do not let him hold your master's..
Inquire at every ind where you stay, what is the best inn in the next town you are to come to ; yet do not rely on that, but likewise as you enter into any town to stay, ask the people which is the best inn; and go to that which most people commend.
See that your master's boots be dried and well liquored over night.
On GOOD MANNERS and GOOD
DOOD manners is the art of making those peo
ple easy with whom we converse. Whoever makes the fewest persons uneasy, is the best bred in the company.
As the best law is founded upon reason, fo are the best manners. And as some lawyers have introduced unreasonable things into common law ; fo likewise many teachers have introduced absurd things into common good manners,
One principal point of this art is, to suit our be. haviour to the three several degrees of men ; our superiors, our equals, and those below us.
For instance, to press either of the two former to eat or drink, is a breach of manners; but a far: mer or a tradesman must be thus treated, or else it will be difficult to persuade them that they are wel. come. · Pride, ill nature, and want of sense, are the three great sources of ill manners : without some one of these defects, no man will behave himself ill for want of experience; or of what, in the language of fools, is called “knowing the world.”
I defy any one to assign an incident wherein reason will not direct us what we are to say 'or do in com- . pany, if we are not misled by pride or ill. nature.
Therefore I insist, that good sense is the principal foundation of good manners. But because the former is a gift which very few among mankind
* This essay is annexed to J. R's Observations upon Lord Orrery's remarks on Swift's life and writings; and was never inserted in any former edition of the Dean's works.
are poffefsed of, therefore all the civilized nations of the world have agreed upon fixing some rules for common behaviour, best suited to their geneneral customs, or fancies, as a kind of artificial good sense to supply the defects of reason. Without which the gentlemenly part of dunces would be perpetually at cuffs, as they feldom fail when they happen to be drunk, or engaged in squabbles about women or play. And, God be thanked, there hardly happens a duel in a year, which may not be imputed to one of those three motives. Upon which account I should be exceedingly sorry to find the legislature make any new laws against the practice of duelling; because the methods are, eafynd many, for a wise man to avoid a quarrel with honour, or engage in it with innocence. And I can discover no political evil in suffering bullies, sharpers, and rakes, to rid the world of each other by a method of their own, where the law hath not been able to find an expedient.
As the common forms of good manners were in. tended for regulating the conduct of those who have weak understandings; so they have been corrupted by the perfons for whose use they were contrived. For these people have fallen into a needless and endless way of multiplying ceremonies, which have been extremely troublesome to those who practise them, and insupportable to every body else; insomuch that wise men are often more uneasy at the over-civility of these refiners, than they could pofsibly be in the conversation of peasants or mechanics.
The impertinences of this ceremonial behaviour are no where better seen than at those tables where ladies preside, who value themselves upon account of their good-breeding; where a man must reckon upon paffing an hour without doing one thing he has a inind to do, unless he will be so hardy to break through all the settled decorum of the family. She deterınines what he loves best, and how much he