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as you like. The revolution of Portugal might be considered important, as Spain has now nothing to fear from that quarter in having a counter revolution excited by the holy alliance of despots. On the side of the Pyrennees those despots can do nothing, and should Austria meddle with the internal affairs of Naples, it will become the duty of Spain, in self preservation, to excite France to a revolt. The embers of revolution are, scattered throughout the continent, and a total extinction of them cannot take place. Every breeze revives and increases them, and every attempt to quench will but render them more vivid. What will the despot of Russia say now when he hears of Naples, of Sicily, and of Portugal? It would be extremely important that France should regenerate at this moment, because it would fill up the blank between Naples and Spain, and keep up a line of communication. When France drives the Bourbons again, it will be all over with European despotism.
Thus the sacred cause proceeds, and like an avalanche gathers force as it rolls. Impotent and vain will be the attempt of the Austrian, or any other despot, to try to stop it; it may cause the destruction of a few cities, towns, and villages, and a few thousand human beings, but it will tend to increase that force which it reckons on destroying. The spirit that now fills the armies of Europe is admirable: it is general, for wherever a rallying point commences all flock to it; there is no opposition, no shedding of blood. The island of Sicily has unfortunately been the greatest scene of bloodshed, but this has been in consequence of having foreign troops to encounter. Not a life would have been lost if there had been no Neapolitan troops there. Such is the base desire for conquest and dominion, that even the present Neapolitan government has a lingering disposition to keep Sicily in subjection as a province. The more surprize might be felt at this disposition on the part of Naples, as she herself is menaced in a similar manner by the Austrian despot, and the Austrian troops are actually marching upon her.
The Austrian minister, Prince Metternich, has issued a manifesto in the name of his government to all the Germanic bodies, and intimates a disposition to keep things as they are at any sacrifice: the following is a copy of it. Confidential Letter of Prince Melternich, prime Minister of Austria, to
Baron Berstett, the chief Min ter of the grand Duke of Baden..
Your Excellency lias expressed the desire of his Royal Highness the Grand Duke to kuow in a general but precise manner, the ideas of the
Imperial cabinet on the political state of Germany. This invitation on the part of a prince who gives daily the most laudable proofs of his firm ioclination to protect its welfare, and his profound sense of the eleinents wbich compose it, honours me as inuch as it imposes on me the duty of communicating to your Excellency, without reserve, the point of view under which we consider the actual state of things. Time advances in the midst of storms-to endeavour to arrest ile iropetuosity would be a vain attempt. Firmness, moderation, prudence, and a union of accurately ascertained force, are still left in the power of the protectors and the friends of order. This at present constitutes the duty of all sovoreigns, and of all well-intentioned statesınen ; and he alone should merit that title in the day of danger, who, after exatnining what is possible, and what is equitable, will not allow himself to be turned from the noble object to which his efforts should tead, either by ineffectual wishes, or bg dejection of spirit.
This object is easily determined. In our days, it is nothing more nor less than to maintain that which exists; to attain it is the only means of preserving present advantages, perhaps even the best calculated to recover that which was been already lost. To this end the efforts and the measures of all who are united by a commou principle and a common interest, ought to be directed. The compoustible elements which had been long prepared, were indamed belween the years 1817 and 1820. The false cuurse which the French minislry parsned during that epoch -the toleralion allowed in Germany to the most dangerous doctrinega the indulgence shown to audacious reformers-weakness in repressing the abuses of the press ; finally, the precipitation with which representative constitutions were given to the southern States of Germany-all the causes lave impressed the most fatal direction on parties whom nothing can satisfy.
Nothing proves belter the impossibility of satisfying these parties, than the observation, that their inost active operations have taken place in the state wliere the greatest indulgence was shown to their pretended views.
The evil had reached to such a pitch before the Congress of Carlshad, thal a triling political complication would have been sufficient to overthrow entirely social order. The wisdom of the system which the great, courts adopted, has preserved them from the dangers which still might be fatal. What, then, in such a case ought to be the march of an eolightened government: In proposing this question, we pre-suppose the possibility of salvation, and we thiok ourselves perfectly authorized in such a hope. lo examining the means by which we can attain so elevated an end, we see ourselves brought back to the point whence we set out. To repair by little and little an edifice which ihreatens to fall, we inust have a sure foundation. Thus, to secure a happy futurity, we must be sure, at least, of the present. The maintenance of that which exists, ought, therefore, to be the first, as well as the most important, of our cares. By this we do pot understand only the ancient order of things, which has been respected in some countries, but likewise all the new institutions legally created.
The importance of maintaining them with firmness and constanry, may be seen by the attacks which have been made upon them, with a fury perhaps greater than against our ancient iostitutions. In the present limes, the transition from wbat is ancient to what is oew, is accompapied with as much danger as the return from what is new to what has
been abolished. Both may equally lead to an explosion of the calamities which it is essential to avoid at any price.
Not to deviate in any manner froin the existing order of things, from whatever origin i indy have sprung : not to attenpt changes though they should be thought absolutely necessary, except with entire liberty, and after a resolution maturely weighed, such is the first duty of a government which is inclined to resist the evils of the age. Doubiless such a resolution, however just or natural, would excite obstinate opposition; but the advantage of being placed upon a known and acknowledged basis is evident, because from this strong ground it would be easy to stop or to anticipate in all directions, the necessarily uncertaio notions of the enemy. We regret the objection which may be made, namely, that ainong the constitutions hitherto given to Germany, there are some which reposc on no basis, and have consequenily no point d'appui as unfounded, If such had been the case, the demagogues, always indefatigable, would not have failed to undermine them. Every order, legally established, contains wilhin itseif the principles of a better system, provided it is not the work of arbitrary power or of frantic blindness, (like that generally of the Cortes, in 1812.) It may moreover be said, that a charter is noi a coria stitution properly so called: the latter is formed by time, and depends always on the knowledge and inclination of government to give to the developinent of the constitutional regiine such a direction as may separate the good from the evil, consolidate public authority, and preserve the
repose and the happiness of the mass of the nation from every hostile allempt. Two great incans of safety are secured now to every govern, inent, which, with the feeling of its dignity and its duty, has delermined not to destroy itself.
One of these means rests on the satisfactory conviction that between the European powers there exists no misunderstanding, and that, according to the invariable principles of sovereigns, none can be foreseen. This fact, which is placed beyond all doubt, confirms our position and guarantees our strength.
The other means is the union formed in the course of the last nine months between the German states; an voion which by the blessing of God, vur firmness aod fidelity will render indissoluble.
Tbe conferences at Carlsbad, and the decrees which issued from them, have acted in a more poweriul and salutary manner than perhaps we dare own to ourselves at a time when we have still the same feeling of those embarrassments which agitate us, and when we can only calculale superficially all the advantages which we have obtained.
Measures, so important as these, can only be appreciated in their whole extent when we know the whole of their results. The epoch which immediately follows cannot present them all to us, but we can appreciate the effects produced by the resolutions of the 20th of September, by calculating the probable progress which the enemies of order would have made without them. The results of the conferences of Vienna, though of a more elevated order, wiil have an effect less brilliant, but more profound and desirable. The consolidation of the Germanic union offers to each of the states which compose it an efficacious guaranthe-an invaluable advantage in present circumsiances, and one of which we could not have been certainly assured, except by the course that has beco followed. The good faith and moderation with which this important work has been conducted may on the one hand have fixed us in certain points, and prevented us from taking measures more bold and energetic; but on the other, supposing such course possiblc, there would
have been wanting to the work one of the first conditions, namely, the free conviction and the sincere confidence of all the contracting parties.
Nothing could have compensated such a defect, which must have been in every attempt to put in execution determinations inade under such auspices. In general the moral force of the confederation was as necessary as its legislative force; and the progress which the conviction of the utility and the necessity of this union has made, is, ia our opinion, a most important and most happy result.
The roles which the Germau governments will henceforward have to ebserye may be pointed out in a few words :
1. Confidence in the duration of European peace, and in the unanimity of the principles which direct the high allied powers
2. A scrupulous attention to their own system of administration.
3. Perseverance in the maintenance of the legal basis of the existiog constitutions, and a firm determination tu defend thein with force and prudence against every individual attack.
4. The amelioration of essential faults in these constitutions: this amelioration being made by Governments, and grounded on sufficieot reasons.
5. In case of insufficiency of means, an appeal to the assistance of the Confederation—an assistance which every member has the most sacred nght to exact; and which, according to present stipulations, can lesg than ever be refused.
Such is, according to us, the only truls salutary, legal, and safe course. On-such principles rests the political system of the Emperor;, and Anstria, tranquil in her interior, possessing an imposing mass of moral force and physical resources, will not only make use of them for her own preservation, but will always be ready to dispose of them for the advantage of her confederates, when duty and wisdom demand their exercise.
I have the hopour to be,
METTERNICH. All documents of this kind are but imbecile and empty vauntings, they are the breath of a sycophantic courtier, and are derided by every passing breeze. The Austrian army being bolh ill-paid, ill-clad, and ill-fed, might rush on towards the fair soil of Italy filled with the hope of plunder and better living, but let the Italians once give them a check and all will be over. The slave who fights with the hope of plunder only, cannot be considered a match for the man who is defending his liberty and property. Prince Metternich boasts of the “ invariable principle of sovereigns;" we know well what it means, but what are sovereigns now-adays, when all their supposed subjects are opposed to them, and would glady drive them from the authority they hold ? Each sovereign has now to make a calculation of how long he can keep his place, and what obstacles are in existence to his continuing a sovereigo. It is very probable at present, that there will not be a man in
Europe in twelve months hence that will have the power of being a despot. A Berlin paper lately said that the Prussian army envied the Austrian the opportunity of chastising the degraded troops of Naples! The Prussian imbecile might feel this disposition, but it is to be doubled whether there be a single Prussian soldier of the same mind. However we shall see in a few months what is the true disposition of the Prussian army, for it must act either for or against the principles of liberty or despotism. We may expect some hard fighting if the troops of Russia, Austria, and Prussia are disposed tɔ be led by their reigning despots. Report says, that the English government has sent out the Duke of Cambridge to Vienna to express its intentions and dispositions relative to the affairs of Naples. What those intentions and dispositions are, it is difficolt to say at present; so much is certain, that England cannot take a hostile attitude nor subsidize the mercenaries of the continont. It has enough to do at home, and if it keeps together, another year in its present state it will be a miracle.
Spain proceeds majestically, and exceeds the most sanguine hopes. The Cortes have abolished the order of Jesuits: they have abolished all modes of torture: they have sold every thing connected with the Inquisition: and they have begun to pull down the church sinecures. There is now no danger of any counter-revolution or re-action, the thing has been tried but to no purpose. The greatest difficulty that the Corres have to encounter is the dilapidated state of the finances, as the wealth of Spain has been monopolized by the church and grandees, and consequently to touch it by a heavy tax is to encounter the strongest prejudice. A few months will begin to develope new resources, and in the course of two or three years Spain will be as powerful a nation as any on the continent. * Such is the glorious effect of revolutionizing corrupt governments.
France is prosperous and improving, in every sense of the word, in her internal resources; but there is a corrupting power existing in her bosom and must be expelled. The Bourbons can never live cordially with the French nation, upless it be as private citizens. Besides, the very manner in which they have been forced on France, has entailed a degradation upon her, which should be wiped off as speedily as possible. Now is the time, never was moment so important, never was an object more desirable, than the immediate revolution of France. The Revolution of France would decide the fate of the whole conlinent instantly, and the Austrian despot would