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with one accomplice, fled to Amster- constant opinion, delivered down by dam, thence to Cologne, and at last set our historians, that the art of printing tled at Mentz. Here he remained in was first practised by William Caxton, security, and, with his purloined tools, a mercer and citizen of London, who, printed the “Doctrinale' of Alexander by his travels, informed himself of the Galius, and the • Tracts' of Peter of process, and established a press soon Spain. Laurentius had now, instead after 1471; but a book has been disof cutting into the tablets, cast the let- covered, bearing the date of 1468, ters by themselves, and placed them, by printed at Oxford, and now deposited means of ligatures, on the page. Some in the public library at Cambridge, historians assert that these letters were which has robbed Caxton of a glory he always of wood. A workman named had long possessed, and Oxford has Geinsfleich, also stole some of the type, ever since carried the honour of the and settled at Mentz, which accounts first press. It appears from an ancient for the claim of that city: he was as- record in Lambeth palace, that Henry sisted there by one Fust, a wealthy per- the sixth sent Mr. Tumour, his master son, who together with John Meiden- of the robes, with Mr. Caxton, to Haarbachius, had a share in the business, lem, to induce one of Gutenburg's men and in 1444 they were joined by Gus secretly to come to England : one Cortenburg from Strasbourg, who had gain- sellis was at length bribed, and conveyed all his information from Laurentius'ed from Holland forthwith to Oxford, men, thus at once showing that this where a military guard was put over city had no claim to originality. This bim, that he might not effect his escape party soon invented the cut metal types, before he had fulfilled his agreement. and in 1450 the first edition of the bi- So that printing began at Oxford: and ble came forth, having been nearly this before there was either press or eight years in the completion. Soon printer in France, Spain, Italy, or Gerafter, Peter Schæffer rendered the art many, save in the city of Mentz. The comparatively perfect, by finding out king then set up a press at St. Alban's, a mode of casting the letters in moulds and another at Westminster, his majesty or matrices, thus saving the labour of himself having the emoluments arising cutting them out of the solid metal: for from all the books in the kingdom which discovery Fust gave him his printed. In the latter
scems, daughter in marriage. All the parties Mr.Caxton was engaged. Before 1465, connected with these printers were the uniform character was the old Gosworn to secresy; but the sacking of thic or German, whence our black leta Mentz, like the confusion of tongues at ter was formed; but in that year an Babel, spread the art over the whole edition of Lactantius was published in continent. The first book printed with a kind of semi-gothic, of great elegance the improved type was. Durandi Rati- for that day, and approaching nearly onale, in 1459: at which time, how to the present Roman type; which last ever, it seems they had only cast let. was first used at Rome in 1467. To. ters of a certain size, the larger ones wards. 1500, Aldus invented the Italic being cut. Vellum, too, was more character, but especially distinguished printed on than paper at first; but about himself by the beauty of his Greek 1470 the latter came into general use.- works; for, previously to his time, it From this period the art made a rapid was a common practice to mix up all progress in the principal towns of Eu- such English letters with the type, as rope. In 1490, it reached Constanti. were similar to the characters of that nople; and by the middle of the next language. From this period, up to century it had extended to Africa and the close of the last century, printing America. About 1560 it was intro- has gradually improved, especially in duced into Russia, where it was for po- France and this country: but England litical purposes speedily suppressed: bears the palm at the present moment; and even now may be considered but in and we are now brought to speak oi its cradle.
the rapid approach the art is making With respect to England, it was a to perfection. The steam presses es
tablished within the last few years by face sufficiently smooth, an elastic preM. Koing, a German printer, have pro- paration of glue, &c. was tried upon mised to effect all that science can de- them, and eventually succeeded. A yet sire; and it is with great pleasure we superior press having been finished by draw the attention of our readers to the Mr. Dryden, the engineer, the inking one by which the Adventurer is printed; apparatus was applied to Mr. Bensley's which is allowed by all conversant with machine, by which no less than forty the subject, to be one of the first of the wheels were removed : thus simplified few yet constructed, as regards its sin- it was used till the destruction of the plicity, its powers, and its execution. establishment by fire in 1819. This
M. Koing, it appears, after applying comparatively massive and complicated in vam to the continental printers to erection has, however, been succeeded support his project, came to this land, by a large and highly superier machine, where real merit is rarely overlooked, built on the most improved plan; and and at last found a friend in Nir. Bens- whereas the last described contained ley. That gentleman, (the father of upwards of an hundred wheels, the one Nr. B. Bensley, the proprietor of the by which the Adventurer is printed, has steam presses,) introduced him to Mr. in it only ten, and accomplislies with R. Taylor; and this trio persevered that reduced number, in point of quanamidst unforeseen perplexities, which tity, exactly the same object, and in re were doubtless not diminished by the gard to quality far exceeds any former parties deficiency in practical mecha- productions of steam presses. The last nical knowledge. -Cylindrical printing mentioned machine throws off from 800 was at length thought of, and, after some to 1000 sheets, printed on both sides, two or three years, a sinail machine within the hour.-Mr. Bensley has was brought forth, by which, instead of other presses, by one of which the Mornthe printing being produced by a flating Chronicle and other newspapers are impression, as in the common press, printed: it strikes but one side of the the sheet passed between a large roller, paper at a time, at the rate of from and the types, still flat: while in the 1600 to 2000 per hour, and is adapted place of the old balls which were beat to newspapers, which always, to save
type to give it ink, skins were time, have one side worked off wbile the strained round smaller rollers, over other is preparing. which the ink spread itself, and under Thus have we watched the progress which the form (or frame in which the of the art which, we repeat, hath been letters are fixed) passed to the printing so fertile in both good and evil; which cylinder. This led to two much im- hath not only had so large a share in proved and larger machines, by which promoting the happiness and misery of the Times newspaper is printed: these, man here, but also in giving birth to as well as the one before named, could that moral excellence and defection, priot only one side of the paper at a which have reference to another mode time. Soon after, one was erected for of existence for reward and punishment. Messrs. Bensley, much improved in its We have seen it struggling into being construction, and printing both sides by in the bark of a tree, as it nature had one passage through the machine; it been willing to release man froin his merely requiring the sheet to be put responsibility: we observe man, daring into the seeder, from which it is carried and free-willed man, scorning the tenalong and delivered to the receiver per- der offer, and taking again the burden fected! This machine, though still on his own shoulders. We have witcomplex, had other advantages than nessed its gradual approach to what those stated; among which may be may be fermed perfection, through a mentioned what is termed registering, period of four centuries : and since it is or causing the pages to fall precisely on now a far easier task to print books the back of each other. The inking than to write them, it surely behoveş rollers were now to be improved, and those intrusted with the welfare and instead of having the strained skins happiness of millions, so to watch over uver them, they not presenting a sur- this powerful instrument of good and
evil, that its liberty degenerate not into « The snake, which at first appeared licentiousness, and that while advanc. scarcely to notice the poor animal, soon ing the interests of literature and of began to stir a little, and, turning his science, it overlook not those of reli- head in the direction of the goat, it at gion and virtue.
length fixed a deadly and malignant eye An accurate engraving of the above on the trembling victim, whose agony press may be seen at the office of the and terror seemed to increase; for preEvening Post.
vious to the snake seizing its prey, it
shook in every limb, but still continuing From the samic.
its unavailing show of attack, by butting The Boa Constrictor. -at the serpent, who now became suffiWe lately copied an article from the ciently animated to prepare for the banSalem Gazette, which mentioned that quet. The first operation was that of the skin of a young serpent of the spe- darting out his forked tongue, and at cies of Boa, six feet four inches in length, the same time rearing a little his head; had been deposited in the East-India then suddenly seizing the goat by the museum in that town. When this rep- fore leg with his mouth, and throwing tile arrives at its full growth, it some- him down, he was encircled in an intimes measures upwards of thirty feet stant in his horrid folds. So quick, inin length, and is said to be a favourite deed, and so instantaneous was the act, food with the natives of some countries. that it was impossible for the eye to folA living one was lately exhibited in low the rapid convolution of his elonLondon, which measured about eighteen gated body. It was not a regular screw-. feet. In the narrative of the wreck of the like turn that was formed, but resemBritish frigate Alcaste, by M'Leod, the bling rather a knot, one part of the
" surgeon of that vessel, is an account of body overlaying the other, as if to add a Boa Constrictor of great interest. weight to the muscular pressure, the
This Boa was a native of Borneo, and more effectually to crush his object. had been sent to Batavia, where he was During this time he continued to grasp embarked. “ He was brought on board with his mouth, though it appeared an shut up in a wooden crib or cage, the unnecessary precaution, that part of the bars of which were sufficiently close to animal which he had first seized. The prevent his escape; and it had a sliding poor goat, in the mean time, continued door, for the purpose of admitting the its feeble and half-stified cries for some articles on which it was to subsist: the ininutes, but they soon became more dimensions of the crib were about four and more faint, and at last it expired. feet high, and about five feet square, a The snake, however, retained it for a space sufficiently large to allow him to considerable time in its grasp, after it coil himself round the cage. The live was apparently motionless. He then stock for his use during the passage, began slowly and cautiously to unfold consisting of six goats of an ordinary himself, till the goat fell dead from his size, were sent with him on board, five monstrous embrace, when he began to being considered as a full allowance for prepare himself for the feast. Placing as many months. At an early period of his mouth in front of the head of the the voyage we had an exhibition of his dead animal, he commenced by lubritalent in the way of eating, which was cating with his saliva that part of the publicly performed on the quarter-deck, goat; and then taking its muzzle into upon which he was brought. The slid- his mouth, which had, and indeed aling-door being opened, one of the goats ways has, the appearance of a raw lawas thrust in, and the door of the cage cerated wound, he sucked it in, as far shut. The poor goat, as if instantly as the horns would allow. These proaware of all the horrors of its perilous tuberances opposed some little difficulsituation, immediately began to utter. tý, not so much from their extent, as the most piercing and distressing cries, from their points; however, they also,
, butting instinctively, at the same time, in a very short time, disappeared; that with its head towards the serpent, in is to say, externally; but their progress self-defence,
was still to be traced very distinctly on YOL. VIJ.
the outside, threatening every moment .“ As the ship approached the Cape to protrude through the skin. The vic. of Good Hope, this animal hegan to tim had now descended as far as the droop, as was then supposed, from the shoulders; and it was an astonishing increasing coldness of the weather, sight to observe the extraordinary ac- which may probably have had its intion of the snake's muscles when fluence, and he refused to kill some stretched to such an unnatural extent; fowls wizich were offered to him. Bean extent which must have utterly de tween the Cape and St. Helena, he was stroyed all muscular power in any ani- found dead in his cage ; and, on dissecmal that was not, like itself, endowed tion, the coats of his stomach were diswith very peculiar faculties of expan- covered to be excoriated and perforated sion and action at the same time. When hy wornis. Nothing remained of the his head and neck had no other appear- goat except one of the horņs, every ance than that of a serpent's skin, stuff- other part being dissolved.” ed almost to bursting, still the workings of the muscles were evident, and his Theological Seminary. power of suction, as it is erroneously The annual address on occasion of called, unabated; it was, in fact, the the re-opening, after vacation of the effect of a contractile muscular power, general theological seminary of the Pree assisted by two rows of strong hooked testant Episcopal Church in the United teeth. With all this, he must be so States, was delivered in Trinity church, formed, as to be able to suspend, for a in this city, on Thursday evening, the time, his respiration; for it is impossible 13th of November, by the Rev Bird to conceive that the process of breaihWilson, D.D. professor of systematic ing could be carried on while the mouth divinity. The evening prayer was read and throat were so completely stuffed by the Rev. John C. Rudd, D.D. rector and expanded by the body of ihe goat, of St. John's church, Elizabeth-Town, and the lungs themselves (admitting the New-Jersey. We are happy to learn trachea to be ever so hard) compressed, that a copy of the address has been res as they must have been, by its passage quesied, and.is given for publication. downwards,
“ The whole operation of completely Hright of Mountains. gorging the goat, occa
spied about two The memoirs of the academy of Tą. hours and twenty minutes; at the end rin contains details of the ascent of two of which time the tumefaction was con- Italians to the top of Mont Rosa, which fined to the middle part of the body, or M. Sąussure, after many fruitless ata stomach, the superior parts, which had tempts to reach it, declared to be inace been so much distended, having resum- cessible. The result is, that Mont Rosa ed their natural dimensions. lle now has been ascertained to be the highest coiled himself up again, and laid quietly mountain in Europe, its summit being in his usur! torpid state for about three 15,600 feet above the level of the sea, ģ weeks or a month, when, liis last meal Formerly Mont Blanc, rising 14,793 appearing to be completely digested feet, was considered the highest.-Newand dissolved, he was presented with. York Evening k'ost, another goat, which he devoured with equal facility. It would appear that Remarkable Occurrence, almost all he swallows is converted into The Quebec Gazette contains an ans nutrition, for a small quantity of calca- ticle under date of 'Three Rivers, Sep. 2, reous matter, (and that perhaps not a stating, that on the 28th of last month, tenth part of the bones of the animal,) about three a'clock in the afternoon, the with occasionally sone of the hairs, inhabitants of the village of Hayotte, in seemed to compose his general fæces; the parish of Champlain, were alarmed and this may account for these animals by the following extraordinary occurbeing able to remain so long without a rence :-A tract of land, containing a supply of food. He had more difficulty superfices of 207 arpents, was suddenly in killing a fowl than a larger animal, moved five or six ‘arpents about 360
( the forner being too small for his grasp. yards) from the water's edge, and pre,
cipitated into the river Champlain,
Ordination. overwhelming in its progress barns, At a special ordination in St. John's houses, trees, and whatever else lay in church, Providence, Rhode Island, on its course.
The earth thus remoyed - Tuesday the 18th of Nóv. the Rt. Rev. dammed up the river for a distance of Bishop Griswold adnitted Mr. George 26 arpents. The effect was instanta. Griswold to the holy order of deacons; neous, and accompanied by an appal!- and the Rev. Charles Henry Alden te ing sound; a dense vapour, as of pitch that of priests. and sulphur, filled the atmosphere, op
Obituary. pressing those who witnessed this awful Departed this life, of the prevailing convulsion almost to suffocation. A fever, at Marietta, Ohio, on the 23d of man named Dube, who was on the Sept. last, the Rev. JOSEPH WILLARD, ground at the time, was removed with formerly of Portsmouth, New-Ilampit to a considerable distance, and buried shire, and late rector of Trinity church, up to the neck; he was extricated with: Newark, New-Jersey. This melancholy out receiving any serious injury. The bereavement to his family makes the course of the river being thus obstruct- affliction deeper, by the death of his ed, the waters swelled to a great height. amiable consort only four days before.
The above 'named Dübe has lost an island which he had on the river. An
For the Christian Journal. other inhabitant, named llamelin, has “ Our Father, who art in Heaven,” &c. also suffered a loss of land, wheat,and OUR FATHER--such thy gracious name, hay; and a third, named Francis Gos- Though throned above the starry frame seit, has had his hay and grain destroy- Eternal God, and sovereign Lord.
Thy holy name be stili adored, ed. The investigation of this singular Spread far and wide thy righteous sway, phenomenon may well engage the at
Till utmost earth thy laws obey ; tention of thie philosophic inquirer. So here, thy will, by all, be done.
And, as in heaven, before thy throne, Various causes are at présent assigned This day, Great Source of every good, for it, such as the effect of a volcanic Feed us with our convenient food.
As we, to all, their faults forgive, eruption, or an earthquake; and by So, bid us, by thy pardon, live. others it is su to have been pro
Let not our feeble footsteps stray, duced by the water having insinuated
Seduced by sin, from thy right way;
But sived from evil work, and word, itself between the strata of clay and the
Make us thine own, Almighty Lord, subjacent bed of sang."
For thine the sceptre is, and throne,
That shall be crusli’d; or shaken, never; The nei Pope.
The glory, thine, O Lord, alone,
And power, that shall endure for ever. Cardinal Della Genga was elected
For the Christian Journal. Pope on the 27th of Sept and has taken the title of Leo XII. He is an Italian.
Lamentations ii. 10–13, 18, 19.
Lo! where with woe and grief oppress'd, Ile was nuncio during 14 years in the
In suckcloth seated on the grounil, electorates of the Rhine. At the period Whilst bitter groanings heave each breast, of the persecutions exercised. by Bona- And every head with ashes crown'd: parte, he was obliged to quit Rome, Thiyeler's strength, o Zion fail
Thy virgins droop with sickening grief, with the other prelates and cardinals Thy little children seek reliet, borne out of the states which remained And dying tell their hapless tale. to the sovereign pontiff. At the epoch One round his helpless mother throws
His little arms, and cries for brearof the restoration, he was sent þy the
What anguish then that mother know's! late Pope (Pius VII.) to congratulate She sees her infant droop jis head, Louis XVIII. on his return, and he
Watches its heavy closing eye, was afflicted at Paris with a long illness. For wors like these my spirits fail,
Receives its last convulsive siylı. In 1815 he was reinstated with the pur- My fading eyes with tears o’erflow ple. At the moment of his nomination My dreams repeat the mournful tale,
Nor sleep my aching heart can know, he was cardinal vicar, that is, admini
Arise! hefore ihe dreadful day strator, as regards spiritual affairs, of the
Arise! and cry aloud to GOI: diocese of Rome, He is, it is said, a man
With burning zeal, with fervour pray,
That he may stay the threaten'à roda of great learning, accustomed to busi
Oh! let thy tears like rivers flaw, ness, and of irreproachable morals.
Nor sļumber let thine eyelids kuow.