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which decorated the books of ancient Bible had been printed three times beimpression, was never carried here to fore the edition of 1462, which Calmet any excellence; and the practice of en- calls · La premier edition bien averee.' graving on copper which succeeded, One of these editions has been lately has never been much employed among discovered in a convent, and transus in adorning books. The old books planted into the French king's library. with wooden cuts are to be diligently Another copy has likewise been found, sought; the designs were often made by but I know not whether of the same great masters, and the prints are such impression or another. These discoas cannot be made by any artist now veries are sufficient to raise hope and living. It will be of great use to collect instigate inquiry. In the purchase of in every place maps of the adjacent old books, let me recommend to you to country, and plans of towns, buildings, inquire, with great caution, whether and gardens. By this care you will they are perfect. In the first edition, form a more valuable body of geogra- the loss of a leaf is not easily observed. phy, than can otherwise be had. Many You remember how near we both were countries have been very exactly sur- to purchasing a mutilated Missal at a veyed; but it must not be expected that high price. the exactness of actual mens iration All this perhaps you know already, vill be preserved, when the maps are and therefore my letter may be of no reduced by a contracted scale, and in
am, however, desirous to show corporated into a general system. you, that I wish prosperity to your un
The king of Sardinia's Italian domi- dertaking. One advice more I will nions are not large, yet the maps made give, of more importance than all the of them in the reign of Victor fill two rest; of which I, therefore, hope you atlantic folios. This part of your de- will have still less need. You are going sign will deserve particular regard, be- into a part of the world divided, as it is cause, in this your success will always said, between bigotry and atheism : be proportionate to your diligence. such representations are always hyperYou are too well acquainted with lite- bolical, but there is certainly enough of rary history not to know, that many both to alarm any mind solicitons for books derive their value from the repu- piety and truth: let not the contempt tation of the printers. Of the celebrated of superstition precipitate you into infiprinters you do not need to be informed, delity, or the horror of infidelity ensnare and if you did, might consult Baillet you in superstition. I sincerely wish Jugemens des Scavans. The produc- you successful and happy, for i am, sir, tions of Aldus are enumerated in the your affectionate and humble servant, Bibliotheca Græca; so that you may
SAM. JOHNSON know when you have them all; which To F. A. Barnard, esq. is always of use, as it prevents needless
May 28, 1768, search. The great ornaments of a library furnished for magnificence as well as use, are the first editions, of
Kor the Christian Journal, which, therefore, I would not willingly
Pulpit Eloquence. See page 282. neglect the mention. You know, sir, that the annals of typography begin In the last number it was shewn, that with the Codex, 1457; but there is great thie subjects of the eloquence of the pulreason to believe that there are latent in pit being more elevated and important obscure corners books printed before it, than those appertaining to the bar and The secular feast in memory of the in- the public assembly, a style of sentiment vention of printing, is celebrated in the and expression proportionably more ex fortieth year of the century; if this tra- cellent is required. It was also shewn, dition, therefore, is right, the art had, that the nature of the matter to be treatin 1457, been already exercised nine-ed on by the clerical orator, is such as teen years.
to require greater ability in the manageThere prevails among typographical ment of the audience, than is necessary antiquaries a vague opinion that the at the bar or in the senate. Hence it
was inferred that a considerable degree should be perfectly acquainted with his of talent is absolutely necessary to one subject. Not that every one who is acwho would excel in pulpit oratory. For quainted with his subject will treat of it unless the preacher be possessed of suf- with perspicuity; much depends on the ficient capacity to apprehend the grand genius and disposition of the speaker: truths of religion-of sufficient strength but we maintain, that without study and of mind to unravel its difficulties-and a complete knowledge of the subject, of sufficient energy to enter deeply into perspicuity can never be attained. • To its spirit and essence, what success can write” (and of course it is the same with be hoped for, in the difficult task of ex. regard in speaking) “ with precision," plaining its doctrines and inculcating its says Blair, who had just mentioned precepts to an audience, at best but in- precision as a principal attribute of perdifferently disposed to hearken to his spicuity; " to write with precision reinstructions? -Yet, thought talents are quires a writer to have himself a very of so great necessity and importance, clear apprehension of the object he their want might be in no inconsiderable
means to present to us; to have laid degree supplied by industry and expe- fast hold of it in his mind; and never rience. But talents, though possessed to waver in any one view he takes of in the greatest degree, will be of but it.” But how is this accuracy to be obsmall utility, unless aided and support- tained without a profound study of his ed by learning, and that of the deepest object in all its branches ? And more and most important kind. This is not especially in the clergyman such acrashly or unadvisedly asserted, although quaintance with his subject will require many have presumed to dispense with, no ordinary degree of learning; of and even to decry, this most important which, in proportion as he is divested, qualification of a clergyman. It is un- he will be liable to that looseness of doubtedly conformable to the rules of style which may tickle the undiscerning reason, that a man should be perfectly ear, but can never produce any salutary acquainted with that which he pretends effect: for the less a man understands to teach ; and that he should be able, the matters of which he treats, the more not only to explain the grounds of his liable will he be to express nothing *doctrine, but also satistactorily to an- when he wishes to say much."* And swer any objections which may be urged on the contrary, “the extent of our against it. To do the former, he must knowledge and the perspicuity of our be well instructed in the principles of discourses are inseparably connected. his own belief: to do the latter, he must When we understand the subjects of be perfectly informed of the objections which we wish to speak, we are able to which have been stated--with the ar- speak with perspicuity, and not beguments adduced in favour of diverse fore.”+ Nor is learning necessary with opinions, and with the methods of an- respect only to the matter of the dis-, swering them. The most brilliant course; it may be of infinite importideas, the most beautiful imagery, or the ance in regard to the manner of composweetest flow of words, cannot compen- sition and delivery. Can it be thought sate for the want of a perfect knowledge that an acquaintance with the works of of the subject: and this is only to be the ancient rhetoricians, those unrivalobtained by close and persevering stu- led masters of eloquence, will be of no dy. The greatest masters in the art of avail to him who wishes to become elocution assure us, that no quality is perfect in its noblest branch? Can it more essential to produce a happy ef- be supposed that no benefit may be defect, than perspicuity. Without it, the rived from the perusal of those finished passions may indeed undergo a momen- models of eloquence, which have been iary excitement; but no lasting impres- preserved from the ravages of time? sions can be made unless the sentiments is it probable, that no benefit is to be of the speaker be expressed in language derived from hose who have made this easily and perfectly intelligible. But to attain this desirable perspicuity, it is
* Crousez Systeme de Reflexions, vol. iij. absolutely necessary that the orator p. 108. Edit. 1725. | Id. ib. p. 55,
noble art their whole study and em- sketch of “ Lock Maree," and the lines. ployment? It may be, and it has been 6 to Seneca Lake," as well as several objected, that the objects of the clergy- other descriptive pieces,-especially man's discourse are too exalted to need some of the lines in Prometheus-were the aid of eloquence. Were eloquence present to my mind, as illustrative of that wbich these objectors erroneously some of those landscapes, on which I conceive it to be, "an ostentatious and dwelt with so much rapture. Had I deceitful art; the study of words and sufficient time to devote to the employplausibility, only calculated to please, ment, I should like much to collect such and to tickle the ear,” there might be poems and passages of history, as would some weight in their remarks. ' But if, illustrate with interest the scenery about as in reality is the case, its object be to our northern lakes." If ever the spirit place truth in the most advantageous of poetry is to be cultivated as extená light for conviction and persuasion," sively as it ought to be in our country, who can doubt the expediency of em- it is altogether probable that Lake ploying it in enforcing the truths of re- George will become like the Cumberligion ?-But it is alleged by some, that land lakes, and the north of New-York on these subjects the inventions of man be like the north of England. But if are misplaced and unnecessary, the as- ever we are so liappy as to have our sistance of the HOLY SPIRIT being solely Lake school of poetry, I trust it will be to be relied on. It may be asked, a more popular one than that on the where do we find this inspiration pro- other side of the Atlantic of the same mised to teachers of the present day? name. Not that Coleridge, and WordsIf it is not promised, we have no rea- worth, and Southey are not poets of sonable ground for expecting it, and much genius-for they certainly are should therefore use our own endea- men of genius–But I mean to say, that vours for the effecting these great ends. I'hope the poetry of the Americans will That in the use of these means we shall be more simple, and comprehensible, be specially assisted by the HOLY SPIRIT and popular, than that of either of these we may confidently hope; but should three well known, but, I sear, not much these be neglected, we have no reason
read poets. to expect a preternatural assistance.
Have you ever been at Burlington? Learning, therefore, is necessary to It is one of the most charming spots I him who aspires at attaining the true ever was on. The broad sheet of Chameloquence of the pulpit, as the only plain stretches before the town, like a means of acquiring a perfect mastery beautiful mirror, reflecting on its bosom of the subject, and of attaining the best houses, trees, and vessels, islands, promethod of enforcing the truths he deli- montories, and mountains, in varied (To be continued.) but rich magnificence. The water of
the lake can be seen from the town for
a distance north and south of fifty miles For the Christian Journal.
at least; and immediately opposite arise Messrs. SWORDS,
some of the boldest bluffs the eye ever The following sketches are from the rested on. The breadth of Champlain letter of a gentleman now travelling at is variously estimated : some say it is the north, dated Sept. 11, 1823. here but eleven miles wide, and others
state it to be sixteen. · The mountains In many of the scenes through which about Lake George and Lake ChamI passed in my northern tour, I often plain are a fine contrast to the glassy thought of you, and wished for your plains at their bases. The shores are presence. Especially was this the case sometimes softer, and present to the eye in my sail through Lake George, in my a picturesque landscape, with fields culdifferent visits to Lake Champlain, and ţivated, hill sides covered with cattle, whilst I was admiring those more bold, and farm houses quiet and peaceful as or picturesque, or simply beautiful the lakes before them. There is some spots, which in many places presented thing in the numerous little islands in themselves to my eye.
Percival's Lake George, that renders them pecus
liarly interesting. Whether it be their leaving no trace behind. Valleys were number, their location, their reflection quietly sleeping below me, both to the in the wavés below, that causes it, I east and the west. I spent some time cannot tell. To me they seem like the on this mountain, gazing and admiring. islands of fairies. One that goes by the As I was alone, it was indeed a feast to name of Fourteen Mile Island, I at once my
taste for the sublime and the beaudenominated the island of Calypso, tiful. I thought that, had you been with thinking it a much more appropriate, me, the effort would have been great to and certainly a much more elegant, have torn you from the spot. What name than the other. The first title re- renders this prospect the more interestminds me of a guide-board on a turn- ing is, that it bursts upon you instantapike: it seems designed for no other neously. After ascending a steep and purpose than to tell a man
he has got- rugged road for four miles, the top of ten fourteen miles from Caldwell; a the mountain is gained, and the prospiece of information that might just as pect strikes the eye with the suddenness well be associated with another title, as of magic, and like a vision of enchantto make it the sole cause of a peculiar ment. nomination itself. If there were on A note that I find written in my Lake George any villages like Burling- sketch book with a lead pencil, while I ton, it would be enlivened greatly in was on this mountain, may give you the character of its scenery. Of Lake some idea of the prospect I enjoyed. George I at times could say~ " At half past eleven-Here I am sit“ The glassy wave, the sandy shore,
ting upon the summit of the mountain The rock with lichen cover'd o'er,
that overlooks the valley of PetersThe cliff that frowns, the wave that smiles, burgh. Behind me is the Saddle MounThe gloomy firs, the willowy isles, tain, with the vale of Williamstown, and In sucha repose are suuk, they seem The fancy of a port's dre:m
some of the richest farms I have ever So fair, so peaceful, one might say seen. I have just been gazing on them. It was a paradise that lay
Before me is the most magnificent of
mountain scenery I have ever beheld. Where angels dance in lightest measure,
The lofty eminence, on which I am And seraph warblings flow
seated, is but a molehill compared with Or fairy land, where sylphs might lave Their forms of beauty in the wave,
the mountains before me. Beyond the And sport upon the balmy wind, valley of Petersburgh, are the mounTo love and bappiness resign’d.
tains of the same name. Beyond them, Go, lange the world from pole to pole, Go, where Arcadia's streamlets roll,
I can distinguish the line along which And Tempé's waters play
the Hudson runs, although, from the Go, scale Parnassus's flowery steep, intervening hills, I cannot discern the Go, where Castalia's muses weep The mournful hours away
broad expanse of its waters. Still farGo, view each scene of loveliness, ther, inclining south, I behold the sumAnd tell, it thou canst ever grace mits of the Kaatskill. Inclining to the A seene so fair and gay.
north, there are hills rising beyond hills,
nameless and unknown. In a word, One of the finest prospects I had, the horizon before me, north, west, and was about four miles west of Williams- south-broad, magnificent, and subtown. It was on the summit of a moun- lime-is filled with mountains, whose tain of considerable elevation. The summits, tinged with blue, are resting view west was unbounded. The giants against the distant sky, and whose everof the Kaatskill, and other lofty moun- lasting foundations seem the fit emblem tains were ranged along the distant ho- of eternity. It is indescribable. I am rizon, and rested their summits against lost in the contemplation. I almost the more distant sky. Sometimes a forget myself: I think only of the stuwreath of mist would wind around the pendous works, thus scattered before highest points, and then mingle again me, of a wise and all-powerful Creator. with the surrounding atmosphere. Oc. If then, with Young, I ever casionally a heavy cloud would sail up
“ tremble at myself, their sides, and at length disappear, And in myself am lost,''
how much more should I tremble and This preliminary being settled, he be lost in viewing such displays as are proceeds with his advice, showing that now before me! O Lord, how manis in order to conciliate, and not give of fold are thy works! in wisdom hust fence to, a brother, it is the duty of a thou made them all."
I. K. Christian to yield many little enjoy
ments, in which it might be both plea
sant and harmless to indulge under any For the Christian Journal.
other circumstances. “It it good neiRemarks on Romans xiv. 23. Tiãy de
ther to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor ουκ εκ πίστεως, αμαρτία εστίν.
any thing whereby thy brother stum
bleth, or is offended, or is made weak," I APPREHEND that a false construction ver. 21; and it is right, “that no man is often put upon that passage in the put a stumbling-block, or an occasion epistle to the Romans, which, in our to fall, in his brother's way,” ver. 13. version, is thus rendered: ( For what- The concluding verses of the chapsoever is not of faith, is sin.” It is well ter, which immediately follow, will known the word (TOTIS) which is derive great illustration from the foregenerally rendered “faith,” is suscepti- going remarks. Let it be remembered ble of, and sometimes demands, a dif- that the word Toots (faith,) is from a ferent sense from that which we most word (show, signifying to persuade; usually attach to it. Besides referring and, in the passive voice, to be persuad. to a sincere belief in the doctrines of the ed.' Hence the very first signification gospel, it is also used to express a firm of which this word is susceptible must persuasion in the propriety of any be the grammatical one: and that will course of conduct adopted by an indi- be, what a great German critic has de vidual for the government of his life. If nominated a firm persuasion of mind, I mistake not, it will be found by an a certainty us to the correctness of examination of the context, that such one's opinion and judgment concerning is its signification in the verse before us. any thing, especially concerning what
After the apostle had discussed the is lawful and unlawful."* main subject of his epistle, he concludes Using the term in this sense, it will the whole by some affectionate and sa- be easy to discover the force of the lutary advice, such as the church of apostle's argument: and the passage Rome at that time needed. Among may be thus paraphrased : “Hast thou other points relative to conduct and dis- faith? i. . from what is before stated, cipline, he takes occasion to notice the art thou thoroughly persuaded that differences of opinion prevalent among thou mayest eat meats of every kind? the Roman Christians on the subject of Then have this persuasion to thyself meats. It was an important question before God. Happy is he that condemnamong the first converts to Christianity, eth not himself in that thing which he whether there could actually be any alloweth. He that doubreth whether he such thing as a distinction of clean and may eat certain meats, and yet does eat unclean meats. To convince the Ro- them, is condemned by his own conman Christians that all such distinctions science; because he does not eat them were done away by the very spirit of with a thorough persuasion of the corthe gospel, St. Paul goes into a discus- rectness of his conduct. For whatsosion of some length; and draws a ge- ever a man does, without being thoneral conclusion, that any one may roughly persuaded of its propriety, that do as he pleases respecting the eating very thing virtually becomes a sin.t It of particular meats, it being a thing of is a sin committed against his own conlittle moment, what a man eats or drinks, provided he seek first the kingdom of
* Certa animi persuasio, certitudo opinionis God and his righteousness : “For," ar- et judicii de aliqua re, maxime de eo, quod gues the apostle, “the kingdom of God licilum et illicitum est. Schleusner, who shows is not meat and drink; but righteous
the use of mintis in thirteen different senses,
tQuicquid enim tu egeris, si persuasione certa ness and peace and joy in the Holy
destituaris, pecas. Conf. Koppium ad holes Ghost.”
Schleusaer sub voce Tittif.