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A wet sheet and a flowing sea,
A wind that follows fast

And fills the white and rustling sail
And bends the gallant mast;
And bends the gallant mast, my boys,
While like the eagle free

Away the good ship flies, and leaves
Old England on the lee.

O for a soft and gentle wind!
I heard a fair one cry;

But give to me the snoring breeze
And white waves heaving high;
And white waves heaving high, my lads,
The good ship tight and free-
The world of waters is our home,
And merry men are we.

There's tempest in yon horned moon,
And lightning in yon cloud;
But hark the music, mariners!
The wind is piping loud;
The wind is piping loud, my boys,

The lightning flashes free

While the hollow oak our palace is,

Our heritage the sea.



Oft in the stilly night

Ere slumber's chain has bound me,

Fond Memory brings the light

Of other days around me:

The smiles, the tears

Of boyhood's years,

The words of love then spoken:
The eyes that shone,
Now dimm'd and gone,

The cheerful hearts now broken!

Thus in the stilly night.

Ere slumber's chain has bound me, Sad Memory brings the light

Of other days around me.

When I remember all

The friends so link'd together
I've seen around me fall

Like leaves in wintry weather,
I feel like one

Who treads alone

Some banquet-hall deserted,
Whose lights are fled,
Whose garlands dead,
And all but him departed!
Thus in the stilly night

Ere slumber's chain has bound me,

Sad Memory brings the light

Of other days around me.



O little town of Bethlehem,
How still we see thee lie!

Above thy deep and dreamless sleep
The silent stars go by;

Yet in thy dark street shineth

The everlasting Light;

The hopes and fears of all the years

Are met in thee to-night.

For Christ is born of Mary,

And gathered all above,

While mortals sleep, the angels keep

Their watch of wondering love.

O morning stars, together
Proclaim the holy birth!

And praises sing to God the King,
And peace to men on earth.

How silently, how silently,
The wondrous gift is given!
So God imparts to human hearts
The blessings of His heaven.
No ear may hear His coming,
But in this world of sin,

Where meek souls will receive Him still,
The dear Christ enters in.

O holy Child of Bethlehem!
Descend to us, we pray;
Cast out our sin, and enter in,
Be born in us to-day.
We hear the Christmas angels
The great glad tidings tell;
Oh, come to us, abide with us,
Our Lord Emmanuel!




Argument of the Chapter.-Changes in the degree of force, known as touch, chiefly affect the emotional responses of listeners. A common misconception is that sustained intensity makes for good speaking, whereas the best ends are served by variety of the degree of force. Aspects of force that affect speaking are form and stress, ways in which force is applied to words and syllables.


The second of the elements of tone making is force, the element that has to do with the loudness or quietness of the sound made by the voice. A study of force must not be understood to be a study only of how to make more noise, how to use a bigger and more powerful voice. For though most novices need to develop greater vocal power, yet a study of force as a factor in carrying meaning is just as much taken up with quietness as with loudness. Meaning is every whit as much dependent on mild tones as on loud. It is the contrast between loud and quiet that makes force a factor in the carrying of thought, not noise or volume alone.

Touch.-In describing the effect of force in expression we may profitably borrow a term from the sister art of music-touch. Touch carries the double idea of variety and skill, prime requisites in the application of Force to the use of the voice. Just as some piano players have a touch like a blacksmith and others the touch of a gold beater, some speakers and readers strike their notes with a thump like a pile driver and others like the falling of the rain. To be effective for all possible occasions, one ought to possess both the heavy and the light; neither is necessarily a defect nor necessarily a virtue. Command of each is very much to be desired both for public address and for interpretation and acting.


Force Is Chiefly Total Reaction.-The factor of force is all a matter of general bodily participation; that is, true emotional reaction. Force is, by the psychologist and physicist, called intensity. Intensity in the use of one set of muscles always tends to radiate into other sets. The man who feels the need of shouting is by the nature of his attitude intense-much tensed up. Examination would show that the muscles of his neck, back, arms, and legs are much tightened. What more to be expected, then, than that his abdomen should also show intensity and should expel air at an intensity calculated to make much noise? Force is thus highly charged with emotional meanings, with general attitudes, and total bodily dispositions.

Coming from such a condition in the speaker, it produces imitatively the same type of reaction in the listener. When we hear a loud noise of any kind our reaction is total and intense; when we hear a sound soft and gentle we react with very little intensity and with only slight reverberation in the muscles distant from those of the ears. We prefer most of the time freedom from great noises, being much happier when quiet. Noises wear us out; they keep us at work all over the body; whereas a little at a time of total bodily work is plenty. Noises are strong stimulants and easily bring the listener to a state of numbness. Consequently continuous shouting, in a small room where it strikes each listener hard and noisily, so agitates him all over and so thoroughly wears him out that he has no mechanism left for the differentiations and discriminations needed for activity of an intellectual nature.

A sermon or a campaign speech shouted from start to finish -especially where there are no opposing noises-leaves no intellectual impression, no disposition to catch refinements of meaning: the only thing carried being a general feeling, a total attitude. Yet frankness compels us to note that many audiences delight in just this vagueness and grossness of emotionality; they are none too capable of fine distinctions, and seldom get from a public meeting anything but the

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