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PREFACE.

We learn from the Mosaic record, that the first act of creative power gave existence to the mighty nucleus of our globe, and that, before the revolution of seven days, the herbless granite was clothed with vegetation; moving creatures then passed through the waters, and winged fowl were seen to fly across the heavens; cạttle, and creeping things, and beasts of the earth, walked forth in all the vigour of their new existence, and, lastly, man, created in the image of his Maker, had dominion over every living thing.

All then was perfect; but man fell, and with him fell the fresh and beautiful Creation.

My meditations on this subject have led me to pass on to the present condition of the earth,

and to consider its animal and vegetable productions with an especial reference to the benefits which they confer on man. I have further observed their adaptation to different portions of the globe, and how wonderfully the most inhospitable regions are rendered habitable by the location of some peculiar species. Remarkable phenomena on the surface of the earth have been also pointed out; and in so doing I must confess my obligations to the learned author of the Comparative Estimate of the Mineral and Mosaical Geologies, and to Cuvier's Essay on the Theory of the Earth.

Throughout this volume, I have ever kept in view, that the heavens, and earth were finished, and all the host of them in six days; and that no theory, however plausible, can be admitted in opposition to the Divine Record.

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CONTENTS.

Emerging of the earth from chaos-—Opinions entertained by the

Jews of Alexandria, St. Jerome, and Grotius-Body of the
sun an opake substance ; discoveries of Sir William Her-
schel--Commencement of the natural day

page

Separation of the land and water- Formation of the Vegetable

Kingdom and its fitness to different portions of the
globe-Construction of various kinds of water-plants-Moral
reflections-Description of the cow-tree, of the butter-
tree; of the cocoa and palm trees, of the Kamtschatka
sarenne, the birch, chesnut-trees, and camels’-thorn;
admirable adaptation of each to the countries in which they
grow~Geography of plants—Construction of such plants as
are especially necessary to man- -Origin of the Arts
Remarks on the sea-mat, or a species of basil, and the wild
fig-tree-Instances in which plants serve to give notice of
danger, as the common reed, rattle-snake plant, and
parasitic guacco : as specifics—the club-moss, Peruvian
bark, palma Christi, quassia, and the ginsing—Construc-
tion of forest trees; beautiful formation of their blossoms

- Fitness of seeds for being carried by the wind_Conclud-

ing remarks

Creation of birds and fishes-Curious formation of the feathered

tribes—Different modes of flight observed from the sum-
mit of Dinas Braw at Llangollen-Migratory birds ;
subserviency to the use of man-Sketches of the coun-
tries to which they resort-Songs of birds—Pass of
Llynberris in North Wales—Voice of the Cuckoo—Poetry
-Migrations of Water-fowls-Very important to the natives
of different regions-Peculiar construction of water-fowl

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