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299. Care to be used in correctly stating the subject of discussion. 374

300. Consider the kind of evidence applicable to the subject . 375

301. Reject the aid of false arguments or sophisms

. 376

302. Fallacia equivocationis, or the use of equivocai terms and phrases 378

303. On the sophism of estimating actions and character from the cir-

cumstances of success merely

379

304. Of adherence to our opinions

380

305 Effec.s on the mind of debating for viciory instead of truth

. 381

Chap. XIV.-IMAGINATION.

306 Imagination an intellectual process, closely related to reasoning 383

307. Definition of the power of imagination

384

309. Process of the mind in the creations

of the imagination

385

309. Further remarks on the same subject

386

310. Illustration from the writings of Dr. Reid

387

311. Grounds of the preference of one conception to another

312. Illustration of the subject from Milton :

. 288

313. The creations of the imagination not entirely voluntary

389

314. Illustration of the statements of the preceding section

315. On the utility of the faculty of the imagination

391

316. Works of imagination give different degrees of pleasure

392

317 Importance of the imagination in connexion with reasoning 394

31& Of misconceptions by means of the imagination:

396

319. Explanation of the above misrepresentations of the imagination 397

520. Feelings of sympathy aided by the imagination

398

CHAP. XV.-COMPLEX IDEAS OF INTERNAL ORIGIN.

321. Of complex ideas of external origin

. 399

322. Nature of complex ideas of internal origin

400

323. Of complex notions formed by the repetition of the same thing. 400

324. Of the help afforded by names in the combination of numbers . 401

325. Instances of complex notions made up of different simple ideas 402

326. Not the saine internal complex ideas in all languages

327. Origin of the complex notion of a Supreme Being

. 406

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377. Or the less permanent excited conceptions of sound

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338. First cause of permanently vivid conceptions or apparitions.

Morbid sensibility of the relina of the eye

422

339. Second cause of perinanently

excited conceptions or apparitions.

Neglect of periodical blood-letting

424

340. Methods of relief adopted in this case .

. 426

341. Third cause of excited conceptions. Attacks of fever

427

342. Fourth cause of apparitions and other excited conceptions. In..

flammation of the brain

428

343. Facts having relation to the fourth cause of excited conceptions 429

344. Fifth cause of apparitions. Hysteria

430

Chap. III.-PARTIAL INSANITY.

345. Meaning of the term and kinds of insanity

431

346. Of disordered or alienated sensations

432

347. Of disordered or alienated external perception

433

348. Disordered state or insanity of original suggestion

434

349. Unsoundness or insanity of consciousness

. 435

350. Insanity of the judgment or relative suggestion

436

351. Disordered or alienated association. Light-headedness

437

352. Illustrations of this mental disorder

437

353. Of partial insanity or alienation of the memory

438

354. Of the power of reasoning in the partially insane

440

355. Instance of the above form of disordered reasoning

441

356. Of readiness of reasoning in the partially insane

442

357. Partial mental alienation by mealis of the imagination

443

358. Insanity or alienation of the power of belief

444

CHAP. IV.-TOTAL INSANITY OR DELIRIUM.

359. Idea of total insanity or delirium

446

360. Of perception in cases of total or delirious insanity

447

361. Of association in delirious insanity

447

362. Illustration of the above section

448

363. Of the memory in connexion with delirious insanity

449

364. Of the power of reasoning in total or delirious insanity

450

365. Of the form of insanity called furor or madness

451

366. Of the causes of the different kinds of insanity

367. Of moral account bility in mental alienation

. 452

368. Of the imputation of insanity to individuals

369. Of the treatment of the insane

189

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451

• 453

CHAPTER I.

PRIMARY TRUTHS.

1. Importance of preliminary statements in Mental Philosophy. It is often highly important, in the investigation of a department of science, to state, at the commencement of such investigation, what things are to be considered as preliminary and taken for granted, and what are not. Îf this precaution had always been observed, which, where there is any room for mistake or misapprehension, seems so reasonable, many useless disputes would have been avoided, and the paths to knowledge, too often unnecessarily perplexed and prolonged, would have been rendered more direct and easy.

It is impossible to proceed with inquiries in the science of MENTAL PHILOSOPHY, as it will be found to be in almost every other, without a proper understanding of those fundamental truths which are necessarily involved in what follows. And it will, accordingly, be the object of this chapter to endeavour to ascertain some of them.

Ø 2. Nature of such preliminary statements. Those preliminary principles which may be found necessary to be admitted as the antecedents and conditions of all subsequent inquiries, will be called, for the sake of distinction and convenience, PRIMARY TRUTHS.—But what are these ? Or how do we know them ?

According to the view of this subject taken by Buffier, who has expressly written upon it, and whose views are approved and adopted by Mr. Stewart, they are such, and such only, as can neither be proved nor refuted by other propositions of greater perspicuity. And this seems

to be not only a succinct, but a satisfactory account of them, since, if there were other propositions into which they could be resolved, and by means of which they could be made clearer, then they could no longer be regarded as Primary, but those other clearer propositions would have that character.

But it may be asked again, Are there any propositions of this kind? Are there any so clear, that the great instrument of human reasoning cannot render them more perspicuous ? Can there not be a complete action of the human mind in all its parts without the laying down of any antecedent truths whatever, as auxiliaries in its efforts after knowledge ?—The answer to such questions, however formidable they may at first appear, is by no means difficult. In the first place, every man, who investigates at all, often experiences doubts in his inquiries. He accordingly endeavours to render such doubtful views clearer by argument. He goes on from step to step, from one proposition to another; but, unless he at last finds some truth utterly too clear to be rendered more so by reasoning, he must evidently proceed, adding deduction to deduction without end. His resting-place, accordingly, is in those truths which are elementary, and which illuminate the understanding by their own light, and not by a light let in from any other source.—Again, the nature of reasoning itself leads us to the same view. A process of reasoning is essentially the successive perception of relations; but there can be no feeling or perception of relation where there is but one object of contemplation. Something, therefore, must, from the nature of the case, be assumed as the antecedent, the basis, or necessary condition of

every
such

process. 0 3. Of the name or designation given them. We propose to call those propositions, which are so elementary as to be susceptible neither of proof nor of refutation from other propositions of greater clearness,

Such propositions are termed, in the first place, TRUTHS, since they are forced upon us, as it were, by our very constitution. They exist as surelv as the mind exists, where they have their birthplace; they

PRIMARY TRUTHS.

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