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Whether it be a question of the nature of the rocks beneath us, or the composition of the ocean, or of vegetable life or of animal life, the method of inquiry is the same. The rocks are broken and put in the crucible, the water is submitted to analysis, the plant is dissected, and, in order to ascertain the laws which govern its growth and propagation, experiments are made by grafting and by cross fertilisation. In animal life the same method must be adopted to unlock the secrets of nature. The question of the animal being sensitive cannot alter the mode of investigation. It is, therefore, sheer folly and ignorance to stand in the path and forbid any one walking in the one right direction; it cannot be done. All that society should demand is that their rights and privileges should not be interfered with. I may not enter a man's garden to examine his plants, though my aim is a scientific one. I ought not to be allowed to dissect a dead body in my house to the annoyance of my neighbours—it would be a public scandal; and in the same spirit experiments should not be allowed on animals anywhere and by anybody. But when the public mind is appeased in these respects, perfect freedom should be given to the scientific investigator. He cannot but pursue one course, and no law can hinder him.

Having alluded to the Anatomy Act, I may be allowed to add that public feeling has already put restraint enough on scientific and medical men. Our profession is unduly weighted; we are really, as Dr. Foster remarked, asked to make bricks without straw. It may not be in the knowledge of all, that, between forty and fifty years ago, there was so much scandal caused by the stealing of bodies for dissection that the present Anatomy Act was passed. This is a very stringent Act and most rigidly worked. Amongst other clauses it is obligatory that the body when dissected shall be buried. Consequently it is quite impossible to obtain a skeleton, and probably none has been made in England for many years. As a result of this, all the skeletons and bones for the use of students are obtained from abroad. When I was curator of the museum at Guy's Hospital, I paid about twenty pounds a year for French skeletons, and had sometimes difficulty in avoiding the duty on works of art. I would submit the case to the fair trader. It is clear, therefore, that if England had no communication with the Continent, a student here could not thoroughly learn anatomy. The English public is very exacting of the physician as regards his skill, and yet it forbids him the means of acquiring a thorough knowledge of anatomy, and now the same public is endeavouring to stand in the way of his acquiring a knowledge of physiology and pathology.

The ostensible reason offered for the suppression of vivisection is its cruelty;' but when it is objected that other forms of cruelty are unmolested, we are met by the answer that it is useless cruelty. If by useless is meant that it is unattended by scientific results, I leave the statement to the reader of the testimony above quoted from the foremost men of science. It must, therefore, be meant that all physiological knowledge is useless; and this I leave to the judgment of the medical profession, which has already been conclusively pronounced.

The 'vivisection question' is a burning one, and the sooner it is settled in favour of science and humanity the better, for assuredly it must one day be so determined. The laws of human

progress cannot be withstood by any human enactments. Moreover, if ignorant public opinion is kept alive to the question, so is instructed public opinion; for Harvey, the arch-vivisector, left it as an instruction to the College of Physicians, that once a year an oration should be delivered with the object of encouraging its members to search out the secrets of nature by way of experiment.'

SAMUEL WILKS.

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ABERDEENSHIRE, land tenure in, | BABEk a fior. Terminat

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178

794-799

cultivation in
the farmers' agitation in, 800-810 Badcock (Mr.), his experiments in vac-
Addison, his quarrel with Pope, 847– cination, 551-552
849

Baden, Upper Chamber of, 56
Adler (Dr. Hermann), Recent Phases of Baden-Powell (George), New Markets
Judæophobia, 813-829

for British Produce, 43-55
Africa, gold of, 463–464

Bankrupts, our, what shall we do with
Africa, North, France and, 448-454

them? 308-316
Africa, South, commercial policy of, 51 Baptism in the English Church, 750-753
Agricultural labourer, condition of the, Bartlett (Dr. H. C.), on the chemistry
268-271

of wheat, 345
- dwelling of the, 271-273

Bates (Mr.), his observations of ants,
Agriculture, depression of, 174-175, 195, 245, 246, 253–25+
610-611

Baur (Professor F. C.), 92–93
the true source of the national wealth, Bavaria, Chamber of Reichsräthe of, 56

Beaconsfield (Earl), a teacher of spiritual
Alcock (Sir Rutherford), Opium and truths, 870
Common Sense, 834–868

Becket, Archbishop, local associations
America, results of protection in, 164,

of, 299
172, 624, 626

Belgian Senate, the, 57
– commercial produce of, 434-435 Belt (Mr.), his observations of ants,
gold production of, 465-468

247, 257, 258
the Jews in, 498–499

Bovington (Miss L. S.), How to eat
small-pox epidemics in, 548–549

Bread, 341-356
the copyright question in, 726–734 Bible, reading of the, with reference to
Anatomy Act, the, 947

the Hebrew books, 515
Animals, differences between man and Jewish defence of the, 817-819
other, 147-157

Blandford (Marquis of), Hereditary
Annan, river, 1

Rulers, 217-236
Annornia arcens, an African species of Bliss (Dr.), 899

Blount (Martha), Pope's liking for, 850–
Anthrax, a cattle plague, 544–545

851
Antiseptic surgery, 541

Board of Trade, proposed supervision of
Ants, Intelligence of, 245–258

the Bankruptcy Court by the, 312–313
Arab Monuments of Egypt, the, 276-283 Board schools, provision of meals and
Arcady, my Return to, 259-275

gymnastic exercises for children at,
Architecture, cathedral, 737-743

86-89
Army recruits, physique of, 83

Boileau and Pope, 830–855
Australasia, trade of, with England, Bolton, distress at, in 1836–40, 599, 624
44–45, 181

Bookworm, an oid, Gossip of, 63-79,
Australia, commercial policy of, 50–51 886-900
- production of gold in, 468-470 Brabazon (Lord), Health and Physique
Austria, Herrenhaus of, 56

of our City Populations, 80–89

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BRA

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Brain, nutrition of the, 347–348

Columbus'dream of the crusade, 719-722
Brain-work, conditions of, 424

Commons, House of, the Deadlock in the,
Brazil, constitution of, 57

317-340
- gold-mining in, 462-463

Compensation for Disturbance Bill, re-
Bread, how to eat, 341-350

jection of, by the Peers, 188
Brown (Rev. J. Baldwin), The Last Comstock Lode, 466-467

Great Dream of the Crusade, 701-722 Confiscati?n and Compensation, 107–119
Buccaneering in the sixteenth century, Constitutional government, 219
406

Coombe (William), writings of, 76
Büchner, his observation of ants, 257 Copyright, International, 723-734

Corn, proposed duty on, 177, 180, 594-

595
YAIRO, modern, 279-280

Corn Inws, evils of the, 199
Campbell (Alexander), the Dis- periods of national distress under tha,
ciples of, 238

623-624
Canada, commercial policy of, 50

- effects of the abolition of the, 430
Carey (H. O.), on copyright, 724-725 Corners, Commercial, 532-537
Carlisle (Bishop of), Man's Place in Corvée, the, in Egypt, 645-646
Nature, 142-160

Cosmic Emotion, Pantheism and, 284-
Carlyle, Thomas, the Early Life of, 1-42 295
Carlyle family, 2-3

Cotton corner, the, 534-537
Carlyle a spiritual teacher, 870

County Characteristics——Kent, 296-307
Carpenter (Dr. W. B.), Disease-Germs, Cowper, correspondence of, 414
538-554

Croker (Crofton), his description of Sir
Cathedrals, architecture of, 737-743 Walter Ralegh's house at Youghal,
Caucus system, the, 204-205

680
Cavendish, the buccaneer, death-bed Crown, British, limited power of the,
letter of, 406–407

223
Cerealine, a chemical principle of wheat, Crusade, the Last Great Dream of the,
345

701-722
Chamber, Upper, functions of an, 231 Crusaders, Jewish abuse of the, 501-503
Chamberlain (Rt. Hon. J.), his speech brutality of the, 823

at Birmingham on the Irish Land Customs unions, 47

Bill, 107-108
- Bankruptcy Bill of, 312
Chambers, Second, 66-62

ALLAM Tower, story of the herons
Charbon, an epizootic disease, 542-544 and rooks at, 149

vaccination of sheep for, 545-546 Danes' holes at East Tilbury, 307
Child Life for Children, 567-572 Darent, river, scenery of the, 305
China, history of the opium trade in, Darwin (Erasmus), scientific optimism
856-858

DAL

6

of, 573-574
- cultivation of the poppy in, 859-862 Darwinism, optimistic interpreters of,
Chippewa Indians, 693

577-587
Church, Christian, institutions and Deadlock, the, in the House of Commons,
usages of the, 881-884

317-340
Church of Christ, Unity in the, 120-130 De la Warr (Earl), France and North
Circumcision, rite of, 814

Africa, 448-454
City Populations, Health and Physique of Denmark, Upper Chamber of, 57

Derby (Earl of), Ireland and the Land
Clark (Rev. H.), bis observation of ants, Act, 473-493
247

Desmond. eighth earl of, 660-661
Clere, Elizabeth, letter of, 412

Countess Catherine of, 679
Clergymen, country, condition of, 266-

Despair, a Dramatic Monologue, 629–
268

640
Clifford (Sir Lewis de), mortuary in- Dillon (Frank), The Arab Monuments
junctions of, 413

of Egypt, 276-283
(Professor), his advocacy of Dar- Disease-Germs, 538_554
winism, 579

Durer, Hubert de Burgh's defence of,
Clôture, need of a, in England, 326

300
Cobden on the rate of wages in con- Dredging Ground, a, 131-141

nection with the price of corn, 622 Dryden, poetry of, 833
Colonies, commercial policy of the, 47-52 Du Bois-Reymond (Professor), his op
constitutions of the, 57–59

timistic interpretation of Darwinism,
Columbus, career of, 713-718

577-578

our, 80-89

DUF

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ants, 250

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Dufferin (Lord), Ulster estates of, 114- Fitzstrathearn (or Strange Petrie),
115

his letter relating to the Princess
(Lady), letter of, 415-416

Olive of Cumberland '), 894
Dumfriesshire, Cameronian spirit of, 1 Flanagan (J. Woulfe), The Irish Jaco-
Dunraven (Earl of), The Revolutionary bins, 785-793
Party,' 184–205

Fleeson (Captain), his observation of
- Sheep-hunting in the Mountains, 683–
700

Fleury (Cardinal), his observation of

ants, 256

Foliot (Bishop), his letter to Becket on
BRARD, his observation of ants, ecclesiastical jurisdiction, 410-411
254-255

Forster (Mr.), on the question of com-
Ecclefechan, 2

pensation for Irish landlords, 109
Eciton, a genus of ants, 251-254, 257– Foster (Professor M.), on the vivisec-
258

tion question, 942
Ecroyd (W. Farrer), Fair Trade, 588– Fowle (Rev. T. W.), Place of Revelation
621

in Evolution, 382–404
Edward I., expulsion of the Jews by,505, France, Senate of, 57
824

the suffrage in, 357–359
Edward III., 300

- conduct of elections in, 300-363
Edwards (Mr. E.), on the English what Protection has done for, 626-

practices against rebels' in Ireland, 627
667

- legislation in, 326
Egypt, the Arab Monuments of, 276–283 -commercial treaty with, 445-446

the Administrative Machinery of, the Jews in, 497
641-659

stuff goods of, in English markets,
Egypt, history of gold in, 463-464

618-619
Eliot (George), fiction of, 520-521

poetry of, 834-835
spiritual aims of her writings, 870– France and North Africa, 448–454
871

Fraser (Professor), on the vivisection
Ellendorf (Dr.), his observations of ants, question, 941-942
246, 257

Frederick the Great, anecdotes of, 418
Elliot (Rt. Hon. Hugh), his embassy at Free Trade, Isolated, 161-183
the court of Frederick the Great, 418 Free trade in the colonies, 46-47

letter of, to Gustavus III., 419 Freeman (Mr.) on the Jewish settle-
Englishmen, physical superiority of, 80– ments in England, 505

French Revolution, analogies of the
practical character of, 218

Irish land agitation to the, 786-791
Entail, law of, 803

Frere (Sir Bartle), The Scotch Land
Episcopacy, 125

Question, 794-812
Established Church, the question of an, Froude (J. A.), The Early Lifeof Thonins
124-125

Carlyle, 1-42
Europeans in the Egyptian service, 649– - bis silence respecting Sir Walter
653

Ralegh's Irish career, 661, 667
Evolution, theory of, 147

- his account of the massacre at
theories of life founded on, 575-587 Smerwick Castle, 662-663
Evolution, Place of Revelation in, 382– Funerals in the fifteenth century, 413

404
Exports, British, during the last fifteen
years, 606. See Imports.

VAME laws in Scotland, 797

u
FACE, the human, 166-167
,

Gaskell (Charles Milne), The Position
Fair Trade, 588-621

of the Whigs, 901-912
- the

Workman's View of, 430-447 Gavelkind, law of, 298
Fair Trade League, the Proposals of the, Gentility, the mark of, 691
622-628

Germany, the Jewish question in, 509-
Farmers, English, present condition of, 612, 825–826
263-265

Gibbon, historical method of, 91
- Scotch, 794-799

Gilbert (Dr.), on the bread question,
land-law agitation of the, 800-812 344, 348–349
Fermentation, theory of, 539-549 Gladstone (Rt. Hon. W. E.) on the de-
Fiction, Fair and Foul, 516-531

cline of the national wealth, 195
Field sports, 409, 925

Gold, the Future of, 465–472

83

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