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seem to be instinctively feeling after the adoption of sons. Such may be seen to have been the case in the days of Charles the Martyr, and afterwards in the Church of the Non-jurors. Among the latter, when deprived by the State and in a condition of suffering and contempt, a new and more exalted temper was indicated by aspirations after, and sympathy with, the purer ages of Christianity; by which they seemed admitted into a more intimate union with the early Churches, and entering more fully into the high state of their spiritual adoption. An instance of this may be seen in the dying words of Bishop Ken. And this effect is the more visible by its contrast with the principles and feelings of the more numerous and popular and apparently flourishing Communion, that intruded. In like manner, in our own day, indications of something like persecution against the Church have been accompanied with a simultaneous movement within her, not only to fortify and repair her strong holds, to go about and mark her bulwarks, but after those higher privileges, those pleasant fields, which are hers by inheritance: as if she had begun to look out upon them from the windows of her prison-house, and to inhale their refreshing fragrance. Indeed her suffering is to be the very pledge to the Church of her beholding her true teachers: Though the LORD give you the bread of adversity, and the "water of affliction, yet shall not thy teachers be removed into a 66 corner any more."
6. Her feebleness and state of servitude.
In addition to these general remarks, it might be shown more particularly, that whatever may have been our apparent prosperity, and the protection of the world, that very prosperity and protection has been in fact the captivity of the Church, as such, and of her members. Golden chains, indeed, and such as might seem rather badges of honour, and ornament; but still, in fact, chains of the SPIRIT. To come then to particulars, we have been as a Church greatly debarred from all free agency, or power of correcting, or regulating, our internal constitution. It has been the most obvious matter of reproach, that we are a "parliamentary Church;" that is to say, that we differ from other
Churches in being subject to this interference of the State. At the commencement of the period referred to, we have Henry VIII. claiming the title of Head of the Church. In whatever sense the preposterous claim is taken, it is too indicative of the position which she was to hold; and the situation, which the Prayer for the King has in the Liturgy, continues a significative memorial of her condition. In the reign of Edward VI., which, from the disposition of the King, might have been augured to be most prosperous for the Church, the Second Book, which was issued with such unhappy changes, was preceded by a declaration, that if the Bishops would not take it into their consideration, he would do it himself with the aid of his parliament1. But it is not necessary to mention the many acts of State interference, which indicate a want of freedom in the Church; nor to dwell on such points as the statute of præmunire, the suspension of Convocation, and certain circumstances in the position of our Bishops; the solemn complaint of the want of discipline which continues unrestored; the law of the land interfering with Church authority, from its affecting the rights of property; and some of these, let it be observed, not assuming the shape of persecution, but rather of protection.
All the points mentioned with respect to the Church at large, in its connexion with the State, might perhaps find a parallel in many, if not most, parishes on a small scale. Consider, for instance, the many circumstances in which the clergy feel them
1 Martyr, writing to Bucer, on the 10th of January, 1551, says, "Hoc non me "parum recreat, quod mihi D. Checus indicavit; si noluerint ipsi [episcopi], "ait, efficere, ut quæ mutanda sint mutentur, rex per seipsum id faciet; et
cum ad parliamentum ventum fuerit, ipse suæ majestatis authoritatem "interponet." It is evident from this letter of Martyr, from a letter of Cox to Bullinger, in May 1551, (Strype, Mem. vol. ii. part i. p. 533); and from Strype, (Cran. vol. i. p. 299,) that Cranmer met with great opposition, at the end of the year 1550, from the Bishops. It is not improbable that the opposition took place in the upper house of convocation; and if this were the case, the King probably intended it to be understood that "if driven to extremities, he would exercise his authority as head of the Church, and bring the revision of the Liturgy before parliament, without consulting the convocation any further on the subject." Preface of the Editor, p. xvii, to the two Books of Edward VI. Oxford, 1838.
selves not free to act, on account of that weight of deference which the world claims of them; as, e. g., in omitting to baptize before the congregation, and to read the Prayer for the Church militant. But the more subtle influence of the same principle may be seen in this, that clergy men, individually, do not like to rest their influence and authority on their spiritual station, as such; they consider that their respectability depends on their liberal education, their talents, their rank in society, their worldly connexions and property, which afford the whole body, and each member of it, a high respectability in the eyes of the world. But, on the contrary, there is a secret contempt entertained for their Ministerial profession as such, which they are aware is only warded off by their external advantages. Notwithstanding all that can be said of their inherent right to spiritual authority, and indeed claims to honour and veneration, as stewards of GOD, the highest which man can bestow, these are not met with any responsive feelings in others, nor supported in themselves by a sense of responsibility compatible with such claims, merely on account of their intimate connexion with things of an opposite character, the worldly benefits which are attached to it. The bonds of Laud, the sufferings of Ken and Wilson, not only were to themselves the means of spiritual succour, but the remembrance of them throws a hallowing light over their Order, as being thus recognized occasionally in the appropriate dress of that Master whose ambassadors they are. There is a circumstance which may serve to illustrate or characterize our present position, that it is spoken of, as if it were a principle recognized by the Church itself, which it decidedly is not', (although it
1 With regard to the custom itself of turning to the East in prayer, it may be put on the same kind of footing as some other points of more or less importance, such as the use of the Cross; of which it may be said that they are Catholic Church usages; that our Church has retained them, by the great mercy of GOD, but drawn them rather into the shade, on account of the abuses that have prevailed; such has been the case even with the Eucharistic Sacrifice. In the same manner that we read of our LORD'S Presence being gradually withdrawn from those unworthy of it; but the disciples, in that retirement, came unto Him. The principles of our Church, as expressed or implied, respecting matters in dispute, may be perhaps classed in some mode of this kind:
found a place in the second Book of Edward,) that in our devotions we are to look to the people and not to the altar. What does this imply but that even in our religious worship we are to turn not to the East, the place where God has shown His countenance, but to the West; not to the light of the ancient Church, but to the eyes of the world; not to Angels assembled round the altar, but to the great men of our congregation; not to the place of Paradise, our lost inheritance, but to the flock in whose hands our interest lies! not to the Cross of Christ, but to that supposed utility which worldly wisdom suggests; not to our Judge coming from thence, but to the judgment of the world. It is agreeable to this that if there is any thing unbecoming or negligent in the conduct of a chief or inferior Pastor, the remedy is at hand in an appeal to the public. This is considered the
1. Things commanded and commonly observed: Sunday Service.
2. Things commanded, and not commonly observed:
Daily Service. Reading the Prayer for the Church militant. Baptisms before the Congregation. Keeping of Fasts and Festivals.
3. Things not commanded, but implied:
Weekly Communion. Turning to the East. 4. Things not implied, but allowed:
On the Circumcision in Edward's Second Book, the direction was, If there be a Sunday before the Epiphany, the same Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, shall be used. It now stands, "shall serve for every day after," &c.
5. Things not prohibited, but discouraged for fear of abuse;
Prayers for the Dead.
6. Things prohibited:
Prayers for souls in Purgatory. The Mass. Unauthorized Communion. In the observation of these the world interferes with the Church. Now those things commanded of course a good Churchman would observe, if possible. He would also wish to restore what it implies, though it be not commanded, if fallen into disuse; and to carry out as far as possible the spirit and intention of the Church. Catholic usages and principles he will aim at, as a Christian and a Churchman; but in doing so will be guided by that spirit of meek wisdom and unobtrusive reserve, which is the marked characteristic of his own Church; and will regulate his zeal by charity, remembering the terrible woe denounced on him who shall offend one of CHRIST'S little ones.
great corrector of abuses. And doubtless it is, and a very extensive and powerful one; but still it implies a very inferior condition that such should be requisite, not our singular advantage and happiness, but the sign of our captivity. "Because "thou servedst not the LORD with joyfulness and gladness of heart, thou shalt serve thine enemies, and he will put a yoke of "iron on thy neck." And indeed may not the popular cry for freedom from the nation at large be considered as indicative of the state of servitude, of spiritual slavery and bondage to the world? For people subjected to worldly influences feel they are not free, and conscious of this their malady, and knowing not its only remedy, which consists in the "service of God, which is "perfect freedom," they loudly demand liberty. The Apostle alludes to this when he speaks of those promising liberty who are themselves the servants of sin. In like manner, forgetting the real equality of all as God's children, under the same pressure of their passions, men eagerly demand equality. Both are intimations that they want, though they know it not, the true freedom of sons of GOD.
The effect of a principle is for the most part subtle and imperceptible in its operations, but exceedingly powerful. A proof of this may be seen in the circumstance that in times of any great excitement, when systems are broken up and principles set afloat, the animosity and zeal in behalf of opinions becomes such as to counterbalance every other consideration whatever; and forms bonds of union or causes of difference the most violent, from an instinctive sense which nature has given us of the power and value of principle. Slight and unimportant as the point in dispute may be, it is often of more weight than the closest external connexions or apparent advantages. At the First Book of Edward, Catholic consent and doctrine were the basis of the changes, on the consideration of a vital inherent power in the Church itself, to preserve truth according to the promise of its Divine Founder. There appears at the Second a great distrust of these internal promised resources; other principles were admitted. How far the admission of them has been the cause of the subsequent evils of insubordination which have been deve