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it speaks of "unspeakable joys," in accordance with a Latin form' which was perhaps the basis of it, yet even here it immediately returns to remind us of the condition of obedience, “which Thou "hast prepared for those that unfeignedly love Thee."

These are great points of ancient and lately forgotten doctrine; but where this is not the case, observe how they all strike on the same chord of obedience; how, ever and anon, at one time or another, in this or that shape, this lesson it is which has been introduced. Take the very first, that for St. Andrew's day; that which was previously issued in Edward's First Book was as follows: "ALMIGHTY GOD, which hast given such grace to Thy "Apostle Saint Andrew, that he counted the sharp and painful "death of the Cross to be an high honour and great glory; grant 66 us to take and esteem all troubles and adversities which shall

come unto us for Thy sake, as things profitable for us toward "the obtaining of everlasting life; through JESUS CHRIST Our "LORD."

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This is rejected, and in the Second Book of Edward we have our present Collect, that "as Saint Andrew readily obeyed the "calling of Thy Son Jesus Christ, and followed Him without "delay," so we may give over" "ourselves obediently to follow Thy "holy commandments." But it is not till the last Review that the same lesson is introduced into St. Philip and St. James's day. In both of Edward's Books, that prayer consists of only the first half of our present Collect, but we have afterwards inserted, that "following their steps we may stedfastly walk in the way that "leadeth to eternal life.”

In like manner we may observe that it is the same string which is touched upon in all these changes, instead of the spiritual

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1 That for All Saints' day is as follows in the Sarum and Roman Missals: "O "LORD, our GOD, multiply upon us Thy grace, and grant that as we celebrate "their glorious solemnities, so we may, by an holy profession, attain unto their 'joys, through—” (“ Domine, Deus noster, multiplica super nos gratiam tuam, "et quorum prævenimus gloriosa solemnia tribue subsequi in sanctâ professione "lætitiam: Per-") This also, it will be perceived, is more festal, less doctrinal and practical, than our own. 2 Now "give up."

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rejoicing of the festival, the same chord is struck, simple, solemn, and deep; and if there are varied intonations, these are but the varied forms, the particular duties, of obedience. On St. James's day we pray that we "forsaking all worldly and carnal affections, may be evermore ready to follow God's holy commandments;" on St. Matthew's day, that we may "forsake all covetous desires and "inordinate love of riches, and follow Christ;" on St. Luke's day, "that the diseases of our souls may be healed;" on St. Mark's, that " we may not be carried about with every blast of vain doc"trine;" on St. John the Baptist's, that we may "speak the truth," "rebuke vice," and "patiently suffer for the truth;" on the day of the Holy Innocents, we pray for “mortification and innocency "the Conversion of St. Paul," that we of life;" on 66 may show our thankfulness, by following the doctrine which he taught;" whereas in the old books (the Sarum Missal and Brev. and the Roman Missal and Brev.) it is in the higher tone, that "through "his example we may proceed unto Thee';" in the Collect for St. John the Evangelist, it is added, even at the last Review, that "we may walk in the light of the truth"-words not found in the old form, nor in the Books of King Edward.

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8. Verbal alterations on this subject.

There are many instances where, when the Latin Prayer is preserved, expressions of this kind are, as it were, casually inserted which speak of the commandments. It has been remarked on the fourth of Advent, that the mention of “running the race "that is set before us" comes into the translation. There is a similar instance on the eleventh after Trinity Sunday, "run"ning the way of thy commandments;" on the thirteenth after Trinity," that we may so faithfully serve Thee in this life." In the Collect for the Circumcision we find the old Latin words, "that He may pour into us His benediction," changed into "we may in all things obey Thy blessed will;" and this alteration occurs in the First of Edward, and the mention of "mortifying "our members" is also newly inserted into the same.

1 "Per ejus ad Te exempla gradiamur."

VOL. V.-86.

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Again, if we take our Litany in parallel columns with the Latin forms, as it occurs in the "Origines Liturgica," the petitions to which no parallel is found are mainly these:

"From all sedition, privy conspiracy, and rebellion, from all "false doctrine, heresy (" and schism" at the last review), from "hardness of heart, and contempt of Thy word and command"ment."

And "That it may please Thee to give us an heart to love and "dread Thee, and diligently to live after Thy commandments1."

And in the concluding Collect the addition of these words; "That in all our troubles we may put our whole trust and confidence in Thy mercy, and evermore serve Thee in holiness and pureness of living."

Now fully to see the force of these alterations, we must consider not only the vast importance of words with which the Church approaches to the ALMIGHTY GOD, by which (if we may say it, with awe and submission,) the mystical Bride makes known her wants to the Bridegroom, but the practicable effect they have in infusing something, day after day, year after year, into the very soul of our religious character and complexion, while

1 If there be weight in this line of argument, the subsequent omission of the words which occur in the Books of Edward, "from the tyranny of the Bishop of "Rome, and all his detestable enormities," would seem to imply not only the more sober state of feeling which had ensued during Queen Mary's reign, but that the danger which our Church has to apprehend is not from that quarter; if these changes are, as we suppose, divinely regulated provisions. A similar expression against Rome was also in a rubric after the Communion "of idolatry "to be abhorred by all faithful Christians." But of course such inferences are to be made with caution and humility. Although Romanism must ever be in this country one of the worst forms of dissent, it is, however, curious to observe that while we have been continuing the practice to " abjure as damnable and heretical" the doctrine that Kings, excommunicated by the Court of Rome, may be dethroned and murdered by their subjects, two Kings have been dethroned, and one of them murdered, by the opposite, or ultra-Protestant, factions. And highly interesting and instructive is it to reflect, that as it was artfully contrived that William should be received on the fifth of November, the consequence of this was, that the Church, in her Service for that day, was throughout the country reading her lesson of loyal allegiance, and raising her protest against that Rebellion. See especially the Epistle for that day.

the very tone of the expressions is apt to dwell on our outward ears. And that, independently of these considerations, the mere mention of" the commandments" and of " obedience" is of great value, will appear from the extreme fastidiousness which certain persons of peculiar opinions entertain against them, and the great pains they take to prevent the occurrence of such words. But in addition to what has been said of the Prayers, if we take the sentences at the Offertory in our own Communion Service, which are not that I know of to be found elsewhere, we can scarce find a clearer instance of our distinctive character. They are all, we know, a practical appeal to good works or almsgiving. Instead of these continued sentences, in the Sarum and Roman Missal there is after the Creed which succeeds the Gospel, one or more verses in the way of anthem, called "offertorium," either of prayer or thanksgiving. They might be quoted in contrast to our own, but that, alluding to the Gospel just read, they would not be understood without it. They are found in Edward's First Book as we have them now.

9. Omission of the Festival of St. Mary Magdalene.

In speaking of the Saints' days, there is an omission which bears as much upon the view here taken as the additions and alterations alluded to, an omission which appears so singularly providential in many ways, that it cannot be passed over; that of an entire festival, the day of St. Mary Magdalene, which found a place in the First Book of Edward. The Service for this day went entirely on the supposition that Mary Magdalene was the sinner spoken of in the 7th chapter of St. Luke. This opinion is inserted in the heading of our translation of the Bible, and is alluded to by good men of those times and the preceding centuries without doubt or hesitation. Yet it has been supposed on inquiry, to be not at all supported by the Fathers, and to have had its origin in a Popish legend'. Now we know that one Mary has had her good deed recorded as a memorial of her to all nations,

1 See the statement of an inquiry on this subject in Bishop Heber's Remains. In this Day's Service in the Paris. Brev. there is no allusion to her being "a sinner."

and it would be painful to think we might be commemorating another in a character of which she was guiltless. Nor is there any other Service in the Prayer Book, through the good Providence of God, which we should be so much tempted to wish removed. And it is evident, independently of this consideration, that the practical tendency of this Service would have been, more than any other, to sanction the lax opinions which prevail respecting a late conversion.

10. The Epistles and Gospels.

The same tendency, which has been noticed as pervading the Collects, may be also observed of the passages of Scripture which are new in our Prayer Book. To take some of the Epistles which are partly or entirely altered. That for the first Sunday in Advent has added the former part to the Epistle as it stood in the Sarum and Roman Missals. And what is this addition? The second table of the Commandments, as the subject of preparation for the second Advent, the object of that Epistle being to remind us of "the night far spent and the day at hand." In like manner, on the Sunday after Ascension Day, only one sentence was prefixed to the former Epistle, but that sentence is such that, when once connected with it, it speaks through the whole Epistle; "The end of all things is at hand." This harmonizes with all

1 That this preparation for judgment, and calls to obedience with reference to it, and also warnings against false doctrines and teachers does, in a remarkable and peculiar manner, pervade the Services of our Church, and that this is not a mere imaginary supposition, will derive confirmation from a Service entirely new at the last review of the Prayer Book, and the mention of which has been omitted. It is that for the sixth Sunday after the Epiphany. It seems impossible that any combination of Collect, Epistle, and Gospel could teach these more fully, more strongly, or more beautifully than these do. And observe how it arises out of the previous Offices. The star appearing, the child in the temple, the first miracle, the heathen centurion, the going over to the Gadarenes, the visible Church in which the tares will be blended with the wheat, are the subjects in succession of the previous Sundays, as varied and gradual manifestations or Epiphanies, and found in the old forms; but observe this new Service for the sixth after the Epiphany arises, as it were, and unfolds itself into the great and last manifestation

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