no less so. Being for the most part new, they adopt the language of the Epistles and Gospel, and in so doing, bring forth, providentially, the two great witnesses to "make ready and pre

pare the way," the Scriptures and the Church (as if saying, "Remember how thou hast received and heard"). For both of them flowing from the ancient Epistles, render the admonition they contain, not one of man's device, but Catholic and Divine. Nor was this combination of the twofold testimony introduced by the same persons or at the same time. The second Collect is found in the Books of King Edward; the third was only inserted at the last Review: both of them derive force from the dangers with which the truth has been assailed in the two quarters in which these are calculated to support it; the one from the suppression of Scripture, the other from the extensive rejection which has since prevailed of "the ministers and stewards of God's "mysteries." The last of the two Collects referred to, not only takes up these words from the Epistle, but corroborates its testimony from the Gospel of the day, also by the example of the Baptist sent before to prepare the coming, and inserts the striking words of" turning the hearts of the disobedient to the wisdom "of the just;" in doing which, CHRIST's ministers are now to resemble the great Forerunner. The ancient Collect, indeed, for the second week in Advent, spoke of "preparing the way," but this of the mode of doing so, viz. by the twofold witness.

But the next Sunday, the fourth in Advent, instead of taking up, as on the former occasions, the language of the Epistle, which speaks of "rejoicing alway," because" the LORD is at hand," retains the old Collect, which forcibly describes our position before alluded to, 66 as sore let and hindered, through our sins and "wickedness." And it is to be noticed, that, as the preceding Collect inserted in the translation the expression of " turning the "hearts of the disobedient," so this in rendering the old form has introduced the words "in running the race that is set before us." This took place at the last Review, the former expression being

may speedily deliver us through the satisfaction of Thy Son our "LORD."-Few words, indeed, thus introduced, but the insertion of them implies a peculiarity, and that peculiarity is the lesson of

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obedience. And, indeed, while on this subject, it may be observed, that the Collect for the last week after Trinity had in like manner turned to Advent, as the end of that obedience which the Sundays after Trinity had inculcated; for it alters the words "the remedies of Thy goodness" in the old form, into "may "of Thee be plenteously rewarded,"-apparently to turn the thoughts to the approaching Advent.

6. Other new Collects.

To dwell at present on the more important alterations. It is a circumstance quite in harmony with those just spoken of, and goes to establish the same point which may be observed throughout, that the Collects which are partly or entirely new, and as such appear to rise, as it were, accidentally out of the Epistle and Gospel, maintain and infuse into our religion some great and fundamental principle which has been signally endangered. This is so much the case, that there appears hardly any instance of change without this result; so that wherever the ancient line of the Church system appears broken, it would seem as if this had been in order to throw out a pier or bulwark in a direction in which the weight of the storm, though unforeseen by man, was likely to bear most heavily. Ever as we proceed in the inquiry, let us remember that it be with reverence-" No heart can think "upon these things worthily, and who is able to conceive His

ways?" (Ecclus. xvi. 20.)


In passing through the Collects, the next which we find to be new is the beautiful Collect for Charity on the last Sunday before Lent; which, though it is only the subject of the Epistle converted into Prayer, and therefore undesigned, yet one can scarcely fail to regard as a pillar of warning set up before the opening of Lent, against the abuse of fasting by the Romanists to the loss of Charity. And this is the more remarkable, as the Collect in the Sarum Missal, occurring with the same Epistle and

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1 The Collect in the Sarum Missal (with the same Epistle and Gospel) for which this is substituted, is as follows, not, it will be seen, in itself objectionable: "Hear, we beseech Thee, O LORD, our Prayers with thy mercy, and loosing "us from the chains of our sins, keep us from all adversity; through....”

Gospel for which this is substituted, is not in itself objectionable. But as if in preparation for a still greater danger to ensue, from the Puritans soon to follow, and the scoffers of the last days, on the next Sunday, the first in Lent, there is inserted into the old form, and that too from the Gospel for the day, the example of Him, "who for our sakes fasted forty days and forty nights." Surely this is as if the witness were thus putting the subject of fasting on the very highest grounds, and appealing to us by a petition which it puts into our mouths, the most solemn that can be expressed, that we fail not to follow that example; and the more solemn, because addressed to our LORD Himself1.

Not less important is that on Christmas day. The doctrine which is expressed in that Collect being on a subject which has assumed lately a controversial character, the Collect has become familiarly known to us, as a point of appeal in our defence of that Catholic truth as the doctrine of our Church. But it is not known that these words which imply Baptismal Regeneration are not found in either of the Latin forms to which Mr. Palmer has traced that prayer, so that it appears in the light of an accidental introduction. The words in one of these forms are, "that as He is the Author to us of Divine generation, so He "may be the giver of immortality:" in the other, "that they "who are redeemed by Thy grace may be safe in Thine adop"tion." Neither of which, it will be seen, contains the doctrine in question, viz. of our "being regenerate and made children by "adoption." The two ancient forms might be used with propriety even by those who deny this doctrine.

But in no case is the alteration more worthy of notice, than that which has taken place on Easter Even. Were one to be asked, what was the great cardinal doctrine which the popular tide has been most set against, both under the name of religion, and from the prevailing spirit of the world, especially since the changes of 1688, we must say, I think, that it is the true doctrine of the Cross, of our being baptized into CHRIST's death, being dead, and 'buried, and crucified with Him. The pains taken to

1 Both of these prayers are in the First Book of Edward.


explain it away, the impatience evinced at every practical principle flowing from it, would lead one to think that, veiled under various names, this was the great design of the adversary, to feed the fancies of mankind with the name of CHRIST crucified, while he takes from them the power of it, as connected with mortification. The Cross in which we would glory, is not that by which the world is crucified unto us, and we unto the world and it is observable that the new doctrine which has prevailed is studiously separated from Baptism. The tree of grace is not, as in the Psalmist, planted by the water-side. This religion of the day was not developed at the last Review, when this Collect was first inserted, much less at the time of King Edward's First Book, which adopted the Epistle which brings forward the same doctrine. Nor does it appear that this doctrine pervades other Liturgies on this day. The Latin Collect, from which Mr. Palmer considers it to be translated, does not contain this allusion. The two forms are as follows:

Our Own Collect.

Grant, O LORD, that as we are baptized into the death of Thy blessed Son, our Saviour JESUS CHRIST, so by continually mortifying our corrupt affections, we may be buried with Him; and that through the grave and gate of death we may pass to our joyful Resurrection, for His merits who died and was buried, and rose again for us, Thy Son JESUS CHRIST our LORD.

The Old Collect translated. O CHRIST, favour our desires and prayers, and grant that the approaching night of the sacred Passover may be prosperous to us, in which rising again from death with Thee, we may be thought worthy to pass unto life, O Saviour of the world, who livest-et reliqua.

7. The Collects for Saints' days.

And now consider the Collects of our Saints' days, where the chief alterations' occur. Compare them with the ancient forms, and con

1 It appears from the Origines Liturgica, that they are new all but five, (excepting indeed the three at Christmas,) and two out of that number are those for the Annunciation and the Purification, where we retain the old, which is worthy of notice, as implying that on this great point of difference between us and Rome,

sider how their more doctrinal as well as practical character distinguishes them from the Latin, which, if not objectionable, (as many are on the Saints' days,) yet are more eucharistical, festal, choral (so to speak). Observe how, as in the former instances of Collects which are new, so in these also, great doctrines, since lost or lightly esteemed among Protestants, are providentially put forth. If through the third week of Advent solemn mention is made of "the Stewards of God's mysteries," on St. Peter's day' we have the same spoken of as "Bishops and Pastors,” “who are "to preach the word," "and the people obediently to follow the "same." On St. Simon and St. Jude's day, we have the Church' built on the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets; "by whose "doctrines we pray that we may be so joined together in unity, "that we be made an holy temple." And if on this day we have one Article of our Creed, that for "the Holy Catholic "Church," converted into prayer, the following Article, which has been equally forgotten, "the Communion of Saints," has been introduced on the next Festival, that of All Saints, which speaks of "the Elect being knit together in one Communion and Fellowship, in the mystical body of Christ our Lord;" still adding, as always, the lesson of obedience and prayer, for "follow"ing the Saints in all virtuous and godly living;" and though

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viz., the light in which the blessed Virgin is to be held, our appeal is to antiquity. Another Collect is for Michaelmas-day, of which the same in some degree may be said. In the other, that of St. Bartholomew, the words are altered which spoke of "the holy rejoicing in that festivity."

1 The Latin Collect for this day, (June 29,) combines the commemoration of St. Paul; but there is another beautiful Latin Collect for St. Peter, on the 1st of. August. Petri Apost. ad vincula. So that there exists an ancient form.

2 The word "Church" was only inserted in this Collect at the last Review, instead of the word "congregation;" the same was the case on the 16th after Trin.

The Latin Collect for this day in the Sarum Missal and Parisian Breviary, is as follows: "O GOD, who hast given unto us, through Thy blessed Apostles, "Simon and Jude, to come to the knowledge of Thy name, grant unto us that "while we celebrate their eternal glory, we may be ourselves profited in doing so, "and that this our profit may best celebrate them, through our LORD;—(eorum "gloriam sempiternam et proficiendo celebrare et celebrando proficere.")

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