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Scotch Prayer Book, it is said distinctly "according to the mys"tical interpretation." In both of these cases we are set afar off, but yet allowed to draw near, not prohibited from doing so; and indeed it is to be observed that in almost all the subjects that this view embraces, we are not actually excluded from the higher privileges, so much as that they are quietly withdrawn from our sight. And it may be perceived that, through them all, though we have put into our mouths the expressions of servants, yet the language of mercy is ever breaking forth, which, though we come as servants, is ready to receive us as sons. "Is Ephraim my "dear son? is he a pleasant child? for after I spake against him, "I do earnestly remember him still."

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In speaking of the Rubric, the substitution of the term "Table," Holy Table," and in the Scotch of "God's Board," for that of "Altar," which is in Edward's First Book (as well as "GOD'S "Board,") is a strong instance of this our judicial humiliation. For what is it but to say that the higher mysteries which this word "Altar" represents are,-not taken away from us (μǹ yévoiro) -but partially withdrawn from view; and doubtless, therefore, lost to many who "consider not the LORD's body." To the participation, indeed, which the word "Table" implies, all are admitted; but the oblation which the term Altar" indicates is more removed. Thus they are received at "God's Board" indeed, but not made so sensible of the presence of Him who admits them as His guests; and, therefore, as the Jews of old, receive not equally the benefits of His presence. Such a loss is, therefore, doubtless a great one, which withholds the Altar from our due acknowledgment: but who reads not in this the visitation upon children's children of the sacrilegious pollution it has undergone in this country? But still, as observed before, mercy is mixed with judgment, and the case so stands with us that it says, "He that can receive it, let him receive it." A great privilege, when it is considered that by the last Review, and the insertion of the word "oblations," we have that which prophets and kings have desired to see, what King Charles the First and Bishop Andrews had not. And perhaps what was made the subject of Bishop Andrews' prayer, when for the Church of

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England his supplication was that "its deficiencies should be re"stored'." And with regard to the Oblation itself, is not the case significative of our position? for it is not that no oblation is made, for we pray that " our oblations" may be accepted, but that the oblation is made in silence. Is not this silence expressive? May it not be considered eloquently significative, more than any words, of our condition, that the higher part of the service, which looks more like the privilege of sons, is performed in humiliation and silence? In the First Book, when the elements were placed on the Altar, the priest was to say the lauds and anthem.

11. Omission of anointing at Baptism and Confirmation.

There is another circumstance now to be observed, of more importance than any which have been hitherto considered, the entire omission of the use of oil at baptism and confirmation. The practice on both of these occasions appears to have been primitive, universal, and, possibly, apostolical. In the First Book of Edward, it was appointed that the white vesture or chrism should be put on the child baptized with these words:

"Take this white vesture as a token of the innocency, which by "God's grace in this holy sacrament of baptism is given unto "thee."

1 See Bishop Andrews' Devotions. For the second day. Intercession. "In behalf of the Catholic Church,

For her establishment and increase.

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2 In the Sarum Missal we find prayers said in secret on the Oblation. In the Roman Missal the Rubric says "oblatione facta dicuntur orationes secreta."

becoming words into his mouth, by which he confesses himself to have forfeited the claim of sonship, and to be willing to be received in a lower state.

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First of all, to turn our attention to the Collects, and the alterations made respecting them. They are indeed not many, but consist either in the entire rejection of the older, and the substitution of a new form, or in the adaptation of another old one, or else in a slight change of expression, in the process of their passing into the English form. When we compare them, as they now stand, with earlier Liturgies, and endeavour to ascertain the causes of the changes, we do not find, I think, that the rejections or alterations of the ancient prayers have taken place merely on account of " the interpolations of things false

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and superstitious" as is usually stated to be the case. But one thing I cannot but observe, that, whether designedly or not, these changes seem to have one drift, and bear one way, in the point alluded to, namely this, that entire Collects, or expressions in them, which imply the privileges of the faithful, or spiritual rejoicing, as of sons, are dropped; and prayers substituted in a lower tone.

To take the first Collect in Advent. It is one newly introduced, and though it is mainly remodelled on the language of the Epistle and Gospel, Mr. Palmer gives a Latin prayer which he supposes it to resemble. The difference in the two forms consists in this-we find that in the ancient form there are the words "who rejoice according to the flesh for the coming of Thine only 'begotten Son." These are not in ours, but we have instead the sentence, "in the time of this mortal life, in which Thy Son "JESUS CHRIST came to visit us in great humility."

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Proceeding to Christmas-day, we find in King Edward's First

1 See Bishop Mant's Common Prayer, on the Collects.

"Qui de Adventu Unigeniti tui secundum carnem lætantur."

Book, there was a double service for this festival; and the Collect, which was afterwards omitted, is the following:

"GOD, which makest us glad with the yearly remembrance of the "birth of Thy only Son JESUS CHRIST: Grant that as we joyfully "receive Him for our Redeemer, so we may with sure confidence "behold Him when He shall come to be our Judge."

Compare the more subdued prayer for renewal, in the Collect we have for this day, with this one which is now omitted, or with the Collect in the Parisian Breviary, which is thus1:

"O GOD, who hast given the bread of angels to be the food of "the faithful in the fold of the Church, grant us, we pray Thee, “in this present world, a foretaste of the sweetness of the heavenly "joys, that, in that which is to come, Thou mayest lead us to the "fulness of everlasting rewards, through the same 1_"

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The object of Divine wisdom, in these changes, may have been that, as "leaping for joy," and being "exceedingly glad," are commands given only, in Scripture, on occasions of external persecution and distress, such were not suited for the times of worldly prosperity which our Church was to be tempted with beyond others. But I only speak now of the fact.

In like manner take the Sunday after Ascension Day; one cannot but at once inquire, why the former Collect for this day has not been retained? The present Collect I can only find used as an antiphone in the Roman Breviary on this day. The Collect in the Parisian Breviary alludes to the gifts poured on the Apostles, as if still continued in the Church. That selected for our use is, that we be not left "comfortless," "ne nos derelinquas orphanos."

The Collect for St. John the Baptist's day is another instance; in the Sarum Missal and Parisian Breviary it is 2,

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1 "Deus, qui panem Angelorum in præsepi Ecclesiæ cibum fecisti fidelium, "da nobis, quæsumus, in præsenti sæculo degustare cœlestium dulcedinem gaudiorum, ut in futuro perducas nos ad satietatem æternorum præmiorum. "Per eundem."

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2 "Deus, qui præsentem diem honorabilem nobis in beati Joannis nativitate “fecisti; da populis tuis spiritualium gratiam gaudiorum, et omnium fidelium "mentes dirige in viam salutis æternæ ; per."

5. The Collects for Advent.

6. Other new Collects.

7. The Collects for Saints' days.

8. Verbal alterations on this subject.

9. Omission of the Day of St. Mary Magdalene.

10. The Epistles and Gospels.

11. Service for Passion week.

12. The vow of obedience at Baptism new.

13. Other peculiarities new in the Baptismal service.

14. The Decalogue in the Communion.

15. The general bearing of this argument on the former. 16. Reflections.

PART III.

EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE CHURCH COINCIDING WITH

INTERNAL CHANGES.

1. Such mutual adaptation and concurrence the mark of design.

Considered with regard to the first point, of Repentance.

2. Apparent objections to our being supposed in a state of servitude.

3. Suffering, the privilege of sons.

4. The strength of the Church in persecution.

5. Confirmed by the history of our own Church.

6. Her feebleness and state of servitude.

7. That states of servitude are Divine appointments.

8. Such best suited to the condition of the Church.

Considered with regard to the second point, of Obedience.

9. Lessons of obedience the corrective to the tendencies of the age.

10. Our situation a trial of obedience.

11. Our recovery of lost privileges depends on obedience.

12. Dutiful allegiance to our own Church in particular.

13. Especially necessary at the present crisis.

14. Difficulty of realizing sanguine hopes.

15. The voice of warning.

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