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1 "O GOD, who hast given unto Thine apostles Thy holy Spirit,

grant unto Thy people the effectual obtaining of their petition, "that upon those to whom Thou hast given faith, Thou mayest "bestow peace also; through-"

The nearest petition which we have to this is perhaps the Collect, "that what we ask faithfully we may obtain effectually ;" where it is to be observed that the prayer in ours is hypothetical. Several other Collects at this season in the ancient liturgies are of the same, or even higher tone than the one above translated.

This tendency, in our own Prayer Book, to bring out, as it were by accident, the more humble and practical character, in these changes, may be observed in the Collect which we have for the first Sunday after Easter. Until the Review in 1662, the Collect, which occupied this place, was that which is the "Preface" at the Communion for Easter Day, the commencement of which, it may be remembered, is this—

"But chiefly are we bound to praise Thee for the glorious "Resurrection of Thy Son JESUS CHRIST,"—and the end "who "by His death hath destroyed death, and by His rising to life "again hath restored to us everlasting life."—

A form consisting entirely of thanksgiving. Instead of this, we have on this Sunday the modern Collect before used on Easter Tuesday, as we find it in the Scotch Prayer Book, containing the supplication," That we may so put away the leaven of "malice and wickedness, that we may serve Thee in pureness of "living and truth"."

The Collect for Ash Wednesday, again, although Mr. Palmer traces the beginning of it to a Latin one in the Sarum Missal, has for its own those earnest words of penitence, "Create and

curious instance of what appears unfair dealing may be mentioned: in a beautiful Post-Communion Collect for the 2d Sunday after Advent, the Sarum has "cibo potuque spiritualis alimonia;" the Roman in the same Collect omits the word "potuque."

1 “Deus, qui apostolis tuis sanctum dedisti Spiritum, concede plebi tuæ piæ "petitionis effectum; ut quibus dedisti fidem largiaris et pacem; per Dominum "nostrum Jesum Christum, in unitate ejusdem Spiritus sancti, Deus."

2 This was the Collect in the second service for Easter Day in Edward's First Book.

“make in us new and contrite hearts, that we, worthily lamenting

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our sins, and acknowledging our wretchedness, may obtain of "Thee, the God of all mercy, perfect remission and forgiveness."

6. Verbal Alterations.

Sometimes, indeed, this change in the tone and spirit of our Church is indicated in the mere alteration of a word, as in the dropping of the expression "fidelium;" such, for instance, is the following, in the Collect for the 4th Sunday after Easter: the Latin was "qui fidelium mentes unius efficis voluntatis." This was at first literally rendered in our own, as we find it in the Scotch Prayer Book, as follows; "who makest the minds of Thy "faithful people to be of one will." In the Review of the Liturgy in the year 1662, this was altered to "who alone canst order the

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unruly wills and affections of sinful men." Here a prayer for love among faithful sons becomes imperceptibly one for ordering the unruly affections of sinful mankind.

If there is any force in this omission of the word "fidelium," there is the same in the frequent incidental adoption of that of "servant." In the Collect for the 3d Sunday in Lent, the term "humilium;" that of " supplicantium," in that for the 10th after Trinity; in that of the 5th after Easter "supplicibus tuis ;" and also in the daily Collect for grace, that of " supplices tuos," are all rendered "humble servants," though the Latin is in other respects for the most part closely translated. In the 13th after Trinity the expression was "ut ad promissiones tuas sine offensione curramus." It was literally preserved in the expression, " that we "running to Thy promises may be made partakers of Thy heavenly "treasure;" and in the Scotch," that we may so run to Thy hea

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venly promises that we fail not finally to attain the same." In 1662 the words were introduced "that we may so faithfully serve "Thee." And, again, in the Litany, "O GOD, merciful Father," the words "we Thy servants," are entirely introduced into the translation in the Collect.

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The same tendency may be traced through other changes, at first sight even apparently more trifling, as where in the Collect for Ascension Day the words are inserted, "that we may thither

"ascend;" in the original it is only that we may dwell in mind in heavenly places, "mente in cœlestibus habitemus." It will be seen, that the prayer is, as it were, from a lower station; the ancient form, that we may continue to dwell in those heavenly places to which we have already arrived by baptismal privilege; the latter, that we may arise as from an inferior state. In like manner it is curious to observe, that in the Collect for the 20th Sunday after Trinity, the word "liberis mentibus," in both of Edward's Books, "with free hearts," becomes in the last Review'," cheer"fully;" the idea of freedom is lost, resignation is substituted.

With regard to the word "servant," it may be said that this term is more congenial to our language, or to the sober temper of our nation. But even were it so, (and perhaps similar reasons might be found for explaining the whole effect which is here. traced,) yet such remarks only refer to secondary causes, and do not touch the main argument, that there is a Providential purpose to place us in this position. Nor, indeed, can they be attributed to any puritanical influences studiously assuming the tone of humility; but the contrary. Indeed, it is curious to observe, from

1 On this occasion, and on the previous Sunday, an allusion to the Gospel or Epistle for the day appears lost by the verbal alteration. The word "free hearts" seems to have a reference to those worldly hindrances and entanglements which the Gospel speaks of. In the Collect for the 19th Sunday after Trinity, the words "the working of Thy mercy," or "the operation of Thy mercy," appear to refer to the miracle narrated in the Gospel for the day; it was altered at the last Review to " Thy Holy Spirit." It might be remarked, in many more of the Collects, that where verbal alterations have taken place in translating them from the Latin, for the sake of improving the expression, that the reference to the Gospel (or the Epistle) is not so evident as it was in the original: thus on the 4th Sunday after the Epiphany, the allusion to the Gospel is palpable in the Latin. And that this reference is not imaginary is evident from a similar reference on the previous and following Sundays; "stretch forth Thy right hand, help and defend us" in the Collect, obviously alludes to "JESUS put forth His hand and touched him" in the Gospel for that day. On the 5th after Epiphany, the word "muniamur" more distinctly refers to the "enemy" who sowed the tares, than the word "defend." Sometimes the reference is so much on the surface, that it is necessarily perceived, as "the leading of a star" on the Epiphany. On the Sexagesima Sunday there are two Latin forms which appear to refer to the Gospel, which reference is lost in the English.

7. Commencement of our Liturgy.

This subject of the Collects must be again resumed to set forth another view, which will, also, I think, do much by the way Ashiutes to confirm and establish the present one. Perhaps enough has *** been said to afford us a clue to the spirit of these changes; a spirit Seatraler not appearing so much on the surface as to imply purpose in the "W/400 agents, yet on inquiry so manifesting itself as clearly to indiMove the cate a secret tendency one way. With the clue thus furnished

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let us take up the Prayer Book.

We find on opening it that it commences in a manner perfectly different from any of the liturgical books immediately preceding it, those of Sarum, York, and Hereford, to which we may also add the First Book of Edward the Sixth. All these commence, I believe, with the LORD'S PRAYER, and from thence proceed to the Creed. Instead of this we have the Sentences, the Exhortation, the Confession, and the Absolution, preceding that Prayer. And all and each of these points, in the place which they hold, are so little analogous to other Liturgies, that they may be considered peculiarly characteristic of our own.

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Hooker, that "
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abjection of mind," and this very term ser-
"vility" is one of the charges which the Puritans brought against
the Prayer Book. Alluding to two Collects, the one for the 12th
Sunday after Trinity, and the other a prayer after the Offertory,
similar to it, the words of Cartwright are-" This request
"carrieth with it still the note of the Popish servile fear, and
"savoureth not of that confidence and reverent familiarity that
"the children of GoD have through CHRIST with their Heavenly
"FATHER." And yet from the instances already adduced in this
treatise, it would seem that this " note of servile fear" is one pe-
culiarly our own, as differing from the forms of prayer which we
have in common with the Church of Rome 2.

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1 The 12th Collect after Trinity was then a literal translation from the Latin. "Ut dimittas quæ conscientia metuit, et adjicias quæ oratio non præsumit,"

giving unto us that, that our prayer dare not presume to ask, through Jesus "Christ our Lord."

2 See Hooker, b. v. c. xlvii. and note, Keble's edition.

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Now, the LORD's Prayer is well known to have been always considered as especially the "Prayer of the faithful," the peculiar inheritance of sons. So much so, that in Primitive Liturgies it is supposed not to have been used openly, as their assemblies were resorted to by the Catechumens and others unbaptized, who, not having received the adoption, could not of course approach GOD as a FATHER'. It is thought that their prayers usually began with a Psalm. This objection to the public use of the LORD's Prayer was of course done away with, when the world became Christian. And it afterwards occupied the first place in the Breviaries. The position, therefore, that it holds with us speaks an emphatic language, as connected with the portions of the service which precede it, which are calculated to serve, as it were, for spiritual ablutions, preparatory to our being allowed to approach God with that filial prayer.

Each of the preceding parts of our worship is of this character. First of all, the Sentences. Fault is found with them for this very peculiarity; it is said that they go back to the Law, rather than abound in the privileges of the Gospel. They are calls to Repentance, or deep professions of Repentance throughout; three of them are from the most penitential of the Psalms (the 51st). And in fact they not only adopt the language of the Law and of the Baptist, the Preacher of Repentance, but the very words of the returning prodigal: “I will arise, and go to my Father, and " will say unto Him, Father, I have sinned against Heaven and

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before Thee, and am no more worthy to be called Thy son ;" and proceed in the same profession of humiliation, "Enter not into "judgment with Thy servant, O LORD."

This character (which also pervades the sentences in the Scotch Prayer Book, though they are themselves different) will appear more strongly by looking at the American Prayer Book. Though the members of that Church have adopted our prefatory sentences, yet they have prefixed three additional ones of their own, which seem quite to lose sight of this bearing on the Confession,

1 In Edward's First Book, where the LORD's Prayer preceded the Communion, it was introduced by the expression, that, using it according to CHRIST'S command, "we are bold to say."

VOL. V.-86.

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